Habitats of North Carolina
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General Shrublands
General Vitaceous Tangles
General Description This habitat includes the viney tangles of various members of the Grape Family (Vitaceae) that occur widely across the state. Muscadine itself grows from the barrier island to the low mountains, and in a variety of open and forested habitats. Weakley (2015) lists: dry upland forests (especially sandy or rocky), other forests, swamps, dunes, roadsides, thickets. Other members of this family are likewise widespread in the state and occupy a wide range of habitat conditions.

Collectively, members of the Vitaceae support a rich fauna of herbivores, most of which are oligophagous, feeding on several genera within this family, but with a few that are more specialized. With the possible exception of Pandora intermedia -- which may be only a migrant in North Carolina -- these species do not appear to be geographically restricted and probably occupy all areas where members of the Vitaceae occur.

The tangles of wild grapes that greeted the Vikings and other early European visitors to North America left quite an impression on them. The Muscadine, or Scuppernong, is particularly entwined in North Carolina history: Governor Ralph Lane, when describing North Carolina to Sir Walter Raleigh, stated that "We have discovered the main to be the goodliest soil under the cope of heaven, so abounding with sweet trees that bring rich and pleasant, grapes of such greatness, yet wild, as France, Spain, nor Italy hath no greater..." (Wikipedia, accessed 2019-10-09).

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet. Soil texture: sandy to loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: transiently to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to transient. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Key Species species belonging to the Vitaceae must be present Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forests, woodlands, and open shrublands. Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful in forested examples but sparse in open shrublands

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Parthenocissus species // Phyllocnistis ampelopsiella
Vitaceae species // Acoloithus falsarius-Alypia octomaculata-Amphion floridensis-Aspilanta oinophylla-Darapsa myron-Enyo lugubris-Eudryas grata-Eulithis diversilineata-Eulithis gracilineata-Eumorpha achemon-Eumorpha intermedia-Eumorpha pandorus-Heliozela aesella-Sphecodina abbottii-Vitacea scepsiformis
Vitis species // Cacotherapia unipuncta-Desmia funeralis-Dyspteris abortivaria-Geina periscelidactylus-Phyllocnistis vitifoliella-Phyllocnistis vitegenella-Psychomorpha epimenis-Thyris sepulchralis-Vitacea polistiformis

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Acoloithus falsarius - Clemens' False Skeletonizer Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Alypia octomaculata - Eight-spotted Forester Moth G5S40.0007
Amphion floridensis - Nessus Sphinx G5SU0.0020
Antispila isabella GNRSU0.0020
Aspilanta oinophylla GNRSU0.0020
Darapsa myron - Virginia Creeper Sphinx G5S50.00
Deidamia inscriptum - Lettered Sphinx G5S50.00
Desmia funeralis - Grape Leaffolder Moth G5S50.00
Dyspteris abortivaria - Badwing Moth G5S50.00
Enyo lugubris - Mournful Sphinx G5SU0.0020
Eudryas grata - Beautiful Wood-nymph Moth G5S40.0007
Eulithis diversilineata - Lesser Grapevine Looper G5S50.00
Eulithis gracilineata - Greater Grapevine Looper G4G5S4S50.0002
Eumorpha achemon - Achemon Sphinx G4G5SU0.0020
Eumorpha intermedia - Intermediate Sphinx G3G4SU0.0020
Eumorpha pandorus - Pandorus Sphinx G5S50.00
Geina periscelidactylus - Grape Plume Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Heliozela aesella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllocnistis ampelopsiella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllocnistis vitegenella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllocnistis vitifoliella - no common name GNRSU0.0020
Psychomorpha epimenis - Grapevine Epimenis Moth G5SU0.0020
Sphecodina abbottii - Abbot's Sphinx G5SU0.0020
Thyris sepulchralis - Mournful Thyris Moth G4S40.0007
Vitacea polistiformis - Grape Root Borer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Vitacea scepsiformis - Lesser Grape Root Borer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Clastoptera octonotata
Erasmoneura fulmina
Erythroneura vitis - Grapevine Leafhopper
Erythroneura ziczac - Virginia Creeper Leafhopper
Illinigina illinoiensis - Illinois Grape Leafhopper
Muscadinia rotundifolia - Muscadine G5S50.00
Parthenocissus quinquefolia - Virginia Creeper G5S50.00
Vitis aestivalis - Summer Grape G5S50.00
Vitis vulpina - Frost Grape G5S50.00
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.0325
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 20
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0016
Number of S5 species = 10
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.5000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.0163

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-01-02 14:37:22