Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of General Shrublands:
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General Shrublands
General Vitaceous Tangles
General Description This habitat includes the viney tangles of various members of the Grape Family (Vitaceae) that occur widely across the state. Muscadine itself grows from the barrier island to the low mountains, and in a variety of open and forested habitats. Weakley (2015) lists: dry upland forests (especially sandy or rocky), other forests, swamps, dunes, roadsides, thickets. Other members of this family are likewise widespread in the state and occupy a wide range of habitat conditions.

Collectively, members of the Vitaceae support a rich fauna of herbivores, most of which are oligophagous, feeding on several genera within this family, but with a few that are more specialized. With the possible exception of Pandora intermedia -- which may be only a migrant in North Carolina -- these species do not appear to be geographically restricted and probably occupy all areas where members of the Vitaceae occur.

The tangles of wild grapes that greeted the Vikings and other early European visitors to North America left quite an impression on them. The Muscadine, or Scuppernong, is particularly entwined in North Carolina history: Governor Ralph Lane, when describing North Carolina to Sir Walter Raleigh, stated that "We have discovered the main to be the goodliest soil under the cope of heaven, so abounding with sweet trees that bring rich and pleasant, grapes of such greatness, yet wild, as France, Spain, nor Italy hath no greater..." (Wikipedia, accessed 2019-10-09).

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet. Soil texture: sandy to loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: transiently to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to transient. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Key Species species belonging to the Vitaceae must be present Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forests, woodlands, and open shrublands. Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful in forested examples but sparse in open shrublands

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Parthenocissus species // Phyllocnistis ampelopsiella
Vitaceae species // Acoloithus falsarius-Alypia octomaculata-Amphion floridensis-Aspilanta oinophylla-Darapsa myron-Enyo lugubris-Eudryas grata-Eulithis diversilineata-Eulithis gracilineata-Eumorpha achemon-Eumorpha intermedia-Eumorpha pandorus-Heliozela aesella-Sphecodina abbottii-Vitacea scepsiformis
Vitis species // Cacotherapia unipuncta-Desmia funeralis-Dyspteris abortivaria-Geina periscelidactylus-Phyllocnistis vitifoliella-Phyllocnistis vitegenella-Psychomorpha epimenis-Thyris sepulchralis-Vitacea polistiformis

Determining Species
Clastoptera octonotataSNR
Erasmoneura fulminaSNR
Erythroneura vitisGrapevine LeafhopperSNR
Erythroneura ziczacVirginia Creeper LeafhopperSNR
Illinigina illinoiensisIllinois Grape LeafhopperSNR
Acoloithus falsariusClemens' False Skeletonizer MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Alypia octomaculataEight Spotted ForresterG5S4S40.00041
Eudryas grataBeautiful Wood-nymphG5S4S40.00041
Thyris sepulchralisMournful ThyrisG4S4S40.00041
Eulithis gracilineataGreater Grapevine LooperG4G5S4S5S4S50.00010
Geina periscelidactylusGrape Plume MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Darapsa myronHog Sphinx, Virginia-creeper SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Deidamia inscriptumLettered SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Desmia funeralisGrape Leaffolder MothG5S5S50.00000
Dyspteris abortivariaThe Bad WingG5S5S50.00000
Eulithis diversilineataLesser Grapevine LooperG5S5S50.00000
Eumorpha pandorusPandorus SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Amphion floridensisNessus SphinxG5SUSU0.00202
Antispila isabellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Aspilanta oinophyllaGNRSUSU0.00202
Enyo lugubrisMournful SphinxG5SUSU0.00202
Eumorpha achemonAchemon SphinxG4G5SUSU0.00202
Eumorpha intermediaIntermediate SphinxG3G4SUSU0.00202
Heliozela aesellaa shield bearer mothGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllocnistis ampelopsiellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllocnistis vitegenellaa leaf blotch miner mothGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllocnistis vitifoliellano common nameGNRSUSU0.00202
Psychomorpha epimenisGrapevine EpimenisG5SUSU0.00202
Sphecodina abbottiiAbbott's sphinxG5SUSU0.00202
Vitacea polistiformisGrape Root BorerGNRSUSU0.00202
Vitacea scepsiformisLesser Grape Root Borer MothGNRSUSU0.00202
Muscadinia rotundifolia Muscadine, ScuppernongG5S5S50.00000
Parthenocissus quinquefoliaVirginia CreeperG5S5S50.00000
Vitis aestivalisSummer GrapeG5S5S50.00000
Vitis vulpinaWinter GrapeG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 30
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 30
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 20
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 10
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.33333
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.03103
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00103
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 20 x 0.00103 = 0.0206

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-01-02 14:37:22