Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of General Shrublands:
« »
General Shrublands
General Rosaceous Thickets
General Description The defining factor of this habitat is the presence of shrubby or small tree species in the Rose family, including Cherries, Plums, Crab Apples, Hawthorns, and Serviceberries. Most of these species grow along forest edges and can be components of successional habitats; some are shade tolerant and grow in the understory of hardwood forests.

This particular habitat is fairly generalized, occupying a wide range of moisture regimes and soil types. It occurs widely across the state and is found in at least two of the state's physiographic provinces.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet. Soil texture: sandy to loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: transiently to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to transient. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Key Species species belonging to the Rosaceae are a requirement Vegetation Type: shrublands to closed-canopy forests; all stages of natural succession are included. Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful in forested examples but sparse in successional shrublands

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Rosaceae species // Acrobasis indigenella-Acronicta clarescens-Acronicta radcliffei-Argyresthia oreasella-Balsa labecula-Balsa melana-Balsa tristrigella-Catocala clintonii-Catocala grynea-Catocala pretiosa-Catocala ultronia-Cerma cerintha-Cerma cora-Filatima serotinella-Coptodisca splendoriferella-Lithophane unimoda-Lytrosis unitaria-Malacosoma americana-Metaxaglaea viatica-Paonias myops-Parornix geminatella-Sphinx drupiferarum
Crataegus species // Catocala mira
Prunus species // Acronicta hasta-Caloptilia serotinella-Filatima serotinella-Furcula borealis-Rheumaptera prunivorata-Satyrium titus-Stigmella prunifoliella-Zale intenta
Prunus serotina/Marmara serotinella)
Rosa species // Stigmella rosaefoliella)

Determining Species
Satyrium titusCoral HairstreakG5S4S40.00041
Prunus nigraCanada PlumG4G5S1S10.33330
Prunus umbellataHog PlumG4G5S2S20.03699
Malus angustifoliaSouthern CrabappleG5S3S30.00407
Prunus americanaAmerican PlumG5S3S30.00407
Amelanchier arboreaDowny ServiceberryG5S5S50.00000
Prunus serotinaBlack CherryG5S5S50.00000
Balcanocerus provancheriSNR
Erythridula electaSNR
Scaphytopius triangularisSNR
Phyllonorycter crataegellaApple Blotch Leafminer
Stigmella rosaefoliellaGNRSUS1S30.03699
Catocala alabamaeAlabama UnderwingG4S2S3S2S30.01230
Catocala pretiosaPrecious UnderwingG4S2S3S2S30.01230
Cerma coraa bird-dropping mothG3G4S2S3S2S30.01230
Coptodisca splendoriferellaGNRSUS2S30.01230
Filatima serotinellaGNRSUS2S30.01230
Marmara serotinellaGNRSUS2S30.01230
Bucculatrix pomifoliellaGNRSUS2S40.00407
Parornix geminatellaUnspotted Tentiform Leafminer MothGNRSUS2S40.00407
Argyrostrotis anilisShort-lined ChocolateG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Catocala crataegian underwing mothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Catocala miraan underwing mothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Catocala praeclaraan underwing mothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Eumacaria madopataBrown-bordered GeometerG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Lithophane unimodaDowdy PinionGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Lomographa semiclarataBluish Spring MothG5SUS3S40.00132
Stigmella prunifoliellaGNRSUS3S40.00132
Acrobasis indigenellaLeaf Crumpler MothGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Acronicta clarescensClear Dagger MothG5S4S40.00041
Acronicta radcliffeiRadcliffe's DaggerG5S4S40.00041
Balsa malanaMany-dotted Appleworm MothG5S4S40.00041
Balsa tristrigellaThree-lined Balsa MothG5S4S40.00041
Catocala clintoniian underwing mothG4S4S40.00041
Catocala gryneaan underwing mothG5S4S40.00041
Cerma cerinthaTufted Bird Dropping MothG5S4S40.00041
Furcula borealisWhite FurculaG5S4S40.00041
Rheumaptera prunivorataCherry Scallop Shell, Ferguson's Shell MothG5S4S40.00041
Argyresthia oreasellaCherry Shoot BorerGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Balsa labeculaWhite-blotched BalsaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Lomographa vestaliataWhite Spring MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Acronicta hastaCherry Dagger Moth, Speared DaggerG5S5S50.00000
Catocala ultroniaSweetheart Underwing, Ultronia UnderwingG5S5S50.00000
Lytrosis unitariaCommon LytrosisG5S5S50.00000
Malacosoma americanaEastern Tent CaterpillarG5S5S50.00000
Metaxaglaea viaticaRoadside SallowG5S5S50.00000
Paonias myopsSmall-Eyed SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Sphinx drupiferarumWild Cherry SphinxG4SHSH
Zale intentaIntent ZaleG5SUSU0.00202
Crataegus coccineaScarlet HawthornG5S2S20.03699
Crataegus apricaSunny HawthornGNRS3S30.00407
Crataegus crus-galliCockspur HawthornG5S3S30.00407
Crataegus gattingeriG3G5S3S30.00407
Crataegus collinaHillside HawthornGNRS4S40.00041
Crataegus intricataa hawthornG5S4S40.00041
Crataegus iracundaa hawthornG5S4S40.00041
Crataegus macrospermaa hawthornG5S4S40.00041
Crataegus pruinosaa hawthornG5S4S40.00041
Crataegus unifloraDwarf HawthornG5S5S50.00000
Prunus angustifoliaChickasaw PlumG5S5S50.00000
Prunus susquehanaeSusquehanna CherryG4G5SHSH
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 57
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 55
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 2
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 45
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 10
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.18182
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.56600
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.01029
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 47 x 0.01029 = 0.48363

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species Two species are considered historic and probably extirpated. Sphinx drupiferum is known from only three museum specimens, all collected in the early part of the last century. Prunus susquehanae, like S. drupiferum, is primarily a northern species known in North Carolina only from very old herbarium specimens. Two additional plants are ranked as S1 and two others as S2. The Average PE for this habitat is equivalent to a State Rank of S3 (nearly S2).

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat Ten species in this habitat are considered secure in North Carolina. The Proportion of Secure Species, however, is fairly low at just 18%. This may reflect changes in agricultural practices to more "clean" farming, which utilizes more land at the expense of the successional habitats that were once widespread when fields were allowed to go fallow.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The combination of a fairly high value of ENE, a low value of PSS, and the presence of two SH species gives this habitat a fairly high HRI value. Although usually overlooked as a conservation priority, this successional habitat appears to be declining and needs to be monitored at the very least.

Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-06-05 17:10:47