Habitats of North Carolina
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General Shrublands
General Sumac Thickets and Poison Ivy Tangles
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General Description Thickets of Sumacs, Poison Ivy, and other members of the Anacardiaceae. This particular habitat includes species that occur widely across the state, occurring in a variety of habitats and in least two of the state's physiographic provinces.

Determining Species include the more wide-ranging members of the Anacardiacea, along with the herbivores that are monophagous, stenophagous, or oligophagous on these plants.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to hydric. Soil texture: all types from loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: varies from permanently flooded to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to permanent. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to severe. Wind Storm Damage: moderate to severe. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Key Species species belonging to the Anacardiaceae must be present Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forest to shrublands that completely lack a forest canopy. Strata: forested examples have well-developed vines and/or shrub layers. Shelter: Woody debris and leaf litter are usually plentiful

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Anacardiaceae species // Caloptilia rhoifoliella-Dichorda iridaria-Eutelia pulcherrimus-Marathyssa basalis-Marathyssa inficita
Rhus species // Datana perspicua-Pseudochelaria walsinghami-Stigmella intermedia
Toxicodendron species // Cameraria guttifinitella-Macalla zelleri-Paectes oculatrix

Determining Species
Stigmella intermediaA leaf minerGNRSUS2S30.01230
Pseudochelaria walsinghamia mothGNRSUS2S40.00407
Eutelia pulcherrimusBeautiful Eutelia MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Macalla zelleriZeller's MacallaGNRSUS3S40.00132
Stigmella rhoifoliellaS3S40.00132
Caloptilia rhoifoliellaSumac Leafblotch MinerGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Marathyssa basalisLight Marathyssa MothG5S4S40.00041
Cameraria guttifinitellaa leaf blotch miner mothGNRSUS4S50.00010
Datana perspicuaSpotted DatanaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Epipaschia superatalisDimorphic Macalla MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Dichorda iridariaShowy EmeraldG5S5S50.00000
Marathyssa inficitaDark MarathyssaG5S5S50.00000
Paectes oculatrixEyed PaectesG5S5S50.00000
Rhus typhinaStaghorn SumacG5S4S40.00041
Rhus copallinumWinged SumacG5S5S50.00000
Rhus glabraSmooth SumacG5S5S50.00000
Toxicodendron radicansPoison-ivyG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 17
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 17
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 11
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 6
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.35294
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.02186
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00129
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 11 x 0.00129 = 0.01419

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species None of the species in this habitat are ranked as S2 or S1. The Average PE is the equivalent of a State Rank of S3, indicating a moderate degree of conservation concern.

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat Six species in this habitat are considered secure in North Carolina. The Proportion of Secure Species is 35%, which is moderately low. Although the successional habitats occupied by Sumacs were once widespread, they are becoming more fragmented due to changes in agricultural practices.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The moderate value of ENE coupled with a moderately low value of PSS produces a moderate value of HRI.

Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-06-08 16:27:23