Habitats of North Carolina
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High Elevation Forests
Spruce-Fir Forests

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Habitat Overview This habitat type comprises Red Spruce, Fraser Fir, and their symbionts. It also includes species associated with forest habitats found only on the highest summits of the Southern Appalachians, occurring at elevations between 5,000' and 6,684', the elevation of Mt. Mitchell, the tallest peak east of the Mississippi. At least some species tied to Red Spruce, along with the spruce themselves, can occur as low as 4,300' in some areas of our mountains.

Related NHP Natural Communities The following NHP community types include units of this habitat: Fraser Fir Forest (Herb Subtype), Fraser Fir Forest (Rhododendron Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Herb Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Rhododendron Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Boulderfield Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Birch Transition Herb Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Birch Transition Shrub Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Low Rhododendron Subtype)
Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Abies fraseri - Fraser Fir G2S20.0460
Picea rubens - Red Spruce G5S30.0058
Acleris variana - Eastern Black-headed Budworm Moth GNRS1S30.0460
Choristoneura fumiferana - Spruce Budworm Moth G5S1S20.1284
Cydia rana GNRSH
Eilema bicolor - Bicolored Moth G5S1S20.1284
Entephria lagganata GNRSH
Entephria separata G4SH
Hydriomena exculpata GUSH
Syngrapha alias G5S20.0460
Xestia perquiritata - Boomerang Dart G5S10.3584
Betula cordifolia - Mountain Paper Birch G5S10.3584
Catharus guttatus - Hermit Thrush G5S20.0460
Contopus cooperi - Olive-sided Flycatcher G4SZ
Loxia curvirostra - Red Crossbill G5S30.0058
Poecile atricapillus - Black-capped Chickadee G5S30.0058
Setophaga coronata - Yellow-rumped Warbler G5S10.3584
Setophaga magnolia - Magnolia Warbler G5S20.0460
Spinus pinus - Pine Siskin G5SU0.0020
Microhexura montivaga - spruce-fir moss spider G1S10.3584
Plethodon welleri - Weller's Salamander G3S20.0460
Sabacon mitchelli GNRS1S20.1284
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 2.1142
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 17
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.1244
Number of S5 species = 0
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.0000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 2.1142

Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Picea rubens/Cydia rana) // (Picea-Abies/Argyrotaenia occultana-Choristoneura fumiferana-Syngrapha alias-Taniva albolineana-Xestia perquiritata) // (Picea- Abies-Tsuga/Acleris variana)

We currently have not identified any native species that are obligate herbivores on Fraser Fir. While the Balsam Woolly Adelgid (Adelges piceae) is found only in association with Fraser Fir in North Carolina, as an exotic species, without any established ecological controls, it is not counted as a member of this habitat. Its presence within a given stand should actually be given a high negative value in terms of its reflection on the quality and/or viability of the occurrence.
Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets
Distribution Map
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References Bakuzis, E.V. and H.L. Hansen, 1965. Balsam fir: a monographic review. Univ. Minnesota Press. 444 pp. Accessible online at: https://books.google.com/books?id=8cnO1pNB-XUC&pg=PA363&lpg=PA363&dq=Eupithecia+filmata&source=bl&ots=T8PqquKU5h&sig=ACfU3U0y0eRW_T5bS8HnbA9YUbddUMHHsQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjOueTHsvbjAhWKiOAKHYuoAiwQ6AEwB3oECAcQAQ#v=onepage&q=Eupithecia%20filmata&f=false
Updated on 2019-10-27 19:23:40