Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of High Elevation Forests:
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High Elevation Forests
General High Elevation Forests
General Description Species composing this habitat group are associated with high elevation -- > 4,000' -- forests. Canopy composition itself is not a deciding factor and the forests can include either pure stands of Spruce-Fir Forest or Northern Hardwood Forest or a mixture of the two. Cool temperatures and high moisture content are critical factors and having a dense forest canopy overhead helps maintain those conditions. Abundant leaf litter and fallen logs on the forest floor are also key habitat features and are again associated with forest cover, as are the mosses and lichens that thrive in dense shade.

This habitat includes both mixed stands of high elevation conifers and hardwoods but can also include pure stands of hardwoods, but where the associated species are limited to high elevations. We do not have a separate habitat that represents Northern Hardwood Forests, since most of the species that characterize that natural community type are also found in cove forests at lower elevations (Schafale, 2012). Instead, we treat all species confined to high elevation forests -- apart from the specialists on spruce and fir -- in this habitat type.

Abiotic Factors
Biotic Structure
Co-evolved Species Groups
Determining Species
Anthophylax attenuatusMottled Longhorned Beetle
Trechus cheoahensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus coweensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus haoea ground beetleGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus haoeleadensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus howellaeGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus luculentus cheoahbaldensisG23T1S1S10.33330
Trechus luculentus joannabaldensisG2G33T1S1S10.33330
Trechus nantahalaea ground beetleGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus satanicusa ground beetleGH G1S1S10.33330
Trechus snowbirdensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus stefanschoedliGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus thomasbarriGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus thunderheadensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus tobiasiGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus toxawayiGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus tusquitensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus wayahbaldensisGNRS1S10.33330
Trechus luculentus wayahensisa ground beetleG2G33T2S1S2S1S20.11107
Trechus talequaha ground beetleGNRS1S2S1S20.11107
Trechus tusquiteea ground beetleGNRS1S2S1S20.11107
Trechus subtilisa ground beetleGH G1S1S3S1S30.03699
Trechus vandykei pisgahensisGNRS2S3S2S30.01230
Trechus vandykei vandykeiGNRS2S3S2S30.01230
Trechus barberia ground beetleGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Trechus inexpectatusa ground beetleGNRSHSH
Trechus aduncusGNRSHS1SHS1
Trechus caliginisa ground beetleGNR GHG1SHS1SHS1
Trechus hydropicus avusa ground beetleGNRTNRSHS1SHS1
Trechus schwarzi scopulosusa ground beetleGNRTNRSHS1SHS1
Trechus schwarzi schwarzi a ground beetleGNRSHS2SHS2
Trechus hydropicus beutenmuelleri a ground beetleGNRTNRSHS3SHS3
Aegolius acadicusNorthern Saw-whet OwlG5S2S20.03699
Certhia americanaBrown CreeperG5S3S30.00407
Regulus satrapa, summerS3S40.00132
Dryopteris campylopteraMountain Wood-fernG5S3S30.00407
Trillidium undulatumPainted Trillium
Streptopus amplexifoliusWhite MandarinG5S1S10.33330
Circaea alpinaSmall Enchanter's NightshadeG5S3S30.00407
Circaea alpina ssp. alpinaAlpine Enchanter's-nightshadeG5T5S3S30.00407
Eurybia chlorolepisBlue Ridge White Heart-leaved AsterG4S3S30.00407
Oxalis montanaWhite Wood-sorrelG5S3S30.00407
Rugelia nudicaulisRugel's RagwortG3S3S30.00407
Streptopus lanceolatusRosy Twisted-stalkG5S3S30.00407
Clintonia borealisClinton LilyG5S4S40.00041
Oclemena acuminataWhorled Aster, Whorled Nodding-asterG5S4S40.00041
Neottia cordataHeartleaf Twayblade G5SHSH
Cinna latifoliaSlender Wood-reedG5S1S2S1S20.11107
Populus tremuloidesQuaking AspenG5S1S10.33330
Populus grandidentataBigtooth AspenG5S2S20.03699
Acer spicatumMountain MapleG5S3S30.00407
Sorbus americanaAmerican Mountain-ashG5S3S30.00407
Sabacon mitchelliGNRS1S2S1S20.11107
Glaucomys sabrinusNorthern Flying SquirrelG5S2S20.03699
Sorex disparLong-tailed ShrewG4S3S30.00407
Clepsis persicanaWhite Triangle Tortrix
Arctia cajaGarden Tiger Moth, Great Tiger MothG5S1S10.33330
Korscheltellus gracilisConifer Swift MothGNRS1S2S1S20.11107
Lithophane georgiia pinion mothG5S1S2S1S20.11107
Platarctia parthenosSt. Lawrence Tiger MothG5S1S2S1S20.11107
Aplectoides conditaG4S2S3S2S30.01230
Dysstroma citrataDark Marbled Carpet MothG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Eueretagrotis sigmoidesSigmoid Dart MothG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Eupithecia tripunctariaG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Pachypolia atricornisThree-horned SallowG3G4S2S3S2S30.01230
Perizoma basaliataSquare-patched Carpet MothG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Rheumaptera hastataSpear-marked Black MothG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Diarsia rubiferaRed DartG5S2S4S2S40.00407
Dysstroma truncataMarbled CarpetGNRS3S30.00407
Anaplectoides brunneomediaBrown-lined Dart MothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Anaplectoides prasinaGreen Arches MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Eueretagrotis perattentusTwo-spot Dart MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Venusia cambricaWelsh WaveG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Desmognathus organiNorthern Pygmy SalamanderG3S2S20.03699
Desmognathus wrightiPygmy SalamanderG3S2S20.03699
Sambucus racemosaRed ElderberryG5S3S30.00407
Viburnum lantanoidesHobblebush, Witch's-hobble, Tangle-legsG5S4S40.00041
Rubus idaeusEuropean Red RaspberryG5T5SNASNA
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 75
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 66
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 2
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 66
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 0
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.00000
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 7.95333
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.12051
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 68 x 0.12051 = 8.19468

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References Haas, I., 2016. Habitat Use of Northern Pygmy Salamander (Desmognathus organi) and Southern Pygmy Salamander (D. wrighti) in North Carolina. 2016 NCUR. Accessible online at: https://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2016/article/download/1674/882
Updated on 2019-10-27 19:25:45