Habitats of North Carolina
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Members of High Elevation Forests:
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High Elevation Forests
General High Elevation Forests

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Habitat Overview Species composing this habitat group are associated with high elevation -- > 4,000' -- forests. Canopy composition itself is not a deciding factor and the forests can include either pure stands of Spruce-Fir Forest or Northern Hardwood Forest or a mixture of the two. Cool temperatures and high moisture content are critical factors and having a dense forest canopy overhead helps maintain those conditions. Abundant leaf litter and fallen logs on the forest floor are also key habitat features and are again associated with forest cover, as are the mosses and lichens that thrive in dense shade.

This habitat includes both mixed stands of high elevation conifers and hardwoods but can also include pure stands of hardwoods, but where the associated species are limited to high elevations. We do not have a separate habitat that represents Northern Hardwood Forests, since most of the species that characterize that natural community type are also found in cove forests at lower elevations (Schafale, 2012). Instead, we treat all species confined to high elevation forests -- apart from the specialists on spruce and fir -- in this habitat type.

Related NHP Natural Communities The following NHP community types contribute units of this habitat: Fraser Fir Forest (Herb Subtype), Fraser Fir Forest (Rhododendron Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Herb Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Rhododendron Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Boulderfield Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Birch Transition Herb Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Birch Transition Shrub Subtype), Red Spruce–Fraser Fir Forest (Low Rhododendron Subtype), Northern Hardwood Forest (Typic Subtype), Northern Hardwood Forest (Rich Subtype), Northern Hardwood Forest (Beech Gap Subtype), and High Elevation Birch Boulderfield Forest

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
HARDWOODS
Acer spicatum - Mountain Maple G5S30.0058
Populus grandidentata - Bigtooth Aspen G5S20.0460
Populus tremuloides - Quaking Aspen G5S10.3584
Sorbus americana - American Mountain-ash G5S30.0058
BIRDS
Aegolius acadicus - Northern Saw-whet Owl G5S20.0460
Certhia americana - Brown Creeper G5S30.0058
Regulus satrapa - Golden-crowned Kinglet G5S3S40.0020
MOTHS
Anaplectoides brunneomedia - Brown-lined Dart Moth G4S3S40.0020
Anaplectoides prasina - Green Arches Moth G5S3S40.0020
Aplectoides condita G4S2S30.0164
Arctia caja - Great Tiger Moth G5S10.3584
Diarsia rubifera - Red Dart Moth G5S2S40.0058
Dysstroma citrata - Dark Marbled Carpet Moth G5S2S30.0164
Dysstroma truncata - Marbled Carpet Moth GNRS30.0058
Eueretagrotis perattentus - Two-spot Dart Moth G5S3S40.0020
Eueretagrotis sigmoides - Sigmoid Dart Moth G5S2S30.0164
Eupithecia tripunctaria G5S2S30.0164
Korscheltellus gracilis - Conifer Swift Moth GNRS1S20.1284
Lithophane georgii G5S1S20.1284
Pachypolia atricornis - Three-horned Sallow G3G4S2S30.0164
Perizoma basaliata - Square-patched Carpet Moth G5S2S30.0164
Platarctia parthenos - St. Lawrence Tiger Moth G5S1S20.1284
Rheumaptera hastata - Spear-Marked Black Moth G5S2S30.0164
Venusia cambrica - Welsh Wave Moth G5S3S40.0020
GRAMINOIDS
Cinna latifolia - Drooping Woodreed G5S1S20.1284
FORBS
Circaea alpina - Small Enchanter's-nightshade G5S30.0058
Circaea alpina ssp. alpina - Alpine Enchanter's-nightshade G5T5S3
Clintonia borealis - Bluebead-lily G5S40.0007
Eurybia chlorolepis - Mountain Wood-aster G4S30.0058
Neottia cordata - Heartleaf Twayblade G5SX
Oclemena acuminata - Whorled Wood-aster G5S40.0007
Oxalis montana - Mountain Woodsorrel G5S30.0058
Rugelia nudicaulis - Rugel's Ragwort G3S30.0058
Streptopus amplexifolius - Clasping Twisted-stalk G5S10.3584
Streptopus lanceolatus - Rosy Twisted-stalk G5S30.0058
SALAMANDERS
Desmognathus organi - Northern Pygmy Salamander G3S20.0460
Desmognathus wrighti - Southern Pygmy Salamander G3S20.0460
FERNS
Dryopteris campyloptera - Mountain Wood-fern G5S30.0058
MAMMALS
Glaucomys sabrinus - Northern Flying Squirrel G5S20.0460
Sorex dispar - Long-tailed Shrew G4S30.0058
VINES
Rubus idaeus - Red Raspberry G5S20.0460
HARVESTMEN
Sabacon mitchelli GNRS1S20.1284
SHRUBS
Sambucus racemosa - Red Elderberry G5S30.0058
Viburnum lantanoides - Hobblebush G5S40.0007
BEETLES
Trechus aduncus - GNRSHS1
Trechus caliginis - GNR GHG1SHS1
Trechus cheoahensis - GNRS10.3584
Trechus coweensis - GNRS10.3584
Trechus haoeleadensis - GNRS10.3584
Trechus howellae - GNRS10.3584
Trechus hydropicus avus - GNRTNRSHS1
Trechus hydropicus beutenmuelleri - GNRTNRS2S3
Trechus inexpectatus - GNRSH
Trechus luculentus cheoahbaldensis - G23T1S1
Trechus luculentus joannabaldensis - G2G33T1S1
Trechus luculentus wayahensis - G2G33T2S2
Trechus nantahalae - GNRS10.3584
Trechus satanicus - GH G1S1
Trechus schwarzi scopulosus - GNRTNRSHS1
Trechus subtilis - GH G1S1S2
Trechus talequah - GNRS10.3584
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 4.3459
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 48
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0905
Number of S5 species = 0
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.0000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 4.3459

Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets
Distribution Map
Distribution
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References Haas, I., 2016. Habitat Use of Northern Pygmy Salamander (Desmognathus organi) and Southern Pygmy Salamander (D. wrighti) in North Carolina. 2016 NCUR. Accessible online at: https://www.ncurproceedings.org/ojs/index.php/NCUR2016/article/download/1674/882
Updated on 2019-10-27 19:25:45