Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
   
Members of Early Succesional and Semi-Natural Habitats:
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Early Succesional and Semi-Natural Habitats
General Successional Fields and Forblands
Habitat Overview This habitat is defined by species that were originally adapted to rapidly colonizing newly opened land following a catastrophic clearing of a forest. Following conversion of much of the former forest lands in eastern North America to croplands, these species are now often found on abandoned farm lands and are now described as "old field" species. Although many exotic "weeds" are now major components of successional habitats, we include only native (or presumed to be) species in this habitat group. Some are found in other types of open habitats but the majority of the occurrences of these species are believed to be found in sites undergoing succession back to forest. Under natural conditions, these habitats are fairly ephemeral, with the species needing to be well-adapted to dispersal in order to keep up with shifting landscape conditions.

The plants we include in this particular habitat type mainly consist of dicot forbs and vines; the grasses that typically occur in successional fields are treated separately in the General Successional and Semi-Natural Grasslands habitat, which strongly intersects the one considered here but has a somewhat different ecological trajectory. Similarly, the trees associated with successional or semi-natural grasslands are covered in the Forest-Field Ecotones and Groves habitat. The species included here comprise the most generalized old field species, occurring in at least two of the state's physiographic provinces and are tolerant of a fairly wide range of moisture and soil conditions.

Animal members of this habitat group are in some cases obligate herbivores on the plant members of the group but most are associated more generally with areas of dense herbaceous vegetation. Like the plant species, these animals are well-adapted for dispersal, allowing them to keep up with a constantly changing environment. Several of the insects belonging to this group -- especially the butterflies -- lead a nomadic, migratory lifestyle, reproducing opportunistically whenever they find suitable populations of their host plants.

Related NHP Natural Communities This habitat does not match any of the NHP Natural Communities (Schafale and Weakley, 1990; Schafale, 2012), which generally includes groups of species whose association persists through time rather than as transitory as this habitat normally is at any one site.
Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
BUTTERFLIES
Abaeis nicippe - Sleepy Orange G5S50.0000
Euptoieta claudia - Variegated Fritillary G5S50.0000
Junonia coenia - Common Buckeye G5S50.0000
Lycaena phlaeas - American Copper G5S3S40.0020
Papilio polyxenes - Black Swallowtail G5S50.0000
Phoebis sennae - Cloudless Sulphur G5S50.0000
Pholisora catullus - Common Sootywing G5S50.0000
Pontia protodice - Checkered White G5S1S20.1284
Pyrisitia lisa - Little Yellow G5S40.0007
Vanessa virginiensis - American Lady G5S50.0000
FORBS
Achillea borealis - American Yarrow G5S50.0000
Agalinis purpurea - Purple False Foxglove G5S50.0000
Amaranthus hybridus - Smooth Pigweed G5S50.0000
Ambrosia artemisiifolia - Annual Ragweed G5S50.0000
Ambrosia trifida - Giant Ragweed G5S50.0000
Antennaria parlinii - Parlin's Pussytoes G5S40.0007
Chamaecrista fasciculata - Common Partridge-pea G5S50.0000
Chamaecrista nictitans - Sensitive Partridge-pea G5S50.0000
Chenopodium album - Lamb's-quarters G5S50.0000
Coreopsis lanceolata - Lanceleaf Tickseed G5S50.0000
Erigeron canadensis - Common Horseweed G5S50.0000
Eupatorium capillifolium - Dog-fennel G5S50.0000
Eupatorium hyssopifolium - Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort G5S50.0000
Eupatorium pubescens - Hairy Thoroughwort G5S10.3584
Euphorbia nutans - Nodding Spurge G5S50.0000
Gamochaeta argyrinea - Silvery Everlasting GNRS50.0000
Hypericum gentianoides - Pineweed G5S50.0000
Ipomoea coccinea - Red Morning-glory GNRS50.0000
Ipomoea hederacea - Ivyleaf Morning-glory G5S50.0000
Krigia cespitosa - Opposite-leaf Dwarf-dandelion G5S30.0058
Krigia dandelion - Potato Dwarf-dandelion G5S40.0007
Krigia virginica - Virginia Dwarf-dandelion G5S50.0000
Lactuca canadensis - Canada Lettuce G5S50.0000
Oenothera biennis - Common Evening-primrose G5S50.0000
Oenothera laciniata - Cutleaf Evening-primrose G5S50.0000
Oxalis stricta - Common Yellow Woodsorrel G5S50.0000
Passiflora incarnata - Maypops G5S50.0000
Persicaria pensylvanica - Pennsylvania Smartweed G5S50.0000
Phytolacca americana - American Pokeweed G5S50.0000
Plantago heterophylla - Slender Plantain G5S50.0000
Polypremum procumbens - Juniper-leaf G5S50.0000
Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium - Fragrant Rabbit-tobacco G5S50.0000
Rudbeckia hirta - Black-eyed Susan G5S50.0000
Solanum carolinense - Carolina Horsenettle G5S50.0000
Solidago altissima - Tall Goldenrod G5S50.0000
Solidago erecta - Slender Goldenrod G5S50.0000
Solidago gigantea - Giant Goldenrod G5S50.0000
Symphyotrichum dumosum - Bushy Aster G5S50.0000
Symphyotrichum pilosum - Frost Aster G5S50.0000
Viola bicolor - American Field Pansy G5S50.0000
MOTHS
Astrotischeria heliopsisella GNRSU0.0020
Astrotischeria solidagonifoliella GNRSU0.0020
Chionodes mediofuscella - Black-smudged Chionodes Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria - Blackberry Looper G5S50.0000
Cirrhophanus triangulifer - Goldenrod Stowaway Moth G4SU0.0020
Condica sutor - Cobbler Moth G5S50.0000
Condica vecors - Dusky Groundling Moth G5S50.0000
Condica videns - White-dotted Groundling Moth G5S50.0000
Coptotriche aenea - Blackberry Leafminer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Dichomeris flavocostella - Cream-edged Dichomeris Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Disclisioprocta stellata - Somber Carpet Moth G5S50.0000
Epiblema otiosana - Bidens Borer Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Epiblema scudderiana - Goldenrod Gall Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Frumenta nundinella GNRSU0.0020
Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis - Goldenrod Gall Moth GNRSU0.0020
Hyles lineata - White-lined Sphinx G5S50.0000
Idaea demissaria - Red-Bordered Wave Moth G5S50.0000
Leuconycta diphteroides - Green Leuconycta Moth G5S50.0000
Lobocleta ossularia - Drab Brown Wave Moth G5S4S50.0002
Lycomorpha pholus - Black-and-yellow Lichen Moth G5SU0.0020
Ogdoconta cinereola - Common Pinkband Moth G5S50.0000
Pelochrista similiana GNRS3S50.0007
Perigea xanthioides - Red Groundling Moth G5S40.0007
Ponometia candefacta - Olive-shaded Bird-dropping Moth G5S50.0000
Ponometia erastrioides - Small Bird-dropping Moth G5S3S40.0020
Schinia arcigera - Arcigera Flower Moth G5S50.0000
Schinia nundina - Goldenrod Flower Moth G5S4S50.0002
Schinia rivulosa - Ragweed Flower Moth G5S50.0000
Schinia thoreaui - Thoreau's Flower Moth G5S3S40.0020
Schinia trifascia - Three-lined Flower Moth G5S4S50.0002
Spragueia leo - Common Spragueia Moth G5S50.0000
Synchlora aerata - Wavy-lined Emerald G5S50.0000
Synchlora frondaria - Southern Emerald Moth G5S50.0000
Timandra amaturaria - Cross-lined Wave Moth G5S3S40.0020
Tornos scolopacinaria - Dimorphic Gray Moth G4S3S40.0020
Trichordestra legitima - Striped Garden Caterpillar Moth G5S4S50.0002
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Campylenchia latipes
Limotettix anthracinus
Mesamia nigridorsum
Pissonotus brunneus
Publilia reticulata
MAMMALS
Cryptotis parva - North American Least Shrew G5S50.0000
BIRDS
Icteria virens - Yellow-breasted Chat G5S50.0000
Lanius ludovicianus - Loggerhead Shrike G4S30.0058
Passerina caerulea - Blue Grosbeak G5S50.0000
Passerina cyanea - Indigo Bunting G5S50.0000
Spizella pusilla - Field Sparrow G5S50.0000
ORTHOPTERANS
Melanoplus scudderi - Scudder's Short-winged Locust G5S50.0000
Oecanthus latipennis - Broad-Winged Tree Cricket GNRS4S50.0002
Oecanthus quadripunctatus - Four-Spotted Tree Cricket G5S50.0000
Scudderia cuneata - Southeastern Bush Katydid GNRS3S40.0020
Scudderia curvicauda - Curve-Tailed Bush Katydid G5S3S40.0020
Scudderia furcata - Fork-Tailed Bush Katydid G5S50.0000
Scudderia texensis - Texas Bush Katydid GNRS4S50.0002
LIZARDS
Ophisaurus attenuatus - Slender Glass Lizard G5S20.0460
VINES
Rubus flagellaris - Northern Dewberry G5S50.0000
Rubus occidentalis - Black Raspberry G5S40.0007
Rubus pensilvanicus - Pennsylvania Blackberry G5S50.0000
Rubus trivialis - Southern Dewberry G5S30.0058
FERNS
Sceptridium lunarioides - Winter Grapefern G4SH
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.5849
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 36
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0162
Number of S5 species = 68
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 1.8889
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = -0.5199

Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Ambrosia species/Chionodes mediofuscella-Ponometia candefacta-Ponometia erastrioides-Schinia rivulosa-Schinia thoreaui-Spragueia leo) // (Apiaceae species/Papilio polyxenes) // (Asteraceae species/Astrotischeria heliopsisella-Condica sutor-Condica videns-Dichomeris flavocostella-Leuconycta diphteroides-Ogdoconta cinereola-Perigea xanthioides-Vanessa virginiensis) // (Bidens species/Cirrhophanus triangulifer) // (Brassicaceae species/Pontia protodice) // (Chamaecrista species/Abaeis nicippe-Phoebis sennae-Pyrisitia lisa) // (Eupatorium species/Schinia trifascia) // (Helianthus species/Mesamia nigridorsum) // (Polygonaceae species/Timandra amaturaria) // (Rubus species/Coptotriche aenea) // (Rumex species/Lycaena phlaeas) // (Solidago species/Astrotischeria solidagonifoliella-Epiblema scudderiana-Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis-Limotettix anthracinus-Pelochrista similiana-Schinia nundina)

Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets Some of the species included in this habitat may prefer either wetter soil conditions or drier than the rest of the defining species and may need to be placed is separate habitats
Distribution Map
Distribution
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References Oosting, H.J., 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant communities of Piedmont, North Carolina. American Midland Naturalist 28:1-126.

Sharpe, T., 2010. Idle-Area Management. In: Tarheel wildlife-A guide for managing wildlife on private lands in North Carolilna. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Raleigh, North Carolina. Available online at: https://www.ncwildlife.org/Portals/0/Hunting/Documents/Tarheel_Wildlife.pdf
Updated on 2020-10-10 14:18:02