Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Early Succesional and Semi-Natural Habitats:
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Early Succesional and Semi-Natural Habitats
General Fields, Gardens, and Ruderal Habitats
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General Description This habitat consists of open, herb-dominated habitats, including both natural and strongly human-modified examples, including cultivated fields, gardens, abandoned quarries, borrow areas, and other lands where the natural vegetation has been scraped away.

Determining species include what are regarded as highly "weedy" species, possessing high colonizing abilities as well as tolerances for human activities, including frequent clearance and other modifications of the vegetation. Although all of these species are native, several have become some of the most important pest species of croplands. A relative few -- mainly butterflies -- have become welcome garden visitors.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet. Soil texture: sandy to loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: varies from occasionally to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to transitory. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Insolation: full sun to partial shade

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: open herblands and/or shrublands, including both fallow and cultivated croplands, gardens, and ruderal barrens. Organic Shelter, Foraging, and Nesting Structures: woody debris and leaf litter are essentially absent but cardboard boxes and other trash are common, particularly in ruderal examples and can provide important shelter and foraging areas for some members of this habitat.

Co-evolved Species Groups None have been identified among these highly generalized species
Determining Species
Ceratina duplaS3S40.00132
Bombus griseocollisS4S50.00010
Halictus ligatusa sweat beeS4S50.00010
Bombus impatiensBumble BeeS50.00000
Xylocopa virginicaCarpenter BeeS50.00000
Melospiza melodiaSong SparrowG5S5S50.00000
Atalopedes campestrisSachem
Burnsius communisCommon Checkered-Skipper
Colias eurythemeOrange Sulphur
Colias philodiceClouded Sulphur
Lerodea eufalaEufala Skipper
Nathalis ioleDainty Sulphur
Panoquina ocolaOcola Skipper
Pieris rapaeCabbage White
Staphylus hayhurstiiHayhurst's Scallopwing
Strymon melinusGray Hairstreak
Urbanus proteusLong-tailed Skipper
Vanessa carduiPainted Lady
Pontia protodiceCheckered WhiteG5S1S2S1S20.11107
Pyrisitia lisaLittle YellowG5S4S40.00041
Abaeis nicippeSleepy OrangeG5S5S50.00000
Cupido comyntasEastern Tailed-BlueG5S5S50.00000
Hylephila phyleusFiery SkipperG5S5S50.00000
Phoebis sennaeCloudless SulphurG5S5S50.00000
Pholisora catullusCommon SootywingG5S5S50.00000
Phyciodes tharosPearl CrescentG5S5S50.00000
Erigeron philadelphicus var. philadelphicusPhiladelphia Fleabane
Geranium carolinianumCarolina Crane's-bill
Solanum emulansEastern Black Nightshade
Valerianella radiataBeaked Corn-salad
Cyclospermum leptophyllumMarsh ParsleyG5S2S30.00407
Amaranthus hybridusSmooth AmaranthG5S5S50.00000
Chaerophyllum tainturieriTainturier ChervilG5S5S50.00000
Lepidium virginicumPoor Man's PepperG5S5S50.00000
Lobelia inflataIndian-tobaccoG5S5S50.00000
Phytolacca americanaCommon PokeweedG5S5S50.00000
Solanum carolinenseCarolina Horse-nettleG5S5S50.00000
Viola rafinesqueiAmerican Field PansyG5S5S50.00000
Paspalum notatumBahia Grass
Juncus tenuisSlender RushG5S5S50.00000
Agrotis ipsilonBlack Cutworm, Dark Sword-grass
Anticarsia gemmatalisVelvetbean Caterpillar
Helicoverpa zeaCorn Earworm
Keiferia inconspicuella
Lacinipolia renigeraBristly Cutworm
Leucania adjutaAdjutant Wainscot Moth
Leucospilapteryx venustella
Mompha circumscriptellaA Momphid Moth
Mythimna unipunctaArmyworm Moth
Neodactria caliginosellusCorn Root Webworm Moth
Parectopa plantaginisella
Polyhymno luteostrigellaa twirler moth
Porphyrosela desmodiellaa moth
Porphyrosela minuta
Bedellia somnulentellaMorning-glory Leafminer MothS2S40.00407
Ceratomia catalpaeCatalpa Sphinx, Catalpa Worm, Catawba WormG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Diphthera festivaHieroglyphic MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Agriphila ruricolellaS3S50.00041
Argyrogramma verrucaGolden Looper MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Elaphria nucicoloraSugarcane Midget MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Megalographa bilobaBilobed Looper MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Rachiplusia ouGray LooperG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Stegasta bosqueellaRed-necked Peanutworm MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Trichoplusia niCabbage LooperGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Acrolophus popeanellaClemens Grass Tubeworm MothS50.00000
Agrius cingulataPink-spotted HawkmothG5S5S50.00000
Chrysodeixis includensSoybean LooperG5S5S50.00000
Hymenia perspectalisSpotted Beet Webworm MothGNRS5S50.00000
Manduca quinquemaculatusFive-spotted Hawk MothG5S5S50.00000
Manduca sextaCarolina SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Parapediasia teterrellusBluegrass Webworm MothGNRS5S50.00000
Spodoptera dolichosSweetpotato ArmywormG5S5S50.00000
Spodoptera exiguaBeet Armyworm MothG5S5S50.00000
Spodoptera frugiperdaFall ArmywormG5S5S50.00000
Spoladea recurvalisBeet Webworm, Hawaiian Beet ArmywormGNRS5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 44
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 44
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 16
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 28
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.63636
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.12479
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00284
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 16 x 0.00284 = 0.04544

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species One species, Pontia protodice, is state ranked as S1S2.
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat 22 species in this habitat -- 61% -- are considered Secure in North Carolina. This reflects the widespread and well-connected nature of this habitat, as well as the tolerance of its species to human activities and habitat modification.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The combination of a low value of ENE, a high value of PSS, and no identified Historic or Extirpated Species, makes the value of HRI quite low, falling within our Tier 4 (0.05 ≥ HRI > 0.005) Level of Conservation Concern. Only a low priority exists for conservation actions.

Identified Risks Herbicides and insecticides that are aimed at pest species can have severe impacts on non-target species, including those associated with this habitat, which often live close to areas where these chemicals are applied.

Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-09-08 02:28:53