Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of General Hardwood Forests:
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General Hardwood Forests
Montane Mesic Forests with Seepages/Headwater Streams
General Description Members of this habitat include species such as semi-terrestrial salamanders, whose larvae require seeps and headwater streams for development, but whose adults roam widely across the forest floor in search of food and that take shelter under logs or in terrestrial burrows. Also included are species that do the opposite, for example, the American Water Shrew, which den and raise their young on land but that forage primarily in streams or along their edges. All members of this habitat occur almost entirely in the Mountains.

Abiotic Factors
Biotic Structure
Co-evolved Species Groups
Determining Species
Sorex palustrisWater ShrewG5S3S30.00407
Eurycea longicaudaLongtail Salamander
Eurycea junaluskaJunaluska SalamanderG3S1S10.33330
Desmognathus aeneusSeepage SalamanderG3S3S30.00407
Desmognathus carolinensis Carolina Mountain Dusky SalamanderG4S3S30.00407
Desmognathus imitatorImitator SalamanderG3S3S30.00407
Desmognathus orestesBlue Ridge Dusky SalamanderG4S3S30.00407
Desmognathus ocoeeOcoee SalamanderG5S4S40.00041
Eurycea wilderaeBlue Ridge Two-lined SalamanderG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 8
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 8
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 7
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 1
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.12500
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.35406
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.04426
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 7 x 0.04426 = 0.30982

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References Burley, L.A., Moyer, A.T. and Petranka, J.W., 2006. Density of an intraguild predator mediates feeding group size, intraguild egg predation, and intra-and interspecific competition. Oecologia, 148(4):641-649.

Petranka, J.W., 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Petranka, J.W. and Smith, C.K., 2005. A functional analysis of streamside habitat use by southern Appalachian salamanders: Implications for riparian forest management. Forest Ecology and Management, 210:443-454.

Weakley, A.S., and M.P. Schafale. 1994. Non-alluvial wetlands of the southern Blue Ridge: diversity in a threatened ecosystem. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 77: 359-383. [Also published in Trettin, C.C., W.M. Aust, and J. Wisniewski. 1995. Wetlands of the interior southeastern United States. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands]

Wichmann, B.L. 2009. Vegetation of geographically isolated montane non-alluvial wetlands of the southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina. M.S. Thesis. North Carolina State University.
Updated on 2020-11-14 21:23:06