Habitats of North Carolina
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Marshes, Mires, and Shoreline Habitats
Shoreline Shrublands
General Description This habitat consists of thickets of Willows, Alders, Buttonbushes, Mallows and other shrubs growing in shrub swamps or along the shorelines of ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams. Shrubs in this habitat are tolerant of frequent flooding and can grow in at least shallow impoundments. Most require at least partial sun, as is usually available in the edge habitats they occupy. Species that are tolerant of prolonged deep shade and that occur in bottomland forests and swamps are placed in the General Wet Shrublands habitat.

Beaver ponds were historically important sites for this habitat and the most extensive examples are associated with shallow impoundments. Given the transient nature of beaver ponds and the high species turnover along the frequently flooded species, the Determining Species in this habitat are colonizing species and are often among the first to pioneer newly created or regenerating ponds and shorelines. The colonizing ability of this group, along with their ability to occupy shallow wetlands allows them to make use of ditches, borrow pits, farm ponds, and other artificial wetlands.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: High Mountains to the Lower Coastal Plain. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: restricted to floodplains and wet flats. Soil Moisture: wet to hydric. Soil Texture: alluvial/loamy, silty, or sandy. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral -- includes blackwater as well as brownwater floodplains. Soil Nutrients: poor to rich. Microclimate: warm to cool, humid. Flood Frequency: several times per year to permanent. Flood Duration: weeks to months or permanent. Presence of Pools: common; both permanent and ephemeral ponds and pools may be used. Fire Frequency: uncommon in bottomlands but frequent when adjoining fire-maintained habitats. Drought Frequency: rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: rarely deeply shaded, receiving either full or partial sun at some point during most days

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: shrubland or low open forest. Strata: often located at the edge of closed canopy forests but not growing directly beneath them; cattails and other marsh species may be intermixed with the shrubs but are treated here as belonging to a separate habitat type. Organic Shelter, Foraging, and Nesting Structures: fallen logs and broken branches are common; leaf litter is submerged for extensive periods in swamps and species that depend on dry leaf litter are treated in other habitats. Shrub thickets of all types provide important sites for nesting, foraging, and sheltering used by many birds and other animals (see General Shrublands and Thickets).

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Alnus species // Acrobasis rubrifasciella-Acronicta hastulifera-Anania extricalis-Baileya doubledayi-Caloptilia glutinella-Hypena eductalis-Kybos unica
Cephalanthus occidentalis/Ledaea perditalis-Melanomma auricinctaria-Mompha cephalonthiella-Mompha solomoni
Mallow species // Bagisara rectifascia-Tarache aprica
Willow species // Acronicta connecta-Aristotelia fungivorella-Cabera variolaria-Catocala cara-Catocala carissima-Colobochyla interpuncta-Coptodisca saliciella-Digrammia gnophosaria-Erythridula rufostigmosa-Erythroneura rosa-Limenitis archippus-Macropsis decisa-Macropsis reversalis-Olethreutes fasciatana-Phyllonorycter auronitens-Scoliopteryx libatrix-Smerinthus jamaicensis-Stigmella fuscotibiella
Willow and Poplar species // Caloptilia stigmatella-Paraleucoptera albella-Phyllonorycter salicifoliella

Determining Species
Empidonax trailliiWillow FlycatcherG5S3S30.00407
Setophaga petechiaYellow WarblerG5S4S40.00041
Limenitis archippusViceroyG5S5S50.00000
Salix nigra Black WillowG5S5S50.00000
Erythridula rufostigmosaSNR
Erythroneura rosaSNR
Kybos unicaSNR
Macropsis decisaSNR
Macropsis reversalisSNR
Achatodes zeaeElder Shoot Borer
Acrobasis rubrifasciellaAlder Tubemaker MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Acronicta connectaConnected DaggerG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Acronicta hastuliferaFrosted Dagger MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Bagisara rectifasciaStraight Lined Mallow MothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Baileya doubledayiDoubleday's Baileya MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Cabera variolariaVestal MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Caloptilia stigmatellaGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Furcula cinereaGray FurculaG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Hypena eductalisG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Hypena minualisSooty Bomolocha MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Lithophane dispositaDashed Gray Pinion MothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Melanomma auricinctariaGold-lined Melanomma MothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Nycteola metaspilellaForgotten Frigid Owlet MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Scoliopteryx libatrixThe HeraldG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Spragueia damaSouthern Spragueia MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Tarache apricaExposed Bird-Dropping MothG4G5S3S4S3S40.00132
Tecmessa scitiscriptaBlack-etched ProminentG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Catocala caraDarling UnderwingG5S4S40.00041
Catocala carissimaCarissima UnderwingG5S4S40.00041
Colobochyla interpunctaYellow-Lined OwletG4S4S40.00041
Ledaea perditalis Lost OwletG5S4S40.00041
Clostera inclusaAngle-lined prominent, Poplar tentmakerG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Olethreutes fasciatanaa tortricid mothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Digrammia gnophosariaHollow-spotted AngleG5S5S50.00000
Catocala unijugaOnce-married UnderwingG5SHSH
Anania extricalisGNRSUSU0.00202
Aristotelia fungivorellaa mothGNRSUSU0.00202
Bucculatrix locuplesGNRSUSU0.00202
Caloptilia glutinellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Chionodes hibiscellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Coptodisca saliciellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Micrurapteryx salicifoliellaWillow Leafblotch Miner MothG5SUSU0.00202
Mompha cephalonthiellaButtonbush Leafminer MothGNRSUSU0.00202
Mompha solomoniGNRSUSU0.00202
Paraleucoptera albellaCottonwood Leafminer MothGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllonorycter auronitensGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllonorycter salicifoliellaWillow Leaf Blotch Miner MothGNRSUSU0.00202
Smerinthus jamaicensisTwin-spotted SphinxG5SUSU0.00202
Stigmella fuscotibiella GNRSUSU0.00202
Salix carolinianaCarolina WillowG5S4S40.00041
Alnus serrulataBrook-side AlderG5S5S50.00000
Cephalanthus occidentalisCommon ButtonbushG5S5S50.00000
Cornus amomum (= Swida amomum)G5S5S50.00000
Hibiscus moscheutosSwamp RosemallowG5S5S50.00000
Salix sericeaSilky WillowG5S5S50.00000
Sambucus canadensisCommon ElderberryG5S5S50.00000
Xanthorhiza simplicissimaShrubby Yellow-rootG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 51
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 50
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 1
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 40
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 10
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.20000
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.05745
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00115
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 41 x 0.00115 = 0.04715

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-02-04 16:30:24