Habitats of North Carolina
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Marshes, Mires, and Shoreline Habitats
Shoreline Shrublands
General Description This habitat consists of thickets of Willows, Alders, Buttonbushes, Mallows and other shrubs growing in shrub swamps or along the shorelines of ponds, lakes, rivers, and streams. Shrubs in this habitat are tolerant of frequent flooding and can grow in at least shallow impoundments. Most require at least partial sun, as is usually available in the edge habitats they occupy. Species that are tolerant of prolonged deep shade and that occur in bottomland forests and swamps are placed in the General Wet Shrublands habitat.

Beaver ponds were historically important sites for this habitat and the most extensive examples are associated with shallow impoundments. Given the transient nature of beaver ponds and the high species turnover along the frequently flooded species, the Determining Species in this habitat are colonizing species and are often among the first to pioneer newly created or regenerating ponds and shorelines. The colonizing ability of this group, along with their ability to occupy shallow wetlands allows them to make use of ditches, borrow pits, farm ponds, and other artificial wetlands.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: High Mountains to the Lower Coastal Plain. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: restricted to floodplains and wet flats. Soil Moisture: wet to hydric. Soil Texture: alluvial/loamy, silty, or sandy. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral -- includes blackwater as well as brownwater floodplains. Soil Nutrients: poor to rich. Microclimate: warm to cool, humid. Flood Frequency: several times per year to permanent. Flood Duration: weeks to months or permanent. Presence of Pools: common; both permanent and ephemeral ponds and pools may be used. Fire Frequency: uncommon in bottomlands but frequent when adjoining fire-maintained habitats. Drought Frequency: rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: rarely deeply shaded, receiving either full or partial sun at some point during most days

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: shrubland or low open forest. Strata: often located at the edge of closed canopy forests but not growing directly beneath them; cattails and other marsh species may be intermixed with the shrubs but are treated here as belonging to a separate habitat type. Shelter, Foraging, and Nesting Sites: fallen logs and broken branches are common; leaf litter is submerged for extensive periods in swamps and species that depend on dry leaf litter are treated in other habitats. Shrub thickets of all types provide important sites for nesting, foraging, and sheltering used by many birds and other animals (see General Shrublands and Thickets).

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Alnus species // Acrobasis rubrifasciella-Acronicta hastulifera-Anania extricalis-Baileya doubledayi-Caloptilia glutinella-Hypena eductalis-Kybos unica
Cephalanthus occidentalis/Ledaea perditalis-Melanomma auricinctaria-Mompha cephalonthiella-Mompha solomoni
Mallow species // Bagisara rectifascia-Tarache aprica
Willow species // Acronicta connecta-Aristotelia fungivorella-Cabera variolaria-Catocala cara-Catocala carissima-Colobochyla interpuncta-Coptodisca saliciella-Digrammia gnophosaria-Erythridula rufostigmosa-Erythroneura rosa-Limenitis archippus-Macropsis decisa-Macropsis reversalis-Olethreutes fasciatana-Phyllonorycter auronitens-Scoliopteryx libatrix-Smerinthus jamaicensis-Stigmella fuscotibiella
Willow and Poplar species // Caloptilia stigmatella-Phyllonorycter salicifoliella

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Acrobasis rubrifasciella - Alder Tubemaker Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Acronicta connecta - Connected Dagger G4S3S40.0020
Acronicta hastulifera - Frosted Dagger G5S3S40.0020
Anania extricalis GNRSU0.0020
Aristotelia fungivorella GNRSU0.0020
Bagisara rectifascia - Straight Lined Mallow Moth G4S3S40.0020
Baileya doubledayi - Doubleday's Baileya G5S3S40.0020
Bucculatrix locuples GNRSU0.0020
Cabera variolaria - Vestal Moth G5S3S40.0020
Caloptilia glutinella GNRSU0.0020
Caloptilia stigmatella GNRS3S40.0020
Catocala cara - Darling Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala carissima - Carissima Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala unijuga - Once-married Underwing G5SH0.00
Chionodes hibiscella GNRSU0.0020
Clostera inclusa - Angle-lined Prominent G5S4S50.0002
Colobochyla interpuncta - Yellow-lined Owlet Moth G4S40.0007
Coptodisca saliciella GNRSU0.0020
Digrammia gnophosaria - Hollow-spotted Angle G5S50.00
Furcula cinerea - Gray Furcula Moth G5S3S40.0020
Hypena eductalis G5S3S40.0020
Hypena minualis - Sooty Bomolocha GNRS3S40.0020
Ledaea perditalis - Lost Owlet Moth G5S40.0007
Lithophane disposita - Dashed Gray Pinion Moth
Melanomma auricinctaria - Gold-lined Melanomma Moth G4S3S40.0020
Micrurapteryx salicifoliella - Willow Leafblotch Miner Moth G5SU0.0020
Mompha cephalonthiella - Buttonbush Leafminer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Mompha solomoni GNRSU0.0020
Nycteola metaspilella - Forgotten Frigid Owlet Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Olethreutes fasciatana GNRS4S50.0002
Phyllonorycter auronitens GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter salicifoliella - Willow Leaf Blotch Miner Moth GNRSU0.0020
Scoliopteryx libatrix - Herald Moth G5S3S40.0020
Smerinthus jamaicensis - Twin-spotted Sphinx G5SU0.0020
Spragueia dama - Southern Spragueia Moth G5S3S40.0020
Stigmella fuscotibiella GNRSU0.0020
Tarache aprica - Exposed Bird-dropping Moth G4G5S3S40.0020
Tecmessa scitiscripta - Black-etched Prominent Moth G5S3S40.0020
Alnus serrulata - Hazel Alder G5S50.00
Cephalanthus occidentalis - Buttonbush G5S50.00
Cornus amomum (= Swida amomum) - Silky Dogwood G5S50.00
Hibiscus moscheutos - Swamp Rosemallow G5S50.00
Salix caroliniana - Coastal Plain Willow G5S40.0007
Salix sericea - Silky Willow G5S50.00
Sambucus canadensis - Common Elderberry G5S50.00
Empidonax traillii - Willow Flycatcher G5S30.0058
Setophaga petechia - Yellow Warbler G5S40.0007
Erythridula rufostigmosa
Erythroneura rosa
Kybos unica
Macropsis decisa
Macropsis reversalis
Limenitis archippus - Viceroy G5S50.00
Salix nigra - Black Willow G5S50.00
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.0684
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 38
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0018
Number of S5 species = 9
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.2368
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.0522

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-01-17 16:08:34