Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
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Members of Marshes, Mires, and Shoreline Habitats:
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Marshes, Mires, and Shoreline Habitats
General Broadleaf Herbaceous Mires
General Description This habitat includes the entire range of shallow wetlands that support dense growths of wetland forbs. These can occur as open marshes, bogs, and fens or as seeps and shallow pools in closed canopy forests. Examples occur over a broad climatic range and are widely distributed across the state.

Determining species include both ferns and forbs; mire habitats dominated by sedges and other Graminoids are treated in other habitats, as are those that are more regionally restricted. Animal species include herbivores that are specialized on the plant members of this habitat.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: High Mountins to the Lower Coastal Plain. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: restricted to floodplains and wet flats. Soil Moisture: hydric. Soil Texture: mucky. Soil pH: usually acidic due to the build-up of humic acids. Soil Nutrients: generally poor with nutrient-rich examples found only in a few fens. Mucky soils are also typically anoxic. Microclimate: warm to cool, humid. Flood Frequency: several times per year to permanent. Flood Duration: weeks to months or permanent. Presence of Pools: mires are only shallowly flooded although pools may be located close by. Fire Frequency: uncommon in bottomlands but frequent when adjoining fire-maintained habitats. Drought Frequency: rare. Insolation: partial to full sun.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: herbland. Key Species species of aquatic forbs are the dominant plant species in this habitat; graminoids may also be present, but occur only as scattered individuals or small patches. Strata: canopy, subcanopy, and shrub layers can be well-developed or absent. Woody Debris and Leaf Litter: logs and fallen branches may be present where these mires occur within forests but may be otherwise absent

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Boehmeria cylindrica // Hypena manalis
Pilea pumila // Cosmopterix pulchrimella-Heterophleps triguttaria
Onoclea sensibilis // Papaipema inquaesita
Osmunda spectabilis-Osmundastrum cinnamomeum // Papaipema speciosissima
Pontederia cordata // Bellura densa
Saururus cernuus // Parapamea buffaloensis

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Alisma subcordatum - American Water-plantain G5S30.0058
Asclepias incarnata - Swamp Milkweed G5S50.00
Boehmeria cylindrica - False Nettle G5S50.00
Chelone cuthbertii - Cuthbert's Turtlehead G3S30.0058
Chelone glabra - White Turtlehead G5S3S40.0020
Chelone obliqua - Red Turtlehead G4S20.0460
Hypericum adpressum - Creeping St. John's-wort G3SH0.00
Impatiens capensis - Spotted Jewelweed G5S50.00
Lobelia cardinalis - Cardinal-flower G5S50.00
Lobelia georgiana - Georgia Lobelia GNRS30.0058
Mimulus alatus - Sharpwing Monkey-flower G5S40.0007
Nelumbo lutea - American Lotus G4S20.0460
Peltandra virginica - Green Arrow-arum G5S50.00
Pilea pumila - Canadian Clearweed G5S50.00
Platanthera clavellata - Small Green Wood Orchid G5S40.0007
Platanthera flava - Southern Rein Orchid G4S30.0058
Platanthera lacera - Ragged Fringed Orchid G5S30.0058
Platanthera peramoena - Purple Fringeless Orchid G5S20.0460
Pluchea camphorata - Camphor Pluchea G5S40.0007
Pontederia cordata - Pickerelweed G5S50.00
Sagittaria australis - Longbeak Arrowhead G5S3S40.0020
Sagittaria latifolia - Broadleaf Arrowhead G5S50.00
Saururus cernuus - Lizard's-tail G5S50.00
Scutellaria lateriflora - Mad-dog Skullcap G5S40.0007
Sparganium americanum - American Bur-reed G5S50.00
Stachys aspera - Rough Hedge-nettle G4S20.0460
Symplocarpus foetidus - Skunk Cabbage G5S30.0058
Viola cucullata - Marsh Blue Violet G5S40.0007
Apios americana - American Groundnut G5S40.0007
Bellura densa - Pickerelweed Borer G5S4S50.0002
Cosmopterix pulchrimella - Beautiful Cosmopterix Moth GNRSU0.0020
Heterophleps triguttaria - Three-spotted Fillip G5S4S50.0002
Hypena manalis - Flowing-line Bomolocha G5S4S50.0002
Papaipema inquaesita - Sensitive Fern Borer G5S3S40.0020
Papaipema speciosissima - Osmunda Borer G4S3S40.0020
Parapamea buffaloensis - Buffalo Moth G4S40.0007
Pristerognatha agilana GNRSU0.0020
Onoclea sensibilis - Sensitive Fern G5S50.00
Osmunda spectabilis - Royal Fern G5S50.00
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum - Cinnamon Fern G5S50.00
Thelypteris palustris - Marsh Fern G5S50.00
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.2363
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 26
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0091
Number of S5 species = 14
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.5385
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.1091

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2021-12-22 00:52:54