Habitats of North Carolina
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Marshes, Mires, and Shoreline Habitats
General Wet Meadows
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General Description This habitat consists of open or partially shaded, shallow wetlands that are dominated by forbs; graminoids that are often mixed in with the forbs are treated separately in under General Sedge, Grass, and Rush Mires. These habitats are generally created and maintained by some form of disturbance. Historically, most were probably associated with beaver ponds but now often occur in wet pastures, where grazing by livestock keeps them open. In absence of grazing or beaver tree-cutting, these sites typically succeed to swamp or bottomland forests. Whether or not Mountain Bogs -- which have well developed peat layers -- originated from beaver ponds, they often have some of the species included under this habitat and are thus considered a component of it.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: High Mountains to the Lower Coastal Plain. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: restricted to floodplains and wet flats. Soil Moisture: hydric. Soil Texture: mucky. Soil pH: usually acidic due to the build-up of humic acids. Soil Nutrients: generally poor with nutrient-rich examples found only in a few fens. Mucky soils are typically anoxic. Microclimate: warm to cool, humid. Flood Frequency: several times per year to permanent. Flood Duration: weeks to months or permanent. Presence of Pools: common; both permanent and ephemeral ponds and pools may imbedded withing this habitat. Fire Frequency: uncommon in bottomlands but frequent when adjoining fire-maintained habitats. Drought Frequency: rare. Insolation: partial to full sun.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: herbland. Key Species species of forbs are the dominant plant species in this habitat; graminoids are also typically present, but like woody species, occur primarily as scattered individuals or patches. Strata: canopy, subcanopy, and shrub layers are absent, although individual trees or small shrubs may be present. Woody Debris and Leaf Litter: due to the saturated nature of the soils, decomposition takes place only slowly, with build-up of peat a common occurrence.

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Ambrosia trifida // Chionodes mediofuscella
Verbesina species // Basilodes pepita
Vernonia noveboracensis // Papaipema cerussata

Determining Species
Lycopodioides apodumMeadow SpikemossG5S5S50.00000
Eupatorium perfoliatumCommon Boneset
Galium asprellumRough BedstrawG5S2S20.03699
Doellingeria umbellataTall Flat-topped White AsterG5S3S30.00407
Lobelia siphiliticaGreat Blue LobeliaG5S4S40.00041
Mimulus ringensAllegheny Monkey-flowerG5S4S40.00041
Symphyotrichum puniceumPurplestem AsterG5S4S40.00041
Allium canadenseMeadow OnionG5S5S50.00000
Bidens aristosaMidwestern Tickseed-sunflowerG5S5S50.00000
Cicuta maculataWater-hemlockG5S5S50.00000
Conoclinium coelestinumMistflower, AgeratumG5S5S50.00000
Ludwigia alternifoliaBushy SeedboxG5S5S50.00000
Persicaria sagittataArrowleaf TearthumbG5S5S50.00000
Verbesina alternifoliaWingstemG5S5S50.00000
Vernonia noveboracensisNew York IronweedG5S5S50.00000
Carex vulpinoideaFox SedgeG5S5S50.00000
Juncus marginatusGrassleaf RushG5S5S50.00000
Juncus scirpoidesScirpus-like RushG5S5S50.00000
Zapus hudsoniusMeadow Jumping MouseG5S1S10.33330
Eudryas unioPearly Wood-NymphG5S4S40.00041
Chionodes mediofuscellaBlack-smudged Chionodes MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Papaipema cerussataIronweed Borer MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Basilodes pepitaGold MothG4SUSU0.00202
Anaxipha tinnulentaSlow-Tinkling TrigGNRS4S40.00041
Neocurtilla hexadactylaNorthern Mole CricketGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Spiraea tomentosaHardhack SpiraeaG5S3S30.00407
Glyptemys muhlenbergiiBog TurtleG3S2S20.03699
Mikania scandensClimbing HempweedG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 27
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 27
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 14
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 13
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.48148
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.41979
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.01555
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 14 x 0.01555 = 0.2177

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2021-12-21 13:55:42