Habitats of North Carolina
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Marshes, Mires, and Shoreline Habitats
General Wet Meadows
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General Description This habitat consists of open or partially shaded, shallow wetlands that are dominated by forbs; graminoids that are often mixed in with the forbs are treated separately in under General Sedge, Grass, and Rush Mires. These habitats are generally created and maintained by some form of disturbance. Historically, most were probably associated with beaver ponds but now often occur in wet pastures, where grazing by livestock keeps them open. In absence of grazing or beaver tree-cutting, these sites typically succeed to swamp or bottomland forests. Whether or not Mountain Bogs -- which have well developed peat layers -- originated from beaver ponds, they often have some of the species included under this habitat and are thus considered a component of it.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: High Mountains to the Lower Coastal Plain. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: restricted to floodplains and wet flats. Soil Moisture: hydric. Soil Texture: mucky. Soil pH: usually acidic due to the build-up of humic acids. Soil Nutrients: generally poor with nutrient-rich examples found only in a few fens. Mucky soils are typically anoxic. Microclimate: warm to cool, humid. Flood Frequency: several times per year to permanent. Flood Duration: weeks to months or permanent. Presence of Pools: common; both permanent and ephemeral ponds and pools may imbedded withing this habitat. Fire Frequency: uncommon in bottomlands but frequent when adjoining fire-maintained habitats. Drought Frequency: rare. Insolation: partial to full sun.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: herbland. Key Species species of forbs are the dominant plant species in this habitat; graminoids are also typically present, but like woody species, occur primarily as scattered individuals or patches. Strata: canopy, subcanopy, and shrub layers are absent, although individual trees or small shrubs may be present. Woody Debris and Leaf Litter: due to the saturated nature of the soils, decomposition takes place only slowly, with build-up of peat a common occurrence.

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Ambrosia trifida // Chionodes mediofuscella
Verbesina species // Basilodes pepita
Vernonia noveboracensis // Papaipema cerussata

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Allium canadense - Meadow Garlic G5S50.00
Bidens aristosa - Bearded Beggarticks G5S50.00
Cicuta maculata - Spotted Water-hemlock G5S50.00
Conoclinium coelestinum - Blue Mistflower G5S50.00
Doellingeria umbellata - Tall Flat-top Aster G5S30.0058
Galium asprellum - Rough Bedstraw G5S20.0460
Lobelia siphilitica - Great Blue Lobelia G5S40.0007
Ludwigia alternifolia - Bushy Seedbox G5S50.00
Mimulus ringens - Allegheny Monkey-flower G5S40.0007
Persicaria sagittata - Arrowleaf Tearthumb G5S50.00
Symphyotrichum puniceum - Purplestem Aster G5S40.0007
Verbesina alternifolia - Wingstem G5S50.00
Vernonia noveboracensis - New York Ironweed G5S50.00
Anaxipha tinnulenta - Slow-Tinkling Trig GNRS40.0007
Neocurtilla hexadactyla - Northern Mole Cricket GNRS4S50.0002
Basilodes pepita - Gold Moth G4SU0.0020
Chionodes mediofuscella - Black-smudged Chionodes Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Eudryas unio - Pearly Wood-nymph Moth G5S40.0007
Papaipema cerussata - Ironweed Borer
Carex vulpinoidea - Fox Sedge G5S50.00
Juncus marginatus - Grassleaf Rush G5S50.00
Juncus scirpoides - Needlepod Rush G5S50.00
Climbing Hempweed -
Glyptemys muhlenbergii
Lycopodioides apodum - Meadow Spikemoss G5S50.00
Spiraea tomentosa - Steeplebush G5S30.0058
Zapus hudsonius - Meadow Jumping Mouse G5S10.3584
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.4219
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 12
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0352
Number of S5 species = 12
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 1.0000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.0000

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2021-12-21 13:55:42