Habitats of North Carolina
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Floodplain Forests
General Cottonwood Forests
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Habitat Overview This group consist primarily of herbivorous species that are specialized on Cottonwoods and Poplars (Populus species). Some feed to some extent on Willows (also in the Salicaceae), but their ranges appear to be most closely determined by the presence of Populus.

Populus species themselves occur in our state from high elevation summits, in the case of Populus grandidentata and a relict population of Populus tremuloides, to bottomlands and coastal swamps in the case of Populus deltoides and P. heterophylla. Only the most widespread species, P. deltoides, is included as one of the defining species, however, since it occurs in most areas where the other members of this habitat occur.

Eastern Cottonwood itself has an oddly disjunct distribution, with many areas of apparently suitable habitat unoccupied. The herbivores have distributions similar to that of the Eastern Cottonwood. Most of these species probably feed all of members of Populus but often occur in just a portion of the entire range of habitats where Populus are present; several are known from only single locations within the state.

Related NHP Natural Communities
Defining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankImperilment ScoreHabitat Risk Index
Acronicta lepusculina - Cottonwood Dagger G5S2S32.060.5825
Apotomis deceptana - Deceptive Apotomis Moth GNRS2S41.490.5000
Catocala amatrix - Sweetheart Underwing G5S41.000.2500
Catocala concumbens - Pink Underwing G5S1S32.840.6650
Catocala marmorata - Marbled Underwing G3G4S1S33.610.6650
Gluphisia septentrionis - Common Gluphisia G5S3S41.080.3750
Ipimorpha pleonectusa - Even-lined Sallow GNRSU1.490.3750
Lobophora nivigerata - Powdered Bigwing Moth G5S1S32.840.6650
Meroptera cviatella - Poplar Bud Borer Moth
Metanema inatomaria - Pale Metanema Moth G5S1S32.840.6650
Notodonta scitipennis - Finned-willow Prominent G5SH5.390.9150
Nycteola metaspilella - Forgotten Frigid Owlet Moth GNRS3S41.080.3750
Pachysphinx modesta - Big Poplar Sphinx G5S1S32.840.6650
Paraleucoptera albella - Cottonwood Leafminer Moth GNRSU1.490.3750
Paranthrene dollii - Poplar Clearwing Moth
Pheosia rimosa - Black-rimmed Prominent G5S1S23.910.7475
Protitame virginalis - Virgin Moth G5S1S32.840.6650
Raphia frater - The Brother G5S3S41.080.3750
Populus deltoides - Eastern Cottonwood G5S41.000.2500
Scaphoideus cylindratus
Sum: 38.88
ENE Value of 9.1100 * (1 - # of S5: 0 / # Species 17) = 9.11
Average of 17: 2.29

Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Populus species/Acronicta lepusculina-Catocala amatrix-Catocala concumbens-Catocala marmorata-Gluphisia septentrionis-Ipimorpha pleonectusa-Lobophora nivigerata-Nycteola metaspilella-Pachysphinx modesta-Paranthrene dollii-Raphia frater)

Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets
Distribution Map
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References Ostry, M.E., L.F. Wilson, H.S. McNabb, and L.M. Moore. 1989. A guide to insect, disease, and animal pests of poplars. Agriculture Handbook 677; USDA Forest Service, 118 p. Available online at: https://bugwoodcloud.org/resource/files/14931.pdf
Updated on 2020-01-10 00:47:53