Habitats of North Carolina
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Floodplain Forests
General Cottonwood Forests
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Habitat Overview This group consist primarily of herbivorous species that are specialized on Cottonwoods and Poplars (Populus species). Some feed to some extent on Willows (also in the Salicaceae), but their ranges appear to be most closely determined by the presence of Populus.

Populus species themselves occur in our state from high elevation summits, in the case of Populus grandidentata and a relict population of Populus tremuloides, to bottomlands and coastal swamps in the case of Populus deltoides and P. heterophylla. Only the most widespread species, P. deltoides, is included as one of the defining species, however, since it occurs in most areas where the other members of this habitat occur.

Eastern Cottonwood itself has an oddly disjunct distribution, with many areas of apparently suitable habitat unoccupied. The herbivores have distributions similar to that of the Eastern Cottonwood. Most of these species probably feed all of members of Populus but often occur in just a portion of the entire range of habitats where Populus are present; several are known from only single locations within the state.

Related NHP Natural Communities
Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Acronicta lepusculina - Cottonwood Dagger G5S2S30.0164
Amphipyra glabella - Smooth Amphipyra Moth G5S1S20.1284
Apotomis deceptana - Deceptive Apotomis Moth GNRS2S40.0058
Catocala amatrix - Sweetheart Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala concumbens - Pink Underwing G5S1S30.0460
Catocala marmorata - Marbled Underwing G3G4S1S30.0460
Gluphisia septentrionis - Common Gluphisia G5S3S40.0020
Ipimorpha pleonectusa - Even-lined Sallow GNRSU0.0020
Lobophora nivigerata - Powdered Bigwing Moth G5S1S30.0460
Meroptera cviatella - Poplar Bud Borer Moth GNRS1S20.1284
Metanema inatomaria - Pale Metanema Moth G5S1S30.0460
Notodonta scitipennis - Finned-willow Prominent G5SH0.00
Pachysphinx modesta - Big Poplar Sphinx G5S1S30.0460
Paraleucoptera albella - Cottonwood Leafminer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Paranthrene dollii - Poplar Clearwing Moth
Pheosia rimosa - Black-rimmed Prominent G5S1S20.1284
Protitame virginalis - Virgin Moth G5S1S30.0460
Raphia frater - The Brother G5S3S40.0020
Populus deltoides - Eastern Cottonwood G5S40.0007
Scaphoideus cylindratus
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.6928
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 17
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0408
Number of S5 species = 0
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.0000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.6928

Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Populus species/Acronicta lepusculina-Catocala amatrix-Catocala concumbens-Catocala marmorata-Gluphisia septentrionis-Ipimorpha pleonectusa-Lobophora nivigerata-Nycteola metaspilella-Pachysphinx modesta-Paranthrene dollii-Raphia frater)

Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets
Distribution Map
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References Ostry, M.E., L.F. Wilson, H.S. McNabb, and L.M. Moore. 1989. A guide to insect, disease, and animal pests of poplars. Agriculture Handbook 677; USDA Forest Service, 118 p. Available online at: https://bugwoodcloud.org/resource/files/14931.pdf
Updated on 2020-01-10 00:47:53