Habitats of North Carolina
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Conifer Forests
General Cedar Woodlands
General Description This habitat consists of dense forests, low woodlands, or thickets that possess populations of either Red Cedars -- (Juniperus virginiana and J. silicicola) -- or Atlantic White Cedars (Chamaecyparis thyoides). As a group, these species occur across a very wide range of soils, hydrologic conditions, and disturbance regimes. Eastern Red Cedar is primarily an upland species, associated with open woodlands, forest edges, and successional habitats, including areas that have been stripped of vegetation. It does best on soils with a fairly high pH and is often abundant on mafic soils, particularly glades with underlying mafic rock formations and where the soil layer is shallow. Conversely, it is absent from much of the sandy, acidic soils of the Coastal Plain. Atlantic White Cedar, on the other hand, occurs only in highly acidic, nutrient poor, saturated, peatland soils (see White Cedar Forests account). Southern Red Cedar occupies still another set of abiotic conditions, found only in the Tidewater region of the Outer Coastal Plain, where it grows in marshes and barrier islands, all with a high exposure to salt spray or saline ground water. As is true for the Eastern Red Cedar, it is often associated with soils having a high nutrient content and pH, in this case provided by calcium-rich shell middens (see Wilhite, 1990). None of these three species survives directly through a fire, but burning may be an important factor keeping their habitats open. As described by Wilhite, fire appears to be a necessary factor in regenerating stands of Southern Red Cedar.

Since none of the cedars occur across the entire range of this habitat, they are consequently not treated as its Determining Species. The species that show the greatest fidelity to this habitat are instead the insect herbivores that are oligophagous on the Cupressaceae. In North Carolina, they feed on all native species in this family, but also may make some use of cultivated species.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Barrier Islands to the Low Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: bottomlands to ridgetops Slope Aspect: all slope aspects as well as flats and ridges. Soil Moisture: xeric to wet. Soil texture: sands, silts, loams, and peats. (b>Soil pH: circumneutral in the case of the Juniperus species; highly acidic in the case of Chamaecyparis. Soil Nutrient Content: poor in White Cedar peatlands but often rich in the habitats used by the Junipers. Microclimate: cool to warm; moist to dry. Fire Frequency: occasional. Drought Frequency: rare to frequent. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated
Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: dense, closed-canopy forests in the case of White Cedar stands; open-canopy in the case of the Junipers. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers are usually poorly developed or absent. Woody debris and leaf litter: logs and fallen branches are common; leaf litter is typically thin since the cedars have small leaves and they are not deciduous.
Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Juniperus species // Aethes rutilana-Argyresthia alternatella-Callophrys gryneus-Choristoneura houstonana-Clastoptera arborina-Coleotechnites albicostata-Dichomeris marginella
Cupressaceae species // Digrammia continuata-Glena plumosaria-Lithophane lemmeri-Macaria multilineata-Patalene olyzonari)


Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
MOTHS
Aethes rutilana GNRSH0.00
Argyresthia alternatella GNRSU0.0020
Choristoneura houstonana - Juniper Budworm Moth GNRSU0.0020
Coleotechnites albicostata - White-edged Coleotechnites Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Dichomeris marginella - Juniper Webworm Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Digrammia continuata - Curve-lined Angle G5S4S50.0002
Glena plumosaria - Dainty Gray Moth G4S40.0007
Glyphidocera juniperella - Juniper Tip Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Lithophane lemmeri - Lemmer's Pinion G3G4S1S30.0460
Macaria multilineata - Many-lined Angle G5S50.00
Patalene olyzonaria - Juniper Geometer Moth G5S50.00
BUTTERFLIES
Callophrys gryneus - Juniper Hairstreak G5S40.0007
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Clastoptera arborina - Red Cedar Spittlebug
Scaphoideus opalinus
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.0540
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 9
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0060
Number of S5 species = 2
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.2222
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.0420

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References Lawson, E.R. 1990. Juniperus virginiana L. eastern redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]. Accessed online at: https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/misc/ag_654_vol1.pdf

Rose, A.H., Lindquist, O.H. and Nystrom, K.L., 1992. Insects of eastern larch, cedar and juniper. Forestry Canada

Wilhite, L.P. 1990. Juniperus silicicola. (Small) Bailey. Southern Redcedar. In: Burns, Russell M.; Honkala, Barbara H., technical coordinators. Silvics of North America. Volume 1. Conifers. Agric. Handb. 654. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 131-140. [13378]. Accessed online at: https://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/misc/ag_654_vol1.pdf

Updated on 2021-12-21 12:45:59