Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Conifer Forests:
« »
Conifer Forests
General Pine Forests and Woodlands
General Description The key factor for this habitat is the presence of Pines of any species. These otherwise include a wide range of environmental conditions: peatlands occupied by Pond Pines; savannas, flatwoods, and sandridges occupied by Longleaf Pines; bottomlands and dry-mesic uplands occupied by Loblollies; dry-mesic slopes supporting White Pines; and dry-xeric ridge tops occupied by Shortleaf, Virginia, Table Mountain, and Pitch Pines. Both purely natural stands and planted pine plantations are included.

None of the Pines, however, occur across this entire range; consequently the Pine species themselves are placed in separate habitats and are not Determining Species for this more generalized type. Instead, the Determining Species include animals, fungi, or other taxa that feed on Pinus species or that are dependent on pines for foraging or shelter.

This particular habitat is broadly distributed across the state. Other habitats that have Pines species as defining habitat factors but that are restricted to smaller regions of the state are treated separately.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: bottomlands to ridgetops Slope Aspect: all slope aspects as well as flats and ridges. Soil Moisture: xeric to wet. Soil texture: sands, silts, loams, and peats. (b>Soil pH: typically acidic but can be circumneutral in brownwater bottomlands. Soil Nutrient Content: usually nutrient poor but rich in brownwater bottomlands. Microclimate: cool to warm; moist to dry. Fire Frequency: rare to frequent. Drought Frequency: rare to frequent. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated; lower strata are usually only partially shaded where Pines are the dominant canopy species.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed- to open-canopy forests with a substantial number of Pines. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers are present to poorly developed or absent. Woody debris and leaf litter: logs and fallen branches are common and loose bark on dead Pines are used as shelter by many species of herps and invertebrates; pine leaf litter can be thickly developed

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Pinus species // Battaristis vittella-Caripeta aretaria -Citheronia sepulcralis-Dasychira manto-Dioryctria amatella-Dioryctria disclusa-Hypagyrtis esther-Lambdina pellucidaria-Lapara coniferarum-Macaria bicolorata-Macaria transitaria-Rhyacionia rigidana-Xestia elimata-Zale obliqua-Callophrys niphon

Determining Species
Arhopalus rusticusGNRSUS2S30.01230
Asemum striatuma Longhorn BeetleG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Monochamus carolinensisCarolina sawyerS4S50.00010
Prionus pocularisPine-stump PrionusGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Acmaeops discoideusSHS1
Setophaga pinusPine WarblerG5S5S50.00000
Sitta pusillaBrown-headed NuthatchG4S5S50.00000
Callophrys niphonEastern Pine ElfinG5S4S40.00041
Aphrophora cribrataPine SpittlebugSNR
Andrognathus corticariusG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Petaserpes strictusSNR
Crambidia lithosioidesDark Gray Lichen Moth
Coleotechnites coniferellaConifer Coleotechnites MothGNRSUS2S40.00407
Lithophane adipela pinion mothG4SUS2S40.00407
Sparganothis bistriataGNRS2S4S2S40.00407
Zale curemaBlack-eyed ZaleG5SUS2S40.00407
Caripeta aretariaSouthern Pine LooperG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Coleotechnites floraeColeotechnites Flower MothGNRSUS3S40.00132
Zale helataBrown-spotted ZaleG5SUS3S40.00132
Zale submedianaGray Spring ZaleG5SUS3S40.00132
Dioryctria disclusaWebbing ConewormGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Dioryctria taedivorellaA pyralid mothGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Melanocinclis lineigeraa cosmet mothGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Retinia houseriMinute Pitch-blister MothGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Citheronia sepulcralisPine DevilG5S4S40.00041
Pococera robustellaPine WebwormGNRS4S40.00041
Zale buchholziBuchholz' ZaleG5S4S40.00041
Zanclognatha marthaPine Barrens ZanclognathaG4S4S40.00041
Argyrotaenia tabulanaLodgepole NeedletierGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Battaristis vittellaa twirler mothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Cydia maritaGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Cydia toreutaEastern Pine Seedworm MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Dioryctria amatellaSouthern Pine ConewormGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Iridopsis vellivolataLarge Purplish Gray MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Panthea furcillaEastern PantheaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Rhyacionia rigidanaPitch Pine Tip MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Tolype notialisSmall TolypeG4G5S4S5S4S50.00010
Xestia elimataSouthern Variable DartG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Zale squamularisGray-Banded ZaleG5S5S4S50.00010
Dasychira mantoManto Tussock MothG5S5S50.00000
Hypagyrtis estherEsther MothG5SUS50.00000
Lambdina pellucidariaYellow-headed Looper Moth, Eastern Pine LooperG5S5S50.00000
Lapara coniferarumPine SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Macaria bicolorataBicolored Angle MothG5S5S50.00000
Macaria transitariaTransitional Angle MothG5S5S50.00000
Zale obliquaOblique ZaleG5S5S50.00000
Hubbellia marginiferaPine KatydidGNRS3S30.00407
Orchelimum minorLesser Pine KatydidGNRSUS3S40.00132
Oecanthus piniPine Tree CricketGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 46
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 45
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 36
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 9
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.20000
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.04485
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00100
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 36 x 0.001 = 0.036

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species One species, Acmaeops discoideus, we rank as SHS1, meaning that the species has not been seen for over 20 years in North Carolina but has not been intensively looked for in the right habitats. All other species in this habitat are ranked lower than S2. The Average PE is equivalent to a State Rank of S3.

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat Nine species in this habitat are considered secure in North Carolina. The Proportion of Secure Species of 20% is moderately low.
Index of Habitat Imperilment The combination of a moderately low value of ENE, a moderately low value of PSS, and no identified Historic or Extirpated Species, makes the value of HRI moderately low, falling within our Tier 4 of
Conservation Concern (0.05 ≥ HRI > 0.005), indicating only a low priority for conservation efforts.
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2023-01-24 21:37:08