Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
   
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
« »
Upland Hardwood Forests
General Mesic Hardwood Forests
General Description This habitat consists of hardwood forests with relatively cool micro-climates and high soil moisture. They occur across the state on north- and east-facing slopes that do not receive full insolation during the warmest part of the day. They also occur in ravines along streams and in the higher, infrequently flooded terraces along larger streams and rivers. In the Mountains, these conditions are generally present in all hardwood forests located above 4,000'.

This habitat is the most generalized of the mesic hardwood habitats, occurring across the state and associated with both loammy and sandy soils, and with moderately low to moderately high pH and soil nutrients.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: slopes and bluffs over most of the state but also on ridges in the Mountains. Slope Aspect: north and east facing in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain but all aspects in the Mountains. Soil Moisture: Mesic. Soil texture: loamy, permitting burrowing by fossorial species; rocks are often present on the surface of slopes and in the mountains extensive areas of talus can be present. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: nutrient poor to rich. Microclimate: Cool and humid. Hydrological Features: springs and seeps are common, particularly at the interface between slopes and bottomlands. Fire Frequency: very rare. Drought Frequency: uncommon to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated, lower strata are deeply shaded.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forests composed of broadleaf, deciduous trees over most of the state but with Eastern Hemlocks prominent in the Mountains . Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers well-defined but often sparse. Woody debris and leaf litter: logs and fallen branches are common; leaf litter can be plentiful, as under deciduous forests in general, but its build-up may be limited due to erosion and general downhill slippage on the steep slopes characteristic of this habitat

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Andersonglossum virginianum // Ethmia trifurcella
Fagus grandifolia // Dasylophia thyatiroides-Epifagus virginiana-Ethmia trifurcella
Hydrangea species // Ecliptopera atricolorata
Liriodendron tulipifera // Callosamia angulifera-Euzophera ostricolorella-Phyllocnistis liriodendronella
Magnoliaceae species // Paralobesia liriodendrana


Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
MOTHS
Acronicta tristis GNRS3S40.0020
Callosamia angulifera - Tulip-tree Silkmoth G5S50.00
Dasylophia thyatiroides - Gray-patched Prominent G5S4S50.0002
Ecliptopera atricolorata - Dark-banded Geometer Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Ethmia trifurcella GNRSU0.0020
Euzophera ostricolorella - Root Collar Borer Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Hydriomena pluviata - Sharp Green Hydriomena Moth G4S3S40.0020
Oneida lunulalis - Orange-tufted Oneida Moth GNRS40.0007
Paralobesia liriodendrana - Tulip-tree Leaftier Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Phyllocnistis liriodendronella GNRS4S50.0002
Zanclognatha laevigata - Variable Zanclognatha Moth G5S4S50.0002
FORBS
Andersonglossum virginianum - Wild Comfrey G5S30.0058
Aplectrum hyemale - Puttyroot G5S40.0007
Epifagus virginiana - Beechdrops G5S50.00
Euonymus americanus - American Strawberry-bush G5S50.00
Galium circaezans - Licorice Bedstraw G5S50.00
Hepatica americana - Round-lobed Hepatica G5S50.00
Stellaria pubera - Star Chickweed G5S50.00
Thalictrum thalictroides - Rue Anemone G5S50.00
Zizia trifoliata - Mountain Golden-Alexanders G5S50.00
SHRUBS
Crataegus calpodendron - Pear Hawthorn G5SH0.00
Hydrangea arborescens - Smooth Hydrangea G5S50.00
Styrax grandifolius - Bigleaf Snowbell G5S40.0007
BEETLES
Elytrimitatrix undata - GNRS4S50.0002
ORTHOPTERANS
Eunemobius confusus - Confused Ground Cricket GNRSU0.0020
HARDWOODS
Fagus grandifolia - American Beech G5S50.00
Liriodendron tulipifera - Tuliptree G5S50.00
Quercus rubra - Northern Red Oak G5S50.00
APHIDS
Grylloprociphilus imbricator
SALAMANDERS
Plethodon cylindraceus
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.0196
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 15
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0013
Number of S5 species = 12
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.8000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.0039

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References
Updated on 2021-12-31 23:45:35