Habitats of North Carolina
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Wet-Mesic Hardwood Forests
General Description This habitat consists of hardwood forests growing on mesic slopes and bottomlands, occurring across the state in association with both nutrient-rich, high pH soils and those that are nutrient-poor and acidic. As such, they are the most generalized of this group of habitats, overlapping those where soil types are restricted to one type of the other, or where the habitats are more restricted to certain geographic areas of the state.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats and occasionally on ridges. Slope Aspect: north and east facing on slopes, otherwise flat. Soil Moisture: Mesic to wet. Soil texture: loamy to silty, permitting burrowing by fossorial species; rocks are often present on the slopes and in the mountains extensive areas of talus can be present. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: nutrient-poor to rich in mafic or calcareous minerals.Microclimate: Cool and humid. Hydrological Features: springs and seeps are common, particularly at the interface between slopes and bottomlands. Flood Frequency: upper slopes usually never flood but lower slopes and bottomlands may flood several times per year. Flood Duration: hours to days in the bottomlands and lower slopes. Fire Frequency: very rare. Drought Frequency: uncommon to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated, lower strata are deeply shaded.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forest composed of broadleaf, deciduous trees. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers are sparse and often very open; never as lush as in the Rich Wet-Mesic Hardwood Forests. Shelter: Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful except in flood channels or other areas frequently scoured by floods.

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Amphicarpaea bracteata // Macrosaccus morrisella
Bottomland Oak species // Phyllonorycter albanotella
Clematis species // Horisme intestinat
Viola species // Eubaphe mendica)


Determining Species
sciNamecomNameg_ranks_rankmod_s_rankprob_of_extirpation
BIRDS
Euphagus carolinusRusty BlackbirdG4S3NS3N
Archilochus colubrisRuby-throated HummingbirdG5S5S50.00000
Empidonax virescensAcadian FlycatcherG5S5S50.00000
Setophaga americanaNorthern ParulaG5S5S50.00000
Setophaga citrinaHooded WarblerG5S5S50.00000
Setophaga ruticillaAmerican RedstartG5S5S50.00000
FORBS
Trillium catesbyiCatesby's Trillium
Arisaema triphyllumJack-in-the-pulpitG5S5S50.00000
Erythronium umbilicatumDimpled Trout-lily, Dimpled Fawn-lily, Yellow Trout-lilyG5S5S50.00000
Eurybia divaricataCommon White Heart-leaved AsterG5S5S50.00000
FROGS
Pseudacris feriarumUpland Chorus FrogG5S5S50.00000
GRAMINOIDS
Carex gracillimaGraceful Sedge
Carex pigraa SedgeGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Carex radiataStellate SedgeG4S4S40.00041
HARDWOODS
Quercus nigraWater OakG5S5S50.00000
MILLIPEDES
Pachydesmus crassicutis incursusa millipedeG5T2SHS1SHS1
Deltotaria leaa millipedeGNRSHS2SHS2
MOTHS
Elaphria cornutinusG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Idia denticulalisToothed Idia MothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Lithophane bethuneiBethune's PinionGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Lithophane groteiGrote's Pinion MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Lithophane petulca Wanton PinionG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Papaipema marginidensa borer mothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Phyllodesma americanaAmerican Lappet MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Leucanthiza amphicarpeaefoliellaGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Macrosaccus morrisellaGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Harrisimemna trisignataHarris's Three-SpotG5S4S40.00041
Perigea xanthioidesRed Groundling MothG5S4S40.00041
Renia new species near discoloralisG4S4S40.00041
Colocasia flavicornisYellowhornG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Colocasia propinquilineaClosebanded YellowhornG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Datana angusiiAngus's DatanaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Horisme intestinataBrown Bark CarpetG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Lithacodia mustaSmall Mossy LithacodiaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Lithophane patefactaDimorphic Pinion MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Oligia modicaBlack-banded BrocadeG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Pseudeustrotia carneolaPink-barred Pseudeustrotia, Pink-barred LithacodiaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Redectis pygmaeaPygmy Redectis MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Renia discoloralisDiscolored ReniaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Sigela brauneataAn erebid mothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Zanclognatha pedipilalisGrayish ZanclognathaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Zanclognatha protumnusalisan erebid mothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Athetis tardaSlowpoke MothG5S5S50.00000
Eubaphe mendicaThe BeggarG5S5S50.00000
Hyperstrotia sectaBlack-patched GrayletG5S5S50.00000
Hyperstrotia villificansWhite-lined GrayletG5S5S50.00000
Lochmaeus bilineataDouble-lined ProminentG5S5S50.00000
Zanclognatha cruralisEarly ZanclognathaG5S5S50.00000
Phyllonorycter albanotellaGNRSUSU0.00202
ORTHOPTERANS
Allonemobius maculatusSpotted Ground CricketGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Orocharis saltatorJumping Bush CricketGNRS5S50.00000
VINES
Vitis baileyanaPossum GrapeGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Amphicarpaea bracteataAmerican Hog-peanutG5S5S50.00000
Bignonia capreolataCrossvineG5S5S50.00000
Gonolobus suberosusAnglepodG5S5S50.00000
Passiflora luteaYellow PassionflowerG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 54
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 51
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 30
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 21
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.41176
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.01654
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00032
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 30 x 0.00032 = 0.0096

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species No S1 or S2 species are included in this habitat and the average probability of extirpation is only 0.00049. Under our model, that is equivalent to a state rank of S4.
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat 21 of the Determining Species of this habitat are considered secure in North Carolina (state ranked as S5). The proportion of these secure species is 0.3962, which is moderately high. This reflects the fact that his habitat is widely distributed across the state, occurring as very large expanses -- e.g., along steep mountain slopes or along river bluffs and floodplains -- or as a large number of smaller but well connected occurrences.


Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks In general, the risks to this habitat are the same as those for the Rich Wet-Mesic Hardwood Forests since they are not specific to soil chemistry, the main factor that distinguishes these two habitats.
Observed Trends See Rich Wet-Mesic Hardwood Forests
Distribution Map
Distribution
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References
Updated on 2021-12-13 12:02:53