Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
Rich Dry-Mesic Hardwood Forests
General Description This habitat consists of upland forests growing on nutrient-rich, high pH soils. The Determining Species are generally intolerant of flooding and are rare to absent in floodplains. The range of this habitat spans the state.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges and slopes; occasionally on mesic flats Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects. Soil Moisture: dry to mesic. Soil texture: primarily loamy. Soil pH: circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: rich in mafic or calcareous minerals.Microclimate: Warm and dry to cool and humid. Hydrological Features: springs and seeps are common, particularly at the interface between slopes and bottomlands. Flood Frequency: lower slopes may rarely flood. Fire Frequency: occasional on ridges and upper slopes. Drought Frequency: occasional. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated, lower strata are deeply shaded.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forest composed of broadleaf, deciduous trees. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers are well developed. Shelter: Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful.

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Cercis canadensis/Erythroneura aclys-Erythroneura fraxa-Fascista cercerisella-Macaria promiscuata) // (Frangula caroliniana/Stigmella rhamnicola // (Ostrya virginiana/Acrobasis ostryella-Coptodisca ostryaefoliella-Phyllonorycter obscuricostella-Phyllonorycter ostryaefoliella-Pyreferra pettiti) // (Phaseolus polystachios/Telegonus cellus) // (Tilia americana/Phyllonorycter lucetiella-Ellida caniplaga-Hypena deceptalis-Empoa venusta-Olethreutes tilianum)

Determining Species
Telegonus cellusGolden Banded-SkipperG4S2S20.03699
Battus philenorPipevine SwallowtailG5S5S50.00000
Anemone berlandieriSouthern AnemoneG4S2S20.03699
Gillenia stipulataMidwestern Indian-physicG5S2S20.03699
Polygala senegaSeneca SnakerootG4G5S2S20.03699
Eupatorium godfreyanumGodfrey's ThoroughwortG4S3S30.00407
Phaseolus polystachiosWild Kidney BeanG5S3S30.00407
Tragia urticifoliaNettle-leaf NoseburnG5S3S30.00407
Boechera canadensisSicklepod, Canada RockcressG5S4S40.00041
Endodeca serpentariaVirginia SnakerootG5S4S40.00041
Viola palmataPalmate-leaved VioletG5S5S50.00000
Fraxinus biltmoreanaBiltmore Ash G5S4S1S20.11107
Quercus muehlenbergiiChinquapin OakG5S2S20.03699
Carya carolinae-septentrionalisSouthern Shagbark HickoryG5S3S30.00407
Cercis canadensisEastern RedbudG5S5S50.00000
Tilia americanaAmerican BasswoodG5S5S50.00000
Empoa venustaSNR
Erythroneura aclysSNR
Erythroneura cancellataSNR
Erythroneura fraxaSNR
Phyllonorycter tiliacellaBasswood Round-blotch Miner
Acrobasis palliolellaMantled Acrobasis MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Pyreferra pettitia sallow mothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Pyreferra slotteniGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Ellida caniplagaLinden ProminentG5S4S40.00041
Macaria promiscuataPromiscuous AngleG4S4S40.00041
Phyllonorycter lucetiellaBasswood Miner MothGNRS4S40.00041
Catocala retectaYellow-gray UnderwingG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Fascista cercerisellaRedbud LeaffolderGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Hypena deceptalisDeceptive Bomolocha, Deceptive HypenaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Pantographa limataBasswood Leafroller MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Coptodisca ostryaefoliellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Olethreutes tilianumBasswood Olethreutes MothGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllonorycter obscuricostellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Phyllonorycter ostryaefoliellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Stigmella rhamnicolaGNRSUSU0.00202
Celtis tenuifoliaGeorgia HackberryG5S3S30.00407
Frangula carolinianaCarolina BuckthornG5S3S30.00407
Viburnum rafinesqueanumDowny ArrowwoodG5S4S40.00041
Corylus americanaAmerican HazelnutG5S5S50.00000
Ostrya virginianaEastern Hop-hornbeamG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 36
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 36
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 30
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 6
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.16667
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.33736
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00937
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 30 x 0.00937 = 0.2811

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2021-12-16 02:04:43