Habitats of North Carolina
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Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
Rich Dry-Mesic Hardwood Forests
General Description This habitat consists of upland forests growing on nutrient-rich, high pH soils. The Determining Species are generally intolerant of flooding and are rare to absent in floodplains. The range of this habitat spans the state.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges and slopes; occasionally on mesic flats Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects. Soil Moisture: dry to mesic. Soil texture: primarily loamy. Soil pH: circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: rich in mafic or calcareous minerals.Microclimate: Warm and dry to cool and humid. Hydrological Features: springs and seeps are common, particularly at the interface between slopes and bottomlands. Flood Frequency: lower slopes may rarely flood. Fire Frequency: occasional on ridges and upper slopes. Drought Frequency: occasional. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated, lower strata are deeply shaded.

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forest composed of broadleaf, deciduous trees. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers are well developed. Shelter: Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful.

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Cercis canadensis/Erythroneura aclys-Erythroneura fraxa-Fascista cercerisella-Macaria promiscuata) // (Frangula caroliniana/Stigmella rhamnicola // (Ostrya virginiana/Acrobasis ostryella-Coptodisca ostryaefoliella-Phyllonorycter obscuricostella-Phyllonorycter ostryaefoliella-Pyreferra pettiti) // (Phaseolus polystachios/Telegonus cellus) // (Tilia americana/Phyllonorycter lucetiella-Ellida caniplaga-Hypena deceptalis-Empoa venusta-Olethreutes tilianum)

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
MOTHS
Acrobasis palliolella - Mantled Acrobasis Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Catocala retecta - Yellow-gray Underwing G5S4S50.0002
Coptodisca ostryaefoliella GNRSU0.0020
Ellida caniplaga - Linden Prominent G5S40.0007
Fascista cercerisella - Redbud Leaffolder Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Hypena deceptalis - Deceptive Bomolocha G5S4S50.0002
Macaria promiscuata - Promiscuous Angle G4S40.0007
Olethreutes tilianum - Basswood Olethreutes Moth GNRSU0.0020
Pantographa limata - Basswood Leafroller Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Phyllonorycter lucetiella - Basswood Miner Moth GNRS40.0007
Phyllonorycter obscuricostella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter ostryaefoliella GNRSU0.0020
Pyreferra pettiti - Pettit's Sallow G5S3S40.0020
Pyreferra slotteni
Stigmella rhamnicola GNRSU0.0020
FORBS
Anemone berlandieri - Ten-petal Anemone G4S20.0460
Boechera canadensis -
Gillenia stipulata - American Ipecac G5S20.0460
Phaseolus polystachios - Thicket Bean G5S30.0058
Polygala senega - Seneca Snakeroot G4G5S20.0460
Tragia urticifolia - Nettleleaf Noseburn G5S30.0058
Viola palmata - Three-lobed Violet G5S50.00
GRAMINOIDS
Carex rosea - Rosy Sedge G5S40.0007
HARDWOODS
Carya carolinae-septentrionalis - Southern Shagbark Hickory G5S30.0058
Cercis canadensis - Eastern Redbud G5S50.00
Quercus muehlenbergii - Chinquapin Oak G5S20.0460
Tilia americana - American Basswood G5S50.00
SHRUBS
Celtis tenuifolia -
Corylus americana - American Hazelnut G5S50.00
Frangula caroliniana - Carolina Buckthorn G5S30.0058
Ostrya virginiana - American Hop-hornbeam G5S50.00
Viburnum rafinesqueanum - Downy Arrowwood G5S40.0007
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Empoa venusta
Erythroneura aclys
Erythroneura cancellata
Erythroneura fraxa
BUTTERFLIES
Telegonus cellus - Golden Banded-Skipper G4S20.0460
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.2715
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 25
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0109
Number of S5 species = 5
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.2000
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.2172

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References
Updated on 2021-12-16 02:04:43