Habitats of North Carolina
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Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Dry-Xeric Hardwood Forests
Habitat Overview This habitat includes dry upland forests composed mainly of oaks and hickories but also including Alleghany Chinquapin, a tree species often found in the same habitats. Some shrubs and herbaceous species are also included, where they occur primarily in association with dry to xeric hardwood forests.

This habitat is fairly widespread, covering at least two of the state's physiographic provinces. In the Coastal Plain, it shares a stronghold in the Sandhills with the Xeric-Mesic, Sandy Oak Woodlands habitat. However, this group also occurs in the Piedmont and Mountains where it is associated with dry ridges and south-facing slopes.

In addition to the hardwood species, this habitat also supports a number of herbivores that are specialists on them. One species, Edwards Hairstreak, belongs to a multiple-symbiotic complex, associated with xeric oaks as its larval food plants but also with species of Formica ants, which tend the larvae in return for their production of honeydew and also do the same for nymphs of Membracid treehoppers, particularly Smilia camelus (Weber and Nielson, 1984).



Related NHP Natural Communities
Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
MOTHS
Acronicta albarufa - Barrens Daggermoth G3G4S1S20.1284
Acronicta lithospila - Streaked Dagger G5S40.0007
Antaeotricha albulella GNRSU0.0020
Antaeotricha decorosella GNRSH
Catocala consors - Consort Underwing G4S10.3584
Catocala herodias - Herodias Underwing G3S10.3584
Catocala similis - Similar Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala ulalume - Ulalume Underwing G4S3S40.0020
Cicinnus melsheimeri - Melsheimer's Sack-bearer Moth G4S30.0058
Heliomata infulata - Rare Spring Moth G3G4S2S30.0164
Hemileuca maia - Buck Moth G5S40.0007
Hyparpax aurora - Pink Prominent G5S40.0007
Hyperstrotia flaviguttata - Yellow-spotted Graylet Moth G4S40.0007
Lytrosis permagnaria G3G4S2S30.0164
Menesta melanella GNRSU0.0020
Morrisonia mucens G4G5S3S40.0020
Nemoria bifilata - White-barred Emerald Moth G4S30.0058
Psaphida styracis - Fawn Sallow G5S40.0007
Renia fraternalis - Fraternal Renia Moth G4S4S5
Stenoporpia polygrammaria - Faded Gray Geometer GUS1S20.1284
Ulolonche modesta - Modest Quaker Moth G5S3S4
Zale calycanthata - Double-banded Zale G5S3S40.0020
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Alebra castaneae G2G3SU
Cyrtolobus inermis
Cyrtolobus ovatus
Smilia camelus
HARDWOODS
Carya pallida - Sand Hickory G5S40.0007
Castanea pumila - Allegheny Chinquapin G5S40.0007
Quercus coccinea - Scarlet Oak G5S50.000000000
Quercus ilicifolia - Bear Oak G5S20.0460
Quercus marilandica - Blackjack Oak G5S50.000000000
Quercus montana - Chestnut Oak G5S50.000000000
Quercus prinoides - Dwarf Chinquapin Oak G5S10.3584
Quercus stellata - Post Oak G5S50.000000000
Quercus velutina - Black Oak G5S50.000000000
BUTTERFLIES
Erynnis brizo - Sleepy Duskywing G5S50.000000000
Satyrium calanus - Banded Hairstreak G5S4S50.0002
Satyrium edwardsii - Edwards' Hairstreak G4S20.0460
Satyrium favonius - Oak Hairstreak G4G5S30.0058
FORBS
Hieracium venosum - Rattlesnake Hawkweed G5S50.000000000
ORTHOPTERANS
Melanoplus nigrescens - Black-sided Spur-throat Grasshopper GUS30.0058
Spharagemon bolli - Boll's Locust G5S4S50.0002
SHRUBS
Robinia hispida - Bristly Locust G5S40.0007
Robinia nana - Dwarf Locust G4S40.0007
MAMMALS
Sciurus niger - Eastern Fox Squirrel G5S30.0058
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 1.5032
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 31
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0485
Number of S5 species = 7
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.2258
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 1.1638

Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Carya species/Catocala consors) // (Carya tomentosa/Catocala ulalume) // (Castanea species-Quercus species/Dyseriocrania griseocapitella) // (Robinia nana-Robinia hispida/Heliomata infulata) // (Quercus ilicifolia/Catocala herodias) // (Xerophytic Oak species/Acronicta albarufa-Cicinnus melsheimeri-Hemileuca maia-Hyparpax aurora-Hyperstrotia flaviguttata-Psaphida styracis-Erynnis brizo-Satyrium edwardsii-Satyrium favonius-Cyrtolobus inermis-Cyrtolobus ovatus-Smilia camelus). Mutualistic Symbioses (tentative): (Satyrium edwardsii/Formica integra/Smilia camelus).


Candidates for Inclusion
Habitat Sub-sets
Distribution Map
Distribution
Survey Coverage Map
Survey Coverage
Survey Priorities
Average Imperilment of Habitat Members
Habitat Conservation Status
High Quality Habitat Occurrence Table
High Quality Habitat Occurrences
Protected Habitat Occurrences
Threats and Trends
Status Summary
Stewardship Recommendations
References Webster, R.P. and Nielsen, M.C., 1984. Myrmecophily in the Edward's hairstreak butterfly Satyrium edwardsii(Lycaenidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists Society, 38(2):124-133. Accessible online at: http://images.peabody.yale.edu/lepsoc/jls/1980s/1984/1984-38(2)124-Webster.pdf

Updated on 2019-12-26 17:42:06