Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
Rich Montane Hardwood Forests
No image for this habitat.
General Description Members of this habitat are associated with hardwood forests growing on nutrient-rich substrates. Most are associated with mesic mountain coves but at least some occur on ridges where mafic or calcareous formations are present. A few, such as Butternut, are associated with riparian forests with rich alluvial soils.

As in other montane habitats, several of the Determining Species are primarily northern in their distribution, occupying disjunct sites in the Southern Appalachians where they survived the Ice Age. A number of other species, however, have the majority of their ranges located west of the Appalachians, where they are associated with the limestone and other sedimentary rock formations laid down in the inland seas of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. Although the mountains of North Carolina have only a few scattered outcrops of limestone or dolomite, the basophilic plant species of this habitat are able to make use of mafic substrates as well as those derived from Amphibolite and other metamorphic rocks that are rich in minerals. The ranges of these species, however, are essentially confined to the Mountains in North Carolina, although in some cases, there do not appear to be any climatic restrictions that keep them from occupying mafic soil habitats in the Piedmont.

The animal members of this habitat are all specialist herbivores on the Determining Plant species. Like the plants, these species are confined to the Mountains, even though in some cases -- e.g., the Nettle- or Basswood-feeding species -- their host plants have ranges that extend much farther to the east. Most have their centers of distribution located west of the Appalachians, including the Ohio River drainages, with some extending north into the Great Lakes region or Canada.

Abiotic Factors
Biotic Structure
Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses: (Acer saccharum/Cameraria aceriella) // (Aesculus flava/Lithophane joannis-Olethreutes appalachiana-Olethreutes monetiferanum-Olethreutes ochrosuffusanum-Olethreutes sciotana-Zeiraphera claypoleana) // (Collisonia canadensis/Papaipema astuta)// (Prunus serotina/Papilio appalachiensis) // (Nettle species/Abrostola ovalis-Abrostola urentis-Hypena edictalis) // (Tilia americana/Catocala cerogama-Hypena deceptalis)

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Abrostola ovalis - Oval Abrostola Moth G4SU0.0020
Abrostola urentis - Spectacled Nettle Moth G4SH0.00
Cameraria aceriella - Maple Leaf Blotch Miner Moth GNRS3-S5
Catastega aceriella - Maple Trumpet Skeletonizer Moth GNRS40.0007
Catocala cerogama - Yellow-banded Underwing G5S3S40.0020
Catocala habilis - Habilis Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala judith - Judith's Underwing G5S2S30.0164
Catocala serena - Serene Underwing G5S3S40.0020
Hydrelia condensata GNRS2S30.0164
Hypena edictalis - Large Bomolocha G4S40.0007
Lithophane joannis - Buckeye Pinion G4SU0.0020
Olethreutes appalachiana GNRSU0.0020
Olethreutes monetiferanum GNRSU0.0020
Olethreutes ochrosuffusanum GNRSU0.0020
Olethreutes sciotana GNRSU0.0020
Papaipema astuta - Yellow Stoneroot Borer G2G4S1S20.1284
Papaipema cerina - Golden Borer G2G4S1S20.1284
Polychrysia morigera G4S2S30.0164
Zeiraphera claypoleana - Buckeye Petiole Borer Moth GNRS2S40.0058
Acer saccharum - Sugar Maple G5S50.00
Aesculus flava - Yellow Buckeye G5S50.00
Cladrastis kentukea - Kentucky Yellowwood G4S2S30.0164
Juglans cinerea - Butternut G3S2S30.0164
Aconitum reclinatum - White Monkshood G3G4S30.0058
Actaea podocarpa - Mountain Bugbane G4S40.0007
Astilbe biternata - False Goat's-beard G4G5S30.0058
Coreopsis latifolia - Broadleaf Tickseed G3S30.0058
Frasera caroliniensis - American Columbo G5S20.0460
Heuchera hispida - Hispid Alumroot G3S10.3584
Hydrastis canadensis - Goldenseal G3G4S30.0058
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum - Largeleaf Waterleaf G5S30.0058
Isotrema macrophyllum - Pipevine G5S40.0007
Jeffersonia diphylla - Twinleaf G5S10.3584
Polymnia canadensis - White-flowered Leafcup G5S20.0460
Prosartes lanuginosa - Yellow Mandarin G5S50.00
Ranunculus allegheniensis - Allegheny Mountain Buttercup G4G5S20.0460
Sanicula trifoliata - Largefruit Black-snakeroot G4S30.0058
Silene ovata - Blue Ridge Catchfly G3S30.0058
Solidago flexicaulis - Zigzag Goldenrod G5S2S30.0164
Stachys nuttallii - Nuttall's Hedge-nettle G5S10.3584
Trillium simile - Sweet White Trillium G3S20.0460
Viola appalachiensis - Appalachian Violet G4S20.0460
Carex albursina - White Bear Sedge G5S20.0460
Carex careyana - Carey's Sedge G4G5S10.3584
Carex leptonervia - Nerveless Woodland Sedge G5S30.0058
Carex platyphylla - Broadleaf Sedge G5S2S30.0164
Carex radfordii - Radford's Sedge G3S10.3584
Carex woodii - Pretty Sedge G4S30.0058
Celastrina neglectamajor - Appalachian Azure G4S3S40.0020
Celastrina nigra - Dusky Azure G4S20.0460
Pieris virginiensis - West Virginia White G3G4S3S40.0020
Pterourus appalachiensis - Appalachian Tiger Swallowtail G4S40.0007
Philadelphus hirsutus - Hairy Mock-orange G5S20.0460
Typhlocyba modesta
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 2.6138
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 48
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0545
Number of S5 species = 3
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.0625
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 2.4504

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2021-12-06 16:03:54