Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
   
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
Rich Montane Hardwood Forests
No image for this habitat.
General Description Members of this habitat are associated with hardwood forests growing on nutrient-rich substrates. Most are associated with mesic mountain coves but at least some occur on ridges where mafic or calcareous formations are present. A few, such as Butternut, are associated with riparian forests with rich alluvial soils.

As in other montane habitats, several of the Determining Species are primarily northern in their distribution, occupying disjunct sites in the Southern Appalachians where they survived the Ice Age. A number of other species, however, have the majority of their ranges located west of the Appalachians, where they are associated with the limestone and other sedimentary rock formations laid down in the inland seas of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic Eras. Although the mountains of North Carolina have only a few scattered outcrops of limestone or dolomite, the basophilic plant species of this habitat are able to make use of mafic substrates as well as those derived from Amphibolite and other metamorphic rocks that are rich in minerals. The ranges of these species, however, are essentially confined to the Mountains in North Carolina, although in some cases, there do not appear to be any climatic restrictions that keep them from occupying mafic soil habitats in the Piedmont.

The animal members of this habitat are all specialist herbivores on the Determining Plant species. Like the plants, these species are confined to the Mountains, even though in some cases -- e.g., the Nettle- or Basswood-feeding species -- their host plants have ranges that extend much farther to the east. Most have their centers of distribution located west of the Appalachians, including the Ohio River drainages, with some extending north into the Great Lakes region or Canada.

Abiotic Factors
Biotic Structure
Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Acer saccharum // Cameraria aceriella
Aesculus flava // Lithophane joannis-Olethreutes appalachiana-Olethreutes monetiferanum-Olethreutes ochrosuffusanum-Olethreutes sciotana-Zeiraphera claypoleana
Collisonia canadensis // Papaipema astuta
Prunus serotina // Papilio appalachiensis
Nettle species // Abrostola ovalis-Abrostola urentis-Hypena edictalis
Tilia americana // Catocala cerogama-Hypena deceptalis


Determining Species
sciNamecomNameg_ranks_rankmod_s_rankprob_of_extirpation
BUTTERFLIES
Celastrina nigraDusky AzureG4S2S20.03699
Celastrina neglectamajorAppalachian AzureG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Pieris virginiensisWest Virginia WhiteG3G4S3S4S3S40.00132
Pterourus appalachiensisAppalachian Tiger SwallowtailG4S4S40.00041
FORBS
Trillium discolorMottled Trillium
Trillium flexipesBent White Trillium
Trillium luteumYellow Trillium
Trillium sulcatumBarksdale Trillium
Trillium vaseyiVasey's Trillium
Heuchera hispidaHispid AlumrootG3S1S10.33330
Jeffersonia diphyllaTwin LeafG5S1S10.33330
Stachys nuttalliiHeartleaf Hedge-nettleG5S1S10.33330
Frasera caroliniensisColumboG5S2S20.03699
Polymnia canadensisCanada Leaf-cupG5S2S20.03699
Ranunculus allegheniensisAllegheny Mountain ButtercupG4G5S2S20.03699
Trillium simileSweet White TrilliumG3S2S20.03699
Viola appalachiensisAppalachian VioletG4S2S20.03699
Solidago flexicaulisBroad-leaved GoldenrodG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Aconitum reclinatumTrailing WolfsbaneG3G4S3S30.00407
Astilbe biternataFalse Goat's-beardG4G5S3S30.00407
Coreopsis latifoliaBroadleaf CoreopsisG3S3S30.00407
Hydrastis canadensisGoldensealG3G4S3S30.00407
Hydrophyllum macrophyllumLargeleaf WaterleafG5S3S30.00407
Sanicula trifoliataLarge-fruited SanicleG4S3S30.00407
Silene ovataMountain CatchflyG3S3S30.00407
Actaea podocarpaMountain Black-cohosh, Late Black-cohoshG4S4S40.00041
Isotrema macrophyllumPipevine, Dutchman's-pipeG5S4S40.00041
Prosartes lanuginosaYellow Mandarin, Yellow FairybellsG5S5S50.00000
GRAMINOIDS
Carex careyanaCarey's SedgeG4G5S1S10.33330
Carex radfordiiRadford's SedgeG3S1S10.33330
Carex albursinaWhite Bear SedgeG5S2S20.03699
Carex platyphyllaBroad-leaved SedgeG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Carex leptonerviaa wood sedgeG5S3S30.00407
Carex woodiiWood's SedgeG4S3S30.00407
HARDWOODS
Cladrastis kentukeaYellowwoodG4S2S3S2S30.01230
Juglans cinereaButternutG3S2S3S2S30.01230
Acer saccharumSugar MapleG5S5S50.00000
Aesculus flavaYellow BuckeyeG5S5S50.00000
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Typhlocyba modestaSNR
MOTHS
Papaipema astutaYellow Stoneroot BorerG2G4S1S2S1S20.11107
Papaipema cerinaGolden BorerG2G4S1S2S1S20.11107
Catocala judithan underwing mothG5S2S3S2S30.01230
Hydrelia condensataA carpetGNRS2S3S2S30.01230
Polychrysia morigeraG4S2S3S2S30.01230
Zeiraphera claypoleanaBuckeye Petiole Borer MothGNRS2S4S2S40.00407
Cameraria aceriellaMaple Leaf Blotch Miner MothGNRS3-S5S3-S5
Catocala cerogamaan underwing mothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Catocala serenaan underwing mothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Catastega aceriellaMaple Trumpet Skeletonizer MothGNRS4S40.00041
Catocala habilisan underwing mothG5S4S40.00041
Hypena edictalisLarge Bomolocha, Large HypenaG4S4S40.00041
Abrostola urentisSpectacled Nettle MothG4SHSH
Abrostola ovalisa looper mothG4SUSU0.00202
Lithophane joannisBuckeye PinionG4SUSU0.00202
Olethreutes appalachianaGNRSUSU0.00202
Olethreutes monetiferanumGNRSUSU0.00202
Olethreutes ochrosuffusanumGNRSUSU0.00202
Olethreutes sciotanaGNRSUSU0.00202
SHRUBS
Philadelphus hirsutusStreambank Mock OrangeG5S2S20.03699
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 53
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 51
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 1
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 48
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 3
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.05882
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 2.33122
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.04571
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 49 x 0.04571 = 2.23979

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References
Updated on 2022-01-01 00:27:55