Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
« »
Upland Hardwood Forests
General Oak-Hickory Forests
No image for this habitat.
General Description This habitat comprises all forests that contain species of oaks or hickories. This general category spans a wide range of environmental conditions, from mesic, high elevation forests containing North Red Oaks, to hot, dry maritime forests on the Barrier Islands that support Live Oaks. Both closed-canopy stands are included as well as relative open woodlands; stands growing on uplands are represented as well as those growing in bottomlands or even swamps. No distinction is made relative to soil nutrients or pH.

No single species of oak or hickory spans this entire range. Consequently, the trees that are the key feature of this habitat are themselves members of habitats to which they show much higher individual fidelity. The Determining Species of this habitat are instead primarily stenophagous herbivores that specialize on oak or hickories at the generic level. Additionally included are a few species of mammals that are dependent on acorns and/or hickory nuts for a large part of their diet. Although less specific than the relationship between the herbivores and their host species, nut feeding species also belong to a long-co-evolved relationship with their food plants, serving as major dispersers of the trees' seeds.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet; more rarely hydric. Soil texture: loamy, sandy, to alluvial. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to relatively poor.Microclimate: Warm and dry to cool and humid. Hydrological Features: springs, seeps, and streams are common; some examples occur along river shorelines Flood Frequency: ridges and upper slopes usually never flood but lower slopes and bottomlands may flood several times per year. Flood Duration: hours to days in the bottomlands and lower slopes; permanent in the swamps occupied by Overcup Oak Fire Frequency: frequent in the sandhills but rare in the bottomlands and mesic slopes. Drought Frequency: occasional on upper slopes, rare in bottomlands. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: most Maples are tolerant of shade and Red Maple in particular is also tolerant of sun, being a common pioneering species in old field succession.

Biotic Structure Key Species one or mores species of Quercus or Carya must be present Vegetation Type: open woodlands or closed-canopy forests. Strata: sparse to well-developed. Shelter: woody debris and leaf litter are generally plentiful

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Carya species // Acrobasis caryae-Acrobasis caryalbella-Acrobasis exsulella-Acrobasis stigmella-Acrobasis tumidulella-Catocala dejecta-Catocala epione-Catocala lacrymosa-Catocala palaeogama-Catocala vidua-Coptodisca lucifluella-Ectoedemia trinotata-Eratoneura era-Eratoneura osborni-Phyllonorycter caryaealbella-Stigmella caryaefoliella
Carya tomentosa// Acrobasis elyi
Fagaceae species // Acronicta increta-Acronicta ovata-Cameraria castaneaeella-Coptotriche citrinipennella-Coptotriche fuscomarginella-Coptotriche zelleriella-Ophiderma definita-Dyseriocrania griseocapitella-Macrurocampa marthesia-Meganola phylla-Neurobathra strigifinitella-Oligocentria lignicolor-Panopoda rufimargo-Pseudexentera haracana-Psilocorsis quercicella-Symmerista albifrons-Symmerista canicosta-Tischeria quercitella
Juglandaceae species // Acrobasis caryaevorella-Cameraria caryaefoliella-Catocala flebilis
Quercus alba // Acronicta exilis-Acronicta immodica-Acronicta modica-Cameraria hamadryadella-Coptotriche badiiella-Cyrtolobus flavolatus-Ossiannilssonola tunicarubra
Quercus species // Acrobasis minimella-Acrocercops albinatella-Acronicta afflicta-Acronicta increta-Acronicta lobeliae-Acronicta ovata- Anisota virginiensis-Antaeotricha humilis-Antaeotricha osseella-Antaeotricha schlaegeri-Archasia auriculata- Archasia pallida-Arogalea cristifasciella-Blastobasis glandulella-Bucculatrix ainsliella-Cameraria fletcherella- Cameraria cincinnatiella-Cameraria conglomeratella-Cameraria quercivorella-Catastega timidella-Catocala amica-Catocala connubialis-Catocala ilia-Catocala lineella-Catocala micronympha-Catocala umbrosa-Cissusa spadix-Coleotechnites quercivorella-Coptotriche castaneaeella-Cosmia calami-Cyclophora packardi-Cyrtolobus arcuatus-Cyrtolobus auroreus-Cyrtolobus dixianus-Cyrtolobus fenestratus-Cyrtolobus fuliginosus-Cyrtolobus fuscipennis-Cyrtolobus griseus-Cyrtolobus maculifrontis-Cyrtolobus pallidifrontis-Cyrtolobus togatus-Cyrtolobus tuberosus-Cyrtolobus vau-Ectoedemia similella-Empoa casta-Empoa rubricola-Eratoneura stephensoni-Erynnis juvenalis-Eutettix pictus-Glossonotus univittatus-Heterocampa obliqua-Heterocampa umbrata-Hyperstrotia secta-Meganola minuscula-Meganola spodia-Pubitelphusa latifasciella-Ophiderma evelyna-Ophiderma flavicephala-Ophiderma pubescens-Ophiderma salamandra-Ossiannilssonola australis-Ossiannilssonola berenice-Paraeschra georgica-Penthimia Americana-Peridea angulosa-Phoberia atomaris-Povolnya quercinigrella-Psaphida grandis-Psaphida resumens-Psaphida rolandi-Psaphida thaxterianus-Phyllonorycter aeriferella-Phyllonorycter argentifimbriella-Phyllonorycter basistrigella-Phyllonorycter fitchella-Phyllonorycter quercialbella-Rectiostoma xanthobasis-Rugosana querci-Stigmella quercipulchella-Stigmella sclerostylota-Telamona projecta-Telamona reclivata

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Acrobasis caryae - Hickory Shoot Borer Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Acrobasis caryaevorella - Hickory Shoot Moth GNRSU0.0020
Acrobasis caryalbella GNRS3S40.0020
Acrobasis elyi GNRSU0.0020
Acrobasis exsulella - Cordovan Pyralid Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Acrobasis minimella GNRS3S50.0007
Acrobasis stigmella GNRS3S40.0020
Acrobasis tumidulella GNRS3S50.0007
Acrocercops albinatella GNRSU0.0020
Acronicta afflicta - Afflicted Dagger G5S50.00
Acronicta exilis - Exiled Dagger G4S40.0007
Acronicta immodica - Medium Dagger G5S50.00
Acronicta increta - Southern Oak Dagger G5S50.00
Acronicta lobeliae - Greater Oak Dagger G5S50.00
Acronicta modica - Hesitant Dagger G5S50.00
Acronicta ovata - Ovate Dagger G5S4S50.0002
Anisota senatoria - Orange-tipped Oakworm Moth G5S40.0007
Anisota stigma - Spiny Oakworm Moth G5S50.00
Anisota virginiensis - Pink-striped Oakworm Moth G5S50.00
Antaeotricha humilis - Dotted Anteotricha Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Antaeotricha osseella GNRSH0.00
Antaeotricha schlaegeri - Schlaeger's Fruitworm Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Arogalea cristifasciella - Stripe-backed Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Blastobasis glandulella - Acorn Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Bucculatrix ainsliella - Oak Skeletonizer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria caryaefoliella - Pecan Leafminer Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Cameraria castaneaeella GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria cincinnatiella - Gregarious Oak Leafminer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria conglomeratella GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria fletcherella GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria hamadryadella - Solitary Oak Leafminer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria obstrictella GNRS2S30.0164
Cameraria quercivorella GNRSU0.0020
Catastega timidella - Oak Trumpet Skeletonizer Moth GNRS3-S4
Catocala amica - Girlfriend Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala coccinata - Scarlet Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala connubialis - Connubial Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala dejecta - Dejected Underwing G4S40.0007
Catocala epione - Epione Underwing G5S50.00
Catocala flebilis - Mourning Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala ilia - Ilia Underwing G5S50.00
Catocala insolabilis - Inconsolable Underwing G5S3S40.0020
Catocala lacrymosa - Tearful Underwing G5S4S50.0002
Catocala lineella - Little Lined Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala micronympha - Little Nymph Underwing G5S4S50.0002
Catocala palaeogama - Oldwife Underwing G5S40.0007
Catocala sappho - Sappho Underwing G4SU0.0020
Catocala umbrosa - Umber Underwing G5SU0.0020
Catocala vidua - Widow Underwing G5S4S50.0002
Cissusa spadix - Black-dotted Brown Moth G4S40.0007
Coleotechnites quercivorella GNRS4S50.0002
Coptodisca lucifluella GNRSU0.0020
Coptotriche badiiella GNRSU0.0020
Coptotriche castaneaeella GNRSU0.0020
Coptotriche citrinipennella GNRS4S50.0002
Coptotriche fuscomarginella GNRSU0.0020
Coptotriche zelleriella GNRS4S50.0002
Cosmia calami - American Dun-bar Moth G5S4S50.0002
Cyclophora packardi - Packard's Wave Moth G4G5S4S50.0002
Datana contracta - Contracted Datana Moth G5S4S50.0002
Datana integerrima - Walnut Caterpillar Moth G5S50.00
Dyseriocrania griseocapitella - Chinquapin Leaf-miner Moth GNRS2S40.0058
Ectoedemia similella GNRSU0.0020
Ectoedemia trinotata GNRSU0.0020
Heterocampa obliqua - Oblique Heterocampa G5S50.00
Heterocampa umbrata - White-blotched Heterocampa G5S50.00
Hydriomena transfigurata - Transfigured Hydriomena Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Hyperstrotia pervertens - Dotted Graylet Moth G5S50.00
Hypsopygia olinalis - Yellow-fringed Dolichomia Moth G5S50.00
Lacosoma chiridota - Scalloped Sack-bearer Moth G5S4S50.0002
Macrurocampa marthesia - Mottled Prominent G5S50.00
Meganola minuscula - Confused Meganola G5S50.00
Meganola phylla - Coastal Plain Meganola GNRS50.00
Meganola spodia - Ashy Meganola G5S40.0007
Neurobathra strigifinitella GNRS4-S5
Oligocentria lignicolor - White-streaked Prominent G5S50.00
Panopoda carneicosta - Brown Panopoda Moth G5S50.00
Panopoda rufimargo - Red-lined Panopoda Moth G5S50.00
Paraeschra georgica - Georgian Prominent G5S50.00
Peridea angulosa - Angulose Prominent G5S50.00
Phoberia atomaris - Common Oak Moth G5S50.00
Phyllonorycter aeriferella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter argentifimbriella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter basistrigella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter caryaealbella - Pecan Blotchminer Moth GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter fitchella GNRSU0.0020
Phyllonorycter quercialbella GNRSU0.0020
Povolnya quercinigrella GNRS3S50.0007
Psaphida grandis - Gray Sallow G4S3S40.0020
Psaphida resumens - Figure-Eight Sallow GNRS40.0007
Psaphida rolandi - Roland's Sallow G5S40.0007
Psaphida thaxterianus - Thaxter's Sallow G4S3S40.0020
Pseudexentera haracana
Psilocorsis quercicella - Oak Leaftier Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Pubitelphusa latifasciella - White-banded Telphusa Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Rectiostoma xanthobasis - Yellow-vested Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Stigmella caryaefoliella GNRSU0.0020
Stigmella quercipulchella GNRSU0.0020
Stigmella sclerostylota GNRSU0.0020
Symmerista albifrons - White-headed Prominent G5S50.00
Symmerista canicosta - Red-humped Oakworm Moth G5S40.0007
Tischeria quercitella - Oak Blotch Miner Moth GNRSU0.0020
Archasia auriculata
Archasia pallida
Cyrtolobus arcuatus
Cyrtolobus auroreus
Cyrtolobus dixianus
Cyrtolobus fenestratus
Cyrtolobus flavolatus
Cyrtolobus fuliginosus
Cyrtolobus fuscipennis
Cyrtolobus griseus
Cyrtolobus maculifrontis
Cyrtolobus pallidifrontis
Cyrtolobus togatus
Cyrtolobus tuberosus
Cyrtolobus vau
Empoa casta
Empoa rubricola
Eratoneura era
Eratoneura osborni
Eratoneura stephensoni
Eutettix pictus
Glossonotus univittatus
Ophiderma definita
Ophiderma evelyna
Ophiderma flavicephala
Ophiderma pubescens
Ophiderma salamandra
Ossiannilssonola australis
Ossiannilssonola berenice
Ossiannilssonola tunicarubra
Penthimia americana
Rugosana querci
Smilia fasciata
Telamona projecta
Telamona reclivata
Carya glabra - Pignut Hickory G5S50.00
Carya tomentosa - Mockernut Hickory G5S50.00
Quercus alba - White Oak G5S50.00
Erynnis juvenalis - Juvenal's Duskywing G5S50.00
Glaucomys volans - Southern Flying Squirrel G5S50.00
Peromyscus leucopus - White-footed Deermouse G5S50.00
Sciurus carolinensis - Eastern Gray Squirrel G5S50.00
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.1083
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 74
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0015
Number of S5 species = 31
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 0.4189
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = 0.0629

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-01-02 16:06:10