Habitats of North Carolina
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Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Hardwood Forests
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General Description The presence of hardwood trees is the defining feature of this habitat. Oaks and hickories are common species but this habitat also includes species typical of northern hardwoods, mesic mixed forest, and mixtures of hardwoods and conifers. Species that are still more generalized -- making significant use of conifers as well as hardwoods -- are treated under the General Forests habitat. Species that use of shrub species that occur in forests and/or shrublands are treated under General Forests and Shrublands.

Closed canopy forests as well as more open woodlands are included, as are both upland and lowland stands. Soil chemistry is not a factor for this habitat, with examples occurring on both mafic and acidic substrates.

Determining Species include a small number of plants, such as Witch Hazel and Virginia Heartleaf, that occur in both dry Oak-Hickory forests as well as Mesic Mixed Hardwood forests. A few insect herbivores that specialize on those plants are also included as Determining Species of this habitat.

A much larger group of herbivores are the species that feed on a broad range of hardwood trees, including a number of different families of Dicots. Another another large group that are predatory or omnivorous species that are associated with the structural features of hardwood forests.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: swamps to ridgetops Slope Aspect: all slope aspects as well as flats and ridges. Soil Moisture: xeric to hydric. Soil texture: all types that support species of hardwoods. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: nutrient poor to rich. Microclimate: cool to warm; moist to dry. Fire Frequency: rare to frequent. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated; lower strata vary from deeply to partially shaded

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed- to open canopy forests composed of broadleaf, deciduous trees, occurring over the entire state. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers present to poorly developed or absent. Organic Shelter, Foraging, and Nesting Structures: logs and fallen branches are common; leaf litter is usually plentiful

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Hamamelis virginiana // Acronicta hamamelis-Cameraria hamameliella-Caloptilia superbifrontella-Drasteria grandirena-Nola triquetrana-Olethreutes hamameliana-Pseudexentera costomaculana
Tremex columba // Megarhyssa atrata-Megarhyssa greenei-Megarhyssa macrurus-


Mutualistic Symbioses:
Tremex columba // Cerrena unicolor

Determining Species
sciNamecomNameg_ranks_rankmod_s_rankprob_of_extirpation
BEETLES
Sphenostethus tasleia longhorn beetleGNRS2S3S2S30.01230
Parandra politaGNRSUS2S40.00407
Heterachthes quadrimaculatusS3S40.00132
Anelaphus parallelusa Longhorn BeetleG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Mallodon dasystomusHardwood Stump BorerGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Prionus laticollisBroad-necked Root BorerGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Cicindela sexguttataSix-spotted tiger beetleG5S5S50.00000
BIRDS
Hylocichla mustelinaWood ThrushG4S4S40.00041
Vireo flavifronsYellow-throated VireoG5S4S40.00041
Baeolophus bicolorTufted TitmouseG5S5S50.00000
Coccyzus americanusYellow-billed CuckooG5S5S50.00000
Cyanocitta cristataBlue JayG5S5S50.00000
Meleagris gallopavoWild TurkeyG5S5S50.00000
Piranga olivaceaScarlet TanagerG5S5S50.00000
Polioptila caeruleaBlue-gray GnatcatcherG5S5S50.00000
Seiurus aurocapillaOvenbirdG5S5S50.00000
Sitta carolinensisWhite-breasted NuthatchG5S5S50.00000
Vireo olivaceusRed-eyed VireoG5S5S50.00000
BUTTERFLIES
Limenitis arthemis astyanaxRed-spotted PurpleG5S5S50.00000
FORBS
Amorpha schweriniiPiedmont Indigo-bushG3G4S3S30.00407
Hexastylis minorLittle HeartleafG4G5S4S40.00041
Hexastylis virginicaVirginia HeartleafG4SNRS40.00041
Oxalis violaceaViolet Wood-sorrelG5S4S40.00041
Chimaphila maculataSpotted WintergreenG5S5S50.00000
Hylodesmum nudiflorumNaked Tick-trefoil G5S5S50.00000
FROGS
Hyla versicolorGray TreefrogG5S2S20.03699
Anaxyrus americanusEastern American ToadG5S5S50.00000
Hyla chrysoscelisCope's Gray TreefrogG5S5S50.00000
FUNGI
Cerrena unicolorSNR
HEMIPTERAN HOPPERS
Eratoneura stoveriS2S40.00407
HORNTAILS
Tremex columbaPigeon tremex, Pigeon horntailSNR
ICHNEUMONID WASPS
Megarhyrssa greeneiSNR
Megarhyrssa macrurusSNR
Megarhyssa atrataGiant IchnuemonSNR
MAMMALS
Tamias striatusEastern ChipmunkG5S5S50.00000
MILLIPEDES
Sigmoria latior latior S3S40.00132
MOTHS
Pococera asperatellaMaple Webworm
Olethreutes hamamelianaGNRSUS2S30.01230
Caloptilia superbifrontellaGNRSUS2S40.00407
Drasteria grandirenaFigure-seven Moth, Great KidneyG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Idia scobialisSmoky Idia MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Paraclemensia acerifoliellaMaple Leafcutter MothGNRSUS3S40.00132
Philonome clemensellaa mothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Pseudexentera costomaculanaGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Renia flavipunctalisYellow-spotted Renia MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Antaeotricha leucillanaWell-marked Fruit WormGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Cameraria hamameliellaGNRSUS3S50.00041
Psilocorsis cryptolechiellaBlack-fringed PsilocorsisGNRS3S5S3S50.00041
Ennomos magnariaMaple SpanwormG5S4S40.00041
Ennomos subsignariaElm Spanworm, Snow-white LindenG5S4S40.00041
Isochaetes beutenmuelleriBeutenmueller's Slug MothG4S4S40.00041
Nola triquetranaThree-spotted NolaG5S4S40.00041
Plagodis phlogosariaStraight-lined PlagodisG5S4S40.00041
Selenia kentariaKent's GeometerG5S4S40.00041
Tortricidia testaceaa slug caterpillar mothG4S4S40.00041
Adoneta spinuloidesSpinulose Slug MothG4G5S4S5S4S50.00010
Apoda y-inversumYellow-collared Slug MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Euchlaena irrariaLeast-marked EuchlaenaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Lithophane antennataAshen Pinion MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Machimia tentoriferellaGold-Striped LeaftierGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Metalectra quadrisignataFour-Spotted Fungus MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Metalectra richardsiRichard's Fungus MothG4S4S5S4S50.00010
Nigetia formosalisThin-winged OwletG4S4S5S4S50.00010
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroidesTufted ThyatirinG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Psilocorsis reflexellaFour-dotted PsilocorsisGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Renia factiosalisSociable Renia MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Sericaglaea signataVariable SallowS4S50.00010
Tetracis crocallataYellow Slant-LineG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Zanclognatha jacchusalisYellowish ZanclognathaG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Zanclognatha marcidilineaYellowish Zanclognatha MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Acronicta americanaAmerican Dagger MothG5S5S50.00000
Acronicta impletaYellow-haired Dagger MothG5S5S50.00000
Actias lunaLuna MothG5S5S50.00000
Amorpha juglandisWalnut SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Amphipyra pyramidoidesPyramidal fruitwormG5S5S50.00000
Antheraea polyphemusPolyphemus MothG5S5S50.00000
Apoda biguttataa slug caterpillar mothG5S5S50.00000
Besma quercivorariaOak BesmaG5S5S50.00000
Charadra deridensThe LaugherG5S5S50.00000
Chytolita morbidalis Morbid OwletG5S5S50.00000
Dichomeris ligulellaPalmerworm MothGNRS5S50.00000
Ectropis crepusculariaThe Small Engrailed, Saddleback LooperG5S5S50.00000
Euchlaena amoenariaDeep Yellow EuchlaenaG5S5S50.00000
Eupsilia vinulentaStraight-toothed SallowS50.00000
Idia forbesiian erebid mothGNRS5S50.00000
Idia lubricalisGlossy Black IdiaG5S5S50.00000
Iridopsis larvariaBent-line GrayG5S5S50.00000
Isa textulaCrowned SlugG5S5S50.00000
Lochmaeus manteoVariable Oakleaf Caterpillar MothG5S5S50.00000
Malacosoma disstriaForest Tent Caterpillar MothG5S5S50.00000
Metalectra discalisCommon Fungus MothG5S5S50.00000
Nadata gibbosaWhite-dotted Prominent (adult), Green Oak Caterpillar (larvae)G5S5S50.00000
Natada nasoniNason's slugG5S5S50.00000
Nemoria bistriaria Red-fringed EmeraldG5S5S50.00000
Nemoria lixariaRed-bordered Emerald MothG5S5S50.00000
Orthosia hibisciSpeckled Green FruitwormS50.00000
Paleacrita vernataSpring CankerwormGNRS5S50.00000
Palthis asopialisFaint-spotted PalthisG5S5S50.00000
Paonias excaecataBlind-eyed Sphinx Moth, Blinded SphinxG5S5S50.00000
Phalaenophana pyramusalisDark-banded Owlet MothG5S5S50.00000
Plagodis alcoolariaHollow-spotted PlagodisG5S5S50.00000
Plagodis fervidariaFervid PlagodisG5S5S50.00000
Probole amicariaFriendly ProboleG5S5S50.00000
Redectis vitreaWhite-spotted RedectisG4S5S50.00000
Scolecocampa liburnaDead Wood Borer MothG5S5S50.00000
Sunira bicoloragoShield-Backed CutwormS50.00000
Tolype velledaLarge TolypeG5S5S50.00000
Zale lunataLunate ZaleG5S5S50.00000
ORTHOPTERANS
Microcentrum rhombifoliumBroad-winged KatydidGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Oecanthus exclamationisDavis's Tree CricketGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Cyrtoxipha columbianaColumbian TrigGNRS5S50.00000
Microcentrum retinerveLesser Angle-wing KatydidGNRS5S50.00000
Oecanthus niveusNarrow-winged Tree CricketGNRS5S50.00000
Pterophylla camellifoliaCommon True Katydid, Northern True KatydidGNRS5S50.00000
SHRUBS
Nestronia umbellulaNestroniaG4S3S30.00407
Hamamelis virginianaAmerican Witch-hazelG5S5S50.00000
Viburnum acerifoliumMapleleaf Viburnum, DockmackieG5S5S50.00000
TURTLES
Terrapene carolinaEastern Box TurtleG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 112
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 112
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 51
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 61
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.54464
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.10065
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00090
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 51 x 0.0009 = 0.0459

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species Only four out of 112 ranked species have a state rank of S3 or higher. Consequently, the Average Probability of Extirpation is very low, the equivalent of a state rank of S4.

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat 61 species in this habitat are considered secure in North Carolina and the Proportion of Secure Species of 54% is relatively high. This reflects the still common, widespread nature of this habitat. It occurs in both very large single blocks and as well-connected sets of smaller ones.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The low Average PE for this habitat is offset to some extent by its large number of Determining Species, producing an ENE value that is moderately high. Together with absence of Historic or Extirpated Species and a moderately high value of PSS, the HRI value falls within our Tier 4 Level of Conservation Concern (0.05 ≥ HRI > 0.005), meriting only a low priority for conservation actions.




Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution The number of counties showing a low percentage of Determining Species in this otherwise widespread habitat is probably a reflection of the lack of insect surveys that have been conducted within them.

Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
References
Updated on 2022-07-21 00:06:45