Habitats of North Carolina
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Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Hardwood Forests
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General Description The presence of hardwood trees is the defining feature of this habitat. Oaks and hickories are common species but this habitat also includes species typical of northern hardwoods, mesic mixed forest, and mixtures of hardwoods and conifers. Species that are still more generalized -- making significant use of conifers as well as hardwoods -- are treated under the General Forests habitat. Species that use of shrub species that occur in forests and/or shrublands are treated under General Forests and Shrublands.

Closed canopy forests as well as more open woodlands are included, as are both upland and lowland stands. Soil chemistry is not a factor for this habitat, with examples occurring on both mafic and acidic substrates.

Determining Species include a small number of plants, such as Witch Hazel and Virginia Heartleaf, that occur in both dry Oak-Hickory forests as well as Mesic Mixed Hardwood forests. A few insect herbivores that specialize on those plants are also included as Determining Species of this habitat.

A much larger group of herbivores are the species that feed on a broad range of hardwood trees, including a number of different families of Dicots. Another another large group that are predatory or omnivorous species that are associated with the structural features of hardwood forests.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: swamps to ridgetops Slope Aspect: all slope aspects as well as flats and ridges. Soil Moisture: xeric to hydric. Soil texture: all types that support species of hardwoods. Soil pH: acidic to circumneutral. Soil Nutrient Content: nutrient poor to rich. Microclimate: cool to warm; moist to dry. Fire Frequency: rare to frequent. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to moderate. Wind Storm Damage: moderate. Insolation: canopies are well insolated; lower strata vary from deeply to partially shaded

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed- to open canopy forests composed of broadleaf, deciduous trees, occurring over the entire state. Strata: Subcanopy, shrub, and herb-layers present to poorly developed or absent. Woody debris and leaf litter: logs and fallen branches are common; leaf litter is usually plentiful

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Hamamelis virginiana // Acronicta hamamelis-Cameraria hamameliella-Caloptilia superbifrontella-Drasteria grandirena-Nola triquetrana-Olethreutes hamameliana-Pseudexentera costomaculana
Tremex columba // Megarhyssa atrata-Megarhyssa greenei-Megarhyssa macrurus-

Mutualistic Symbioses:
Tremex columba // Cerrena unicolor

Determining Species
Taxa Global RankState RankProbability of Extirpation (PE)
Acronicta americana - American Dagger G5S50.00
Acronicta impleta - Yellow-haired Dagger G5S50.00
Actias luna - Luna Moth G5S50.00
Adoneta spinuloides - Purple-crested Slug Moth G4G5S4S50.0002
Amorpha juglandis - Walnut Sphinx G5S50.00
Amphipyra pyramidoides - Copper Underwing G5S50.00
Antaeotricha leucillana - Pale Gray Bird-dropping Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Antheraea polyphemus - Polyphemus Moth G5S50.00
Apoda biguttata - Shagreened Slug Moth G5S50.00
Apoda y-inversum - Yellow-collared Slug Moth G5S4S50.0002
Besma quercivoraria - Oak Besma Moth G5S50.00
Bibarrambla allenella - Bog Bibarrambla Moth GNRSU0.0020
Caloptilia superbifrontella GNRSU0.0020
Cameraria hamameliella GNRSU0.0020
Charadra deridens - Laugher Moth G5S50.00
Chytolita morbidalis - Morbid Owlet Moth G5S50.00
Dichomeris ligulella - Palmerworm Moth GNRS50.00
Drasteria grandirena - Figure-seven Moth G5S3S40.0020
Ectropis crepuscularia - Small Engrailed Moth G5S50.00
Ennomos magnaria - Maple Spanworm Moth G5S40.0007
Ennomos subsignaria - Elm Spanworm Moth G5S40.0007
Euchlaena amoenaria - Deep Yellow Euchlaena G5S50.00
Euchlaena irraria - Least-marked Euchlaena G5S4S50.0002
Idia forbesii GNRS50.00
Idia lubricalis - Glossy Black Idia Moth G5S50.00
Idia scobialis - Smoky Idia Moth GNRS3S40.0020
Iridopsis larvaria - Bent-line Gray Moth G5S50.00
Isa textula - Crowned Slug Moth G5S50.00
Isochaetes beutenmuelleri - Spun Glass Slug Moth G4S40.0007
Lithophane antennata - Ashen Pinion
Lochmaeus manteo - Variable Oakleaf Caterpillar Moth G5S50.00
Machimia tentoriferella - Gold-striped Leaftier Moth GNRS4-S5
Malacosoma disstria - Forest Tent Caterpillar Moth G5S50.00
Metalectra discalis - Common Fungus Moth G5S50.00
Metalectra quadrisignata - Four-spotted Fungus Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Metalectra richardsi - Richards' Fungus Moth G4S4S50.0002
Nadata gibbosa - White-dotted Prominent G5S50.00
Natada nasoni - Nason's Slug Moth G5S50.00
Nemoria bistriaria - Red-fringed Emerald G5S50.00
Nemoria lixaria - Red-bordered Emerald G5S50.00
Nigetia formosalis - Thin-winged Owlet Moth
Nola triquetrana - Three-spotted Nola G5S40.0007
Olethreutes hamameliana GNRSU0.0020
Paleacrita vernata - Spring Cankerworm Moth GNRS50.00
Palthis asopialis - Faint-spotted Palthis Moth G5S50.00
Paonias excaecata - Blind-eyed Sphinx G5S50.00
Paraclemensia acerifoliella - Maple Leafcutter Moth GNRSU0.0020
Phalaenophana pyramusalis - Dark-banded Owlet Moth G5S50.00
Philonome clemensella GNRS3S40.0020
Plagodis alcoolaria - Hollow-spotted Plagodis Moth G5S50.00
Plagodis fervidaria - Fervid Plagodis Moth G5S50.00
Plagodis phlogosaria - Straight-lined Plagodis Moth G5S40.0007
Probole amicaria - Friendly Probole Moth G5S50.00
Pseudexentera costomaculana GNRS3S40.0020
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides - Tufted Thyatirid Moth G5S4S50.0002
Psilocorsis cryptolechiella - Black-fringed Leaftier Moth GNRS3S50.0007
Psilocorsis reflexella - Dotted Leaftier Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Redectis vitrea - White-spotted Redectis Moth G4S50.00
Renia factiosalis - Sociable Renia Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Renia flavipunctalis - Yellow-spotted Renia Moth G5S3S40.0020
Scolecocampa liburna - Deadwood Borer G5S50.00
Selenia kentaria - Kent's Geometer Moth G5S40.0007
Tetracis crocallata - Yellow Slant-line Moth G5S4S50.0002
Tolype velleda - Large Tolype Moth G5S50.00
Tortricidia testacea - Early Button Slug Moth G4S40.0007
Zale lunata - Lunate Zale G5S50.00
Zanclognatha jacchusalis - Wavy-lined Zanclognatha Moth G5S4S50.0002
Zanclognatha marcidilinea - Yellowish Zanclognatha Moth GNRS4S50.0002
Amorpha schwerinii - Piedmont Indigo-bush G3G4S30.0058
Chimaphila maculata - Spotted Wintergreen G5S50.00
Hexastylis minor - Little Heartleaf G4G5S40.0007
Hexastylis virginica - Virginia Heartleaf G4SNR
Hylodesmum nudiflorum - Naked Tick-trefoil G5S50.00
Oxalis violacea - Violet Woodsorrel G5S40.0007
Anaxyrus americanus
Hyla chrysoscelis
Hyla versicolor
Anelaphus parallelus -
Cicindela sexguttata - Six-spotted Tiger Beetle G5S50.00
Mallodon dasystomus - GNRS4S50.0002
Parandra polita - GNRSU0.0020
Prionus laticollis - GNRS4S50.0002
Sphenostethus taslei - GNRS2S30.0164
Baeolophus bicolor - Tufted Titmouse G5S50.00
Coccyzus americanus - Yellow-billed Cuckoo G5S50.00
Cyanocitta cristata - Blue Jay G5S50.00
Hylocichla mustelina - Wood Thrush G4S40.0007
Meleagris gallopavo - Wild Turkey G5S50.00
Piranga olivacea - Scarlet Tanager G5S50.00
Polioptila caerulea - Blue-gray Gnatcatcher G5S50.00
Seiurus aurocapilla - Ovenbird G5S50.00
Sitta carolinensis - White-breasted Nuthatch G5S50.00
Vireo flavifrons - Yellow-throated Vireo G5S40.0007
Vireo olivaceus - Red-eyed Vireo G5S50.00
Cerrena unicolor
Cyrtoxipha columbiana - Columbian Trig GNRS50.00
Microcentrum retinerve - Lesser Angle-Wing GNRS50.00
Microcentrum rhombifolium - Greater Angle-Wing GNRS4S50.0002
Oecanthus exclamationis - Davis's Tree Cricket GNRS4S50.0002
Oecanthus niveus - Narrow-Winged Tree Cricket GNRS50.00
Pterophylla camellifolia - Common True Katydid GNRS50.00
Eratoneura stoveri
Hamamelis virginiana - American Witch-hazel G5S50.00
Nestronia umbellula - Nestronia G4S30.0058
Viburnum acerifolium - Mapleleaf Viburnum G5S50.00
Limenitis arthemis astyanax - Red-spotted Purple G5S50.00
Megarhyrssa greenei
Megarhyrssa macrurus
Megarhyssa atrata
Sigmoria latior latior
Tamias striatus - Eastern Chipmunk G5S50.00
Terrapene carolina
Tremex columba
Expected Number of Extirpations with a PE value (Sum of PE) = 0.0619
N = Number of Extant Species with a PE value = 41
Average PE = ENE/N = 0.0015
Number of S5 species = 55
Proportion of Secure Species = Number of S5 Species/N = 1.3415
Habitat Risk Index = ENE x (1 – PSS) = -0.0211

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species
Estimated Security of the Habitat
Index of Habitat Imperilment
Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-01-25 03:28:51