Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Mixed Habitats
General Description This habitat spans the entire range of terrestrial vegetation types, temperatures, moistures, and substrates found in the state. All of the state's physiographic provinces are occupied, with elevations ranging from the high mountains to sea level.

Determining Species include animals that can dwell within any one of the coniferous and hardwood forests, herbaceous habitats, shrublands, and barrens that occur within the state. This differs from the species that make use of combinations of these habitats, nesting or sheltering in one type but foraging in the others.

A number of very generalized herbivores are included in this habitat. So are predatory or scavenging vertebrates that hunt for a variety of different prey species, with different species used in different parts of their range. This general group includes the species with the fewest habitat restrictions, consisting of species that are relatively tolerant of human presence or that even benefit from living close to humans. Species that have requirements for large blocks of habitat with minimal human intrusion are treated separately.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet. Soil texture: sandy to loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: varies from permanently flooded to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to permanent. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to severe. Wind Storm Damage: moderate to severe. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forests as well as shrublands and herblands that completely lack a forest canopy. All stages of natural succession are included. Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful in forested examples but only thick thatch may exist in open fields.

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
The Determining Species are among the most generalized in terms of habitat of any that occur in the state and consequently are essentially lacking of close ties between species. Parasites of wide-ranging species would represent the exceptions.

Determining Species
Prionus imbricornisTile-horned PrionusGNRS5S50.00000
Senna marilandicaMaryland Wild SennaG5S3S30.00407
Acalypha rhomboideaThree-seeded MercuryG5S5S50.00000
Eupatorium serotinumLate-flowering Thorough-wortG5S5S50.00000
Viola sororiaWoolly Blue VioletG5S5S50.00000
Gastrophryne carolinensisEastern Narrow-mouthed ToadG5S5S50.00000
Scaphiopus holbrookiiEastern SpadefootS50.00000
Cyperus lancastriensisMany-flowered Umbrella-sedgeG5S3S30.00407
Agrostis perennansPerenial BentgrassG5S5S50.00000
Coleataenia ancepsBeaked PanicgrassG5S5S50.00000
Scincella lateralisGround SkinkG5S5S50.00000
Mephitis mephitisStriped SkunkG5S4S40.00041
Blarina brevicaudaNorthern Short-tailed ShrewG5S5S50.00000
Blarina carolinensisSouthern Short-tailed ShrewG5S5S50.00000
Didelphis virginianaVirginia OpossumG5S5S50.00000
Odocoileus virginianusWhite-tailed DeerG5S5S50.00000
Scalopus aquaticusEastern MoleG5S5S50.00000
Urocyon cinereoargenteusCommon Gray FoxG5S5S50.00000
Vitula edmandsiiDried Fruit MothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Apantesis phalerataHarnessed MothG5S5S50.00000
Bleptina caradrinalisBent-winged OwletG5S5S50.00000
Chytonix palliatriculaCloaked MarvelG5S5S50.00000
Elaphria grataGrateful MidgetG5S5S50.00000
Eupithecia miserulataCommon EupitheciaG5S5S50.00000
Hemaris diffinisSnowberry ClearwingG5S5S50.00000
Hypena scabraGreen CloverwormG5S5S50.00000
Lascoria ambigualisAmbiguous MothG5S5S50.00000
Microcrambus elegansElegant Grass-veneer MothGNRS5S50.00000
Nephelodes miniansBronzed Cutworm MothG5S5S50.00000
Pleuroprucha insulsariaCommon Tan WaveG5S5S50.00000
Spodoptera ornithogalli Yellowstriped ArmywormG5S5S50.00000
Tetanolita floridanaFlorida TetanolitaGNRS5S50.00000
Tetanolita mynesalisSmoky TetanolitaGNRS5S50.00000
Udea rubigalisCelery Leaf TierG5S5S50.00000
Virbia aurantiacaOrange Holomelina MothG5S5S50.00000
Virbia opellaTawny HolomelinaG5S5S50.00000
Eunemobius carolinusCarolina Ground CricketGNRS5S50.00000
Schistocerca americanaAmerican Bird GrasshopperG5S5S50.00000
Lampropeltis triangulumEastern MilksnakeG5S3S30.00407
Lampropeltis rhombomaculataNorthern Mole KingsnakeG5S4S40.00041
Coluber constrictorNorthern Black RacerG5S5S50.00000
Thamnophis sirtalisCommon GartersnakeG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 42
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 42
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 6
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 36
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.85714
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.01313
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00031
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 6 x 0.00031 = 0.00186

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species The highest State Rank among the species of this habitat is S3, with only three of the 42 species even reaching that level of conservation concern. The Average PE, consequently, is extremely low, the equivalent of a State Rank of S4.

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat Thirty six of the species in this habitat are considered secure in North Carolina. The Proportion of Secure Species of 86%, is very high. This reflects this habitat's wide distribution and occurrences of either very large blocks or well-connected blocks of smaller units.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The combination of a low value of ENE, a high value of PSS, and no identified Historic or Extirpated Species, makes the value of HRI quite low. This habitat, consequently, is not a high conservation priority.

Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-06-04 20:01:53