Habitats of North Carolina
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Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Forests and Shrublands
No image for this habitat.
General Description This habitat is defined by extensive populations of woody plants, either trees or shrubs. The vegetation includes general forests, woodlands, and shrublands. Soil chemistry and moisture are not defining factors, nor is elevation or geographic location.

Determining Species are primarily generalist herbivores of woody plants. Predatory or omnivorous species are included that use woody plants or debris as shelter or foraging but that do not make significant use of open grasslands or forb-dominated habitats.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to hydric. Soil texture: all types from loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: varies from permanently flooded to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to permanent. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to severe. Wind Storm Damage: moderate to severe. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forest to shrublands that completely lack a forest canopy. Strata: lower strata vary from well developed to sparse. Shelter: Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful

Co-evolved Species Groups
Determining Species
Troglodytes hiemalis, winterS50.00000
Pseudacris cruciferSpring PeeperG5S5S50.00000
Anolis carolinensisGreen AnoleG5S5S50.00000
Cyclophora pendulinariaSweet Fern GeometerG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Euchlaena johnsonariaJohnson's EuchlaenaG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Lycia ypsilonPine Barrens LyciaG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Schizura concinnaRed-humped Caterpillar MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Biston betulariaPepper & Salt Geometer, Peppered MothG5S4S40.00041
Parasa chlorisSmaller ParasaG4S4S40.00041
Parasa indeterminaStinging Rose Caterpillar MothG4S4S40.00041
Phobetron pitheciumHag Moth, Monkey Slug (larvae)G4S4S40.00041
Cleora sublunariaDouble-lined GrayG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Euchlaena pectinariaForked EuchlaenaG4G5S4S5S4S50.00010
Lithophane viridipallensPale Green PinionG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Plagodis pulverariaAmerican Barred Umber MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Alsophila pometariaFall CankerwormG5S5S50.00000
Apatelodes torrefactaSpotted ApatelodesG5S5S50.00000
Artace cribrariusDot-lined White MothG5S5S50.00000
Citheronia regalisRoyal Walnut MothG5S5S50.00000
Datana ministraYellownecked caterpillarG5S5S50.00000
Dolba hyloeusPawpaw MothG5S5S50.00000
Eacles imperialisImperial MothG5S5S50.00000
Elaphria versicolorVariegated MidgetG5S5S50.00000
Epimecis hortariaTulip-tree BeautyG5S5S50.00000
Euchlaena obtusariaObtuse EuchlaenaG5S5S50.00000
Euclea delphiniiSpiny Oak-slug MothG5S5S50.00000
Eutrapela clematariaCurve-toothed GeometerG5S5S50.00000
Glena cribratariaDotted GrayG5S5S50.00000
Hemaris thysbeHummingbird ClearwingG5S5S50.00000
Heterocampa biundata Wavy-lined HeterocampaG5S5S50.00000
Heterocampa guttivittaSaddled Prominent, Maple ProminentG5S5S50.00000
Hethemia pistasciariaPistachio EmeraldG5S5S50.00000
Hyalophora cecropiaCecropia MothG5S5S50.00000
Hypagyrtis unipunctataOne-Spotted VariantG5S5S50.00000
Iridopsis defectariaBrown-shaded Gray MothG5S5S50.00000
Lagoa crispataBlack-waved Flannel Moth, Crinkled Flannel MothG5S5S50.00000
Lithacodes fasciolaYellow-Shouldered SlugG5S5S50.00000
Megalopyge opercularisSouthern Flannel Moth, Puss CaterpillarG5S5S50.00000
Pero ancetariaHubner's PeroG5S5S50.00000
Phaeoura quernariaOak BeautyG5S5S50.00000
Phigalia denticulataToothed PhigaliaG5S5S50.00000
Phigalia strigatariaSmall PhigaliaG5S5S50.00000
Phigalia titeaThe Half-wingG5S5S50.00000
Prolimacodes badiaSkiff MothG5S5S50.00000
Protoboarmia porcelariaPorcelain Gray Moth, Dash-lined Looper (larva)G5S5S50.00000
Schizura ipomoeaeMorning-glory ProminentG5S5S50.00000
Schizura unicornisVariegated Prominent, Unicorn Caterpillar MothG5S5S50.00000
Scopula limboundataLarge Lace-borderG5S5S50.00000
Zanclognatha obscuripennisDark Zanclognatha MothGNRS5S50.00000
Callosamia prometheaPromethea MothG5SUSU0.00202
Anaxipha tinnulacitaFast-tinkling TrigGNRS5S50.00000
Opheodrys aestivusNorthern Rough Green SnakeG5S5S50.00000
Storeria dekayiBrown SnakeG5S5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 53
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 53
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 13
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 40
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.75472
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.00934
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00018
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 13 x 0.00018 = 0.00234

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species None of the species in this habitat have a State Rank as high as S3. The Average PE is equivalent to a State Rank of S4.

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat Forty species belonging to this habitat are considered secure in the state and the PSS value of 75% is very high. This reflects the fact that this habitat is still very widepread and consists of large blocks of habitat or very well-connected tracts of habitat.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The combination of a low value of ENE, a high value of PSS, and no identified Historic or Extirpated Species, makes the value of HRI one of the lowest of the habitats in this state. It falls within our Tier 5 (0.005 ≥ HRI > 0) Level of Conservation Concern, meriting a negligible priority for conservation actions.

Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution This is a common and widespread habitat across the state. The low percentage of the total number of Determining Species shown in many counties is largely due to the lack of surveys of moths and other insects that have been conducted within them.

Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2022-07-21 00:01:59