Habitats of North Carolina
Habitat Group:
Habitat Type:
Members of Upland Hardwood Forests:
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Upland Hardwood Forests
General Forests and Fields
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General Description The vegetation characteristic of this habitat includes both forests of various types and herbaceous fields, where either type can support residential populations of the Determining Species. No restrictions exist with respect to substrates, microclimates, or location within the state.

Determining Species include just a few herbaceous species that are particularly euryoecious and widespread. Much more prominent are the insect herbivores that can feed on both woody and herbaceous plants. The few vertebrates members of this habitat are those that typically nest or seek shelter in the forests but forage well out into various types of open herblands, including semi-natural habitats or developed areas.

Abiotic Factors Geographic Regions: Lower Coastal Plain to High Mountains. USDA Hardiness Zones: 6-8. Landform: ridges, slopes, bottomlands, and wet flats. Slope Aspect: occurs on all slopes aspects as well as on ridges and flats. Soil Moisture: Dry to wet. Soil texture: sandy to loamy to alluvial. Soil pH: circumneutral to acidic. Soil Nutrient Content: rich to poor. Microclimate: Warm to cool; humid to dry. Hydrological Features: surface waters are common to scarce. Flood Frequency: varies from permanently flooded to never flooded. Flood Duration: nonexistent to permanent. Fire Frequency: common to rare. Drought Frequency: frequent to rare. Ice Storm Damage: low to severe. Wind Storm Damage: moderate to severe. Insolation: full sun to full shade

Biotic Structure Vegetation Type: closed-canopy forest to herblands that completely lack a forest canopy. Strata: the herb layer within forested examples are generally well developed. Woody debris and leaf litter are plentiful in forested examples but only thick thatch may exist in open fields

Co-evolved Species Groups Phagic and Competitory Symbioses:
Asteraceae // Eusarca confusaria
Cuscuta species // Caudellia apyrella
Leguminosae species // Dasylophia anguina

Determining Species
Bombus bimaculatusS50.00000
Quiscalus quisculaCommon GrackleS50.00000
Spinus tristisAmerican GoldfinchG5S5S50.00000
Turdus migratoriusAmerican RobinG5S5S50.00000
Zenaida macrouraMourning DoveG5S5S50.00000
Calycopis cecropsRed-banded HairstreakS50.00000
Celastrina neglectaSummer AzureS50.00000
Lerema acciusClouded SkipperS50.00000
Pterourus glaucusEastern Tiger SwallowtailS50.00000
Desmodium paniculatumNarrow-leaf Tick-trefoilG5S5S50.00000
Solidago rugosa var. asperaWrinkle-leaf GoldenrodG5TNRS5S50.00000
Polygrammodes flavidalisIronweed Root MothGNRS2S4S2S40.00407
Caudellia apyrellaCrescent-winged Caudellia MothGNRS3S4S3S40.00132
Ectoedemia rubifoliellaS3S40.00132
Iridopsis humariaSmall Purplish GrayG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Orthodes cynicaCynical Quaker MothS3S40.00132
Papaipema baptisiaeBaptisia Borer MothG4S3S4S3S40.00132
Spaelotis clandestinaClandestine Dart MothS3S40.00132
Xanthotype urticariaFalse Crocus Geometer MothG5S3S4S3S40.00132
Haploa colonaColona MothG5S4S40.00041
Ptichodis herbarumCommon PtichodisS40.00041
Agnorisma badinodisPale-banded DartS4S50.00010
Autographa precationisCommon Looper MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Idaea obfusariaRippled WaveG4G5S4S5S4S50.00010
Lacinipolia implicataImplicit Arches MothS4S50.00010
Ochropleura implectaFlame-shouldered Dart MothS4S50.00010
Phyllocnistis insignisa leaf blotch miner mothGNRS4S5S4S50.00010
Zanclognatha lituralisLettered Zanclognatha MothG5S4S5S4S50.00010
Acharia stimuleaSaddleback Caterpillar MothG5S5S50.00000
Anavitrinella pampinariaCranberry Spanworm, Common Gray MothG5S5S50.00000
Apantesis vittataBanded Tiger MothS50.00000
Argyrotaenia velutinanaRed-banded Leafroller MothS50.00000
Arugisa luteaCommon ArugisaG5S5S50.00000
Automeris ioIo MothG5S5S50.00000
Choephora fungorumBent-line DartS50.00000
Cisseps fulvicollisYellow-collared Scape MothS50.00000
Clepsis peritanaGarden TortrixS50.00000
Costaconvexa centrostrigariaBent-lined CarpetG5S5S50.00000
Elaphria chalcedoniaChalcedony MidgetG5S5S50.00000
Eusarca confusariaConfused EusarcaG5S5S50.00000
Galgula partitaWedgelingG5S5S50.00000
Haploa clymeneClymene MothG5S5S50.00000
Idia aemulaCommon Idia MothG5S5S50.00000
Idia juliaJulia's IdiaGNRS5S50.00000
Idia rotundalisRotund Idia MothG5S5S50.00000
Leuconycta diphteroidesGreen LeuconyctaG5S5S50.00000
Marimatha nigrofimbriaBlack-bordered Lemon MothG5S5S50.00000
Nematocampa resistariaFilament bearer, Horned SpanwormG5S5S50.00000
Orthodes majusculaRustic Quaker MothS50.00000
Orthonama obstipataThe GemG5S5S50.00000
Phalaenostola larentioidesBlack-banded OwletS50.00000
Prochoerodes lineolaLarge Maple Spanworm MothG5S5S50.00000
Protodeltote muscosulaLarge Mossy LithacodiaG5S5S50.00000
Renia adspergillusSpeckled Renia MothG4S5S50.00000
Spilosoma virginicaVirginian Tiger Moth, Yellow woolly-bear (larva)G5S5S50.00000
Acrocercops astericolaGNRSUSU0.00202
Coptotriche aeneaBlackberry Leafminer MothGNRSUSU0.00202
Manduca rusticaRustic SphinxG5SUSU0.00202
Stigmella villosellaGNRSUSU0.00202
Neoconocephalus triopsBroad-tipped ConeheadS50.00000
Phyllopalpus pulchellusRed-headed Bush CricketGNRS5S50.00000
Nr = Number of Ranked Species = 61
Ner = Number of Extant, Ranked Species = 61
Nv = Number of Historic and Extirpated Species = 0
Nar = Number of Species at Risk of Extirpation (State rank > S5) = 21
Nss = Number of Secure Species (State Rank = S5) = 40
Pss = Proportion of Secure Species (Nss/Ner) = 0.65574
ENE = Expected Number of Extirpations (Sum of PE) = 0.02291
Average PE (ENE/Ner) = 0.00038
Habitat Risk Index = (Nar+Nv) x Average PE = 21 x 0.00038 = 0.00798

Estimated Risk to the Determining Species There are no species of high conservation concern (S2 or higher) in this group and the Average PE is equivalent to a State Rank of S4.

Estimated Risk to the Co-evolved Species Groups
Estimated Security of the Habitat With 28 species considered Secure in the state, producing a PSS value of 67%, this is one of our least threatened habitats in the state, with numerous extensive or well-connected blocks still present.

Index of Habitat Imperilment The combination of a low value of ENE, a high value of PSS, and no identified Historic or Extirpated Species, makes the value of HRI quite low. It falls within our Tier 4 of Conservation Concern (0.05 ≥ HRI > 0.005), meriting only a low priority for conservation actions.

Identified Risks
Observed Trends
Distribution Map
Distribution This is a common and widespread habitat across the state. Counties with low percentages of the total number of Determining Species are largely those that have not had intensive surveys for moths and other insects.

Major Conservation Reserves
Priority Areas for Surveys and Conservation Protection
Stewardship and Management Recommendations
Updated on 2023-01-24 21:42:51