Moths of North Carolina
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View PDFNoctuidae Members: 56 NC Records

Copivaleria grotei (Morrison, 1874) - Grote's Sallow



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Noctuoidea Family: NoctuidaeSubfamily: AmphipyrinaeTribe: PsaphidiniP3 Number: 931557.00 MONA Number: 10021.00
Comments: A single species found in the eastern and central parts of North America as well as North Carolina. Related to Psaphida but more closely to Pseudocopivaleria, a genus of two western US species.
Species Status: No treatments seem to mention the fact that there are two distinct forms. In the Coastal Plain and perhaps elsewhere, the lighter one, form b, is much less common. The genitalia of these two forms seem to differ somewhat but not consistently enough to warrant naming a second species. However, the light form (b in picture) has not been barcoded to date and may eventually prove to be separate.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Covell (1984); Beadle and Leckie (2012)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONATechnical Description, Adults: Forbes (1954); Poole (1995)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Wagner et al. (2011)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: Copivaleria when worn is most likely confused with Psaphida resumens, which differs by its white orbicular spot, more distinct anal dash, and gray margin.
Adult Structural Features: In the male the clasper is recurved and longer than in Psaphida species. The vesica also lacks the terminal cornutus found in many Psaphida. In the female, the apophyses are much reduced in length.
Structural photos
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: The caterpillar is a frosty green with white dorsal and spiracular stripes. The addorsal line is usually broken up into segments. Wagner et al (2011) note that larvae are seldom encountered even though the species is usually common in early spring collections.
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos, especially where associated with known host plants.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Occurs in all provinces of the state but may be restricted to brownwater river systems in the Coastal Plain -- we have no records, so far, from blackwater swamps that support populations of Pumpkin Ash or Carolina Ash.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: One of our early spring moths, this species is generally common for about 3 weeks from March to early May.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: In the Coastal Plain, our records all come from brownwater river floodplains, where Green Ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) is the most likely host plant. In the Piedmont and Mountains, it has been recorded primarily in upland habitats, particularly in habitats with rich or circumneutral substrates; White Ash (Fraxinus americana) is the likely host in those habitats.
Larval Host Plants: Stenophagous, feeding on species of Ash.
Observation Methods: Adults are attracted to light but not bait.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for Ash Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status: [W5]
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: G5 [S4]
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments: This species is still fairly widespread in North Carolina and found in a variety of hardwood forest communities. However, as an Ash specialist, it likely to be highly threatened by the spread of the Emerald Ash Borer, which has the potential to eliminate most of the Ash species in our state (see Wagner, 2007 for details about the magnitude of this threat).

 Photo Gallery for Copivaleria grotei - Grote's Sallow

Photos: 29

Recorded by: Vin Stanton on 2020-03-29
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-28
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-27
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Vin Stanton on 2020-03-26
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-26
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-26
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2020-03-21
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2020-03-21
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2020-03-21
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2020-03-20
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-14
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-08
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-04-04
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-03-29
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David L. Heavner on 2019-03-28
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-03-22
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-03-13
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2018-04-04
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Amanda Auxier on 2018-04-03
Pender Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2018-03-31
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2018-03-31
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2018-03-31
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: K. Bischof on 2018-03-18
McDowell Co.
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Recorded by: K. Bischof on 2018-03-18
McDowell Co.
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Recorded by: T. DeSantis on 2016-03-10
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: J. Merrill Lynch on 2015-04-11
Watauga Co.
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Recorded by: J. Merrill Lynch on 2015-04-11
Watauga Co.
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Recorded by: Lenny Lampel on 2015-03-26
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: T. DeSantis on 2014-04-03
Durham Co.
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