Moths of North Carolina
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View PDFTischeriidae Members: 25 NC Records

Coptotriche citrinipennella Clemens, 1859 - No Common Name



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Tischerioidea Family: TischeriidaeSubfamily: [Tischeriinae]Tribe: [Tischeriini]P3 Number: 230019.00 MONA Number: 126.00
Comments: Coptotriche is a genus of specialized leafminers that currently consists of 28 recognized Nearctic species. Most species fall within one of two major groups. Members of the first group typically have orangish to yellowish fore wings (rarely white) and specialize on oaks and chestnuts. Members of a second group have dark gray, brown, or blackish fore wings and mostly feed on members of the Rosaceae (Braun, 1972; Eiseman, 2019).
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: MPG; BugGuide; BAMONATechnical Description, Adults: Braun (1972)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Braun (1972), Eiseman (2019).                                                                                 
Adult Markings: The following is from Braun's (1972) description based on observations of 160 specimens from throughout the range of the species. The face is yellow and the scales of the tuft darken towards the tips. The thorax and forewing are pale yellow, and the wing shades to brownish orange in the apical fourth. Brownish color extends to the wing base along the extreme costal margin, and to the tornus, but varies among individuals in the extent of development. Some specimens may have a few darker scales at the apex, and the cilia are concolorous. The underside of the forewing of the male has a discal, elongated, dark brownish fuscous patch at the base. The hindwing is yellowish white in the female and grayish tinged in the male, with a brownish fuscous basal patch on the upper side that sometimes is produced as a point. The cilia are concolorous. The costal margin of the hindwing of the female is slightly convex, especially towards the base. The legs are pale yellowish, with a faint fuscous dusting outwardly. The underside of the abdomen has fuscous dusting on the basal two-thirds. Key characteristics that help distinguish this species from closely related forms include the lighter median area of the forewing (pale yellow or pale ocherous) that contrast with the darker costal and dorsal margins, the dark dusting on the apical fourth of the forewing, and the presence of a brownish fuscous basal patch on the upper surface of the hindwing of the male.
Wingspan: 8-9 mm (Braun, 1972).
Adult Structural Features: Braun (1972) provides keys for identifying both males and females based on genitalia. Her verbatim description of the genitalia follows: vinculum produced as a short point; harpes with short setae; surface of anellus clothed with microscopic spinules with two clusters of larger spinules; forks of aedeagus flat, expanding apically, vesica densely clothed with microscopic broad spinules; forks of uncus widely separated, membrane between not notched. Female genitalia: ovipositor lobes larger than lateral lobes, lateral lobes with stout setae; sex opening rounded, margins sclerotized; posterior apophyses greatly expanded at tips; arms of patibulum broad posteriorly; prela large, broad in basal two-thirds, more than half the length of the anterior apophyses.
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: The larvae mine the upper side of leaves and produce a very elongated mine along the margin of the leaf. This begins as a narrow blotch with longitudinally wrinkles. The leaf margin eventually curled over most of the mine and hides the loosened epidermis (Braun, 1972; Eiseman, 2019).
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable only through rearing to adulthood.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Braun (1972) considered Coptotriche citrinipennella to be the most widespread of the oak-feeding species. It occurs from southern Ontario and the northeastern US to as far south as eastern Texas and southern Alabama. This species is widespread in North Carolina and likely occurs statewide where suitable hosts occur.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Immature Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: Braun (1972) noted that there are usually three overlapping generations each year. Larvae in the final brood becomes full-grown in late summer or early autumn, then overwinter and transform to pupae in early spring. The adults emerge in April or early May.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Populations appear to be widely distributed is North Carolina in forested habitats with oaks.
Larval Host Plants: This species primarily uses members of the red oak group as hosts, but also uses American Chestnut (Castanea dentata). Eiseman (2019) lists the following hosts: White Oak (Q. alba), Scarlet Oak (Q. coccinea), Bear Oak (Q. ilicifolia), Shingle Oak (Q. imbricaria), Blackjack Oak (Q. marilandica), Willow Oak (Q. palustris), Northern Red Oak (Q. rubra), Post Oak (Q. stellata), Black Oak (Q. velutina), and Live Oak (Q. virginiana). As of 2021, we have specimens from American Chestnut and Southern Red Oak (Q. falcata).
Observation Methods: The adults are attracted to UV lights. Direct searches for the highly elongated leaf mines with folded leaf edges would like yield many new locality records. Ideally, adults should be reared to verify identification since other Coptotriche also fold the leaf margins of oaks (Eiseman, 2019).
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Oak-Hickory Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR S4S5
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments:

 Photo Gallery for Coptotriche citrinipennella - No common name

35 photos are available. Only the most recent 30 are shown.

Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-10-14
McDowell Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-09-12
Madison Co.
Comment: An unoccupied mine on American Chestnut.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-09-03
Madison Co.
Comment: Unoccupied mine was on American Chestnut.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-09-03
Madison Co.
Comment: Unoccupied mine was on American Chestnut.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-08-26
Yancey Co.
Comment: Mine was on Quercus falcata.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-08-26
Yancey Co.
Comment: Mine was on Quercus falcata.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-08-05
McDowell Co.
Comment: An adult that was reared from a mine on American Chestnut (see companion photo from 2021-07-13)
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-07-13
McDowell Co.
Comment: An upper-surface, occupied mine on American Chestnut.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-07-13
McDowell Co.
Comment: A view of the lower leaf surface of an upper-surface, occupied mine on American Chestnut.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-07-13
McDowell Co.
Comment: A backlit image of an upper-surface, occupied mine on American Chestnut.
Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-05-19
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-05-19
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-05-02
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-04-18
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-03-24
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-03-24
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-08-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-08-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2020-04-09
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2020-04-09
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2020-03-23
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2020-03-20
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2019-09-20
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-06-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-06-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-06-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-06-05
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-06-05
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-06-05
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-05-07
Madison Co.
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