Orthoptera of North Carolina
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View Gryllidae Members: NC Records

Orocharis luteolira Walker, 1969 - False Jumping Bush Cricket


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Taxonomy
Family: Gryllidae Subfamily: Hapithinae Tribe: Hapithini
Comments: One of five species in this primarily neotropical genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Walker, 1969). Only two occur in North Carolina; the other three are restricted to Florida
Species Status: The Orthoptera Species File (Cigliano et al., 2017) is now treating Orocharis as a subgenus of Hapithus. SINA, however, continues to use Orocharis as a full genus, which is how we are treating it (we have not yet read the paper that is the basis for this taxonomic change).
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Capinera et al. (2004)Online Photographs: SINA, Google ImagesTechnical Description, Adults/Nymphs: Walker (1969)SINA 681a.htm                                                                                  
Comments: The two species of Orocharis in our area are morphologically indistinguishable (Walker, 1969). Both are medium sized, brown bush crickets with long, oval-shaped tegmina that beyond the end of the abdomen. The ground color of both sexes is pale tan. Females are nearly uniformly colored except for a dark post-ocular stripe that continues along the side of the pronotum; a mid-dorsal stripe may also be present on the pronotum. Males have scattered dark spots and speckles on the tegmina.
Total Length [body plus wings; excludes ovipositor]: 14 mm, male holotype; 16 mm, female allotype (Walker, 1969)
Structural Features: A thin yellowish ridge connects the lateral ocelli, but this character does not appear to conclusively separate luteolira from saltator, although it is often absent in saltator and usually present in luteolira (Walker, 1969). As in saltator, both sexes possess well-developed hindwings that extend beyond the end of the tegmina.
Singing Behavior: The songs both of our species of Orocharis consist of brief, fairly melodic trills (chirps) separated by pauses that are between 4-10 times longer than the chirps themselves. The chirps of luteolira are shorter than in saltator, with luteolira having between 4-9 pulses per chirp and saltator between 10-18 pulses per chirp (Walker, 1969). Walker also notes that the within-trill pulse rate is higher in luteolira -- 71 pulses per second versus 55 per second at 77 F (25 C). Correlated with this higher pulse rate, the dominant pitch of the songs of luteolira is higher than in saltator. In records of the two species singing at the same site, spectrographs show a clear separation between the calls of the two species, with the dominant pitch of luteolira around 4.5 kHz and that of saltator around 4 kHz at 63 F (17 C). These spectrographs also suggest that the pauses between chirps are typically much longer in luteolira than they are in saltator.
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Distribution in North Carolina
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Adult Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

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Habitats and Life History
Habitats: In areas where the two species of Orocharis are sympatric, Walker (1969) noted that saltator appeared to be more common in mesic or hydric woodlands and luteolira in drier, more open and well-drained habitats (e.g., sandhills). However, we have recorded both species from a yard in Raleigh, singing from ornamental shrubs and trees growing near the top of a ridgeline. We have also heard both species singing in a swamp forest in New Hanover County and from a yard in Beaufort, both within a half mile of the coast.
Diet: Probably feeds primiarily on foliage, flowers, and fruit
Observation Methods: Males are easy to hear but difficult to discover visually. Probably comes well to bait, as is true for saltator
Abundance/Frequency: Appears to be fairly frequent in the Coastal Plain
Adult Phenology: Walker (1969) reports that luteolira has two generations per year. Choruses persist into December, singing in sizable numbers on warm days
See also Habitat Account for General Dry-Mesic Hardwood Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: [GNR S4S5]
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands
Comments: Probably occurs over most of the eastern third of the state and appears to occupy a wide range of woody habitats. Probably secure within the state.

Image Gallery for Orocharis luteolira - False Jumping Bush Cricket

Recorded by: Jim Petranka Petranka, John Petranka, Becky Elkin, and Sally Gewalt
Dare Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka Petranka, John Petranka, Becky Elkin, and Sally Gewalt
Dare Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall and Bo Sullivan
Moore Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall, Dee Stuckey, Savannah Hall
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall and Bo Sullivan
Moore Co.
Comment: 7-9 pulses per chirp
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall
Durham Co.
Comment: ~10 individuals heard singing up on a dry ridge. Temperature was about 66 F (19 C); partially cloudy and still. Pulse rate was mainly 8 pulses per chirp (some with nine); the within chirp rate was 47.1 pulses per sec
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Wake Co.
Comment: Heard singing from a Wisteria. Temperature at 18:37 was 71 F (22 C). Each trill consisted of 8 pulses, with the pulse rate within trills = 53 pulses per second.
Recorded by: Steve Hall and Bo Sullivan
Carteret Co.
Comment: Heard singing in trees outside house. Temperature was ~ 63 F (17 C) at 7:45 pm. Pulse rate was 8 pulses per trill(= 47/sec within trill)
Recorded by: Steve Hall and Bo Sullivan
New Hanover Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall
Bladen Co.
Comment: Several individuals were heard singing in a stand of xerophytic oaks growing on a Carolina Bay rim. Temperature at 20:45 was 70.9 F (21.6 C). The pulse rate was 8 pulses per chirp, with a within chirp pulse rate of 57.1 pulses per sec. Recorded using a Canon 7D DSLR with a Rode compact shotgun mic.