Vascular Plants of North Carolina
Account for Clustered Poppy-mallow - Callirhoe triangulata   (Leavenworth) A. Gray
Members of Malvaceae:
Only member of Callirhoe in NC.
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Section 6 » Order Malvales » Family Malvaceae
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Author(Leavenworth) A. Gray
DistributionReported as native in NC by Weakley (2018) in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, with no other information given. The BONAP map shows records from Lincoln and Gaston counties, in the southern Piedmont. However, the SERNEC database has no NC specimens for NC, it is not on the NCNHP's list of rare species, and thus they do not track records. Thus, the website editors have little concrete information about its presence in the state. As a result, these two counties are mapped below as Provenance Uncertain, not just because of the lack of known specimens but mostly because the species is typically considered to be one of regions west of NC. It may well be adventive in NC, but it is best to provide a species account and treat it as "native", following Weakley (2018).

This species has its main range in the Midwest, from WI south to eastern MO; with a separate disjunction from eastern MS westward into GA and western SC. Exactly where the species is truly native or not -- in the Southeastern states -- is blurred.
AbundanceExtremely rare, if still present. There seems to be no information that the species currently exists in NC. Because Weakley (2018) considers it native, though "rare", with no indication if records are current or historical, the website editors are changing the NCNHP's SR (State Reported) rank to SU (State Undetermined), and certainly need to recommend it for the Watch List, as W3 (Rare but Questionable Documentation). In this case, the documentation is not "questionable", but simply "inadequate" or "lacking".
HabitatThis is a species of sandy soil. Weakley (2018) states, for the Southeast: "Sandhills, sandy scrub, and other dry, open habitats".
PhenologyBlooms in July and August, and fruits shortly after flowering.
IdentificationThe species in the genus Callirhoe, mostly called poppy-mallows, are quite showy species with large flowers, often purple -- at first glance looking like a Wild Geranium (Geranium maculatum). This is a sprawling, much-branched herb, growing to 2 feet tall, with generally ascending stems. The stems and leaves are strongly hispid-hairy. The relatively few stem leaves are alternate, triangular, with some having side lobes. They have crenate to toothed margins and mostly truncate bases; the blades are about 5 inches long and 2-2.5 inches wide. The showy flowers are in terminal panicles, with each having 5 petals, bright purple, obovate (with almost squared-off tips), and a spread of about 2-2.5 inches across. The center of the flower is white. This species cannot be confused with any other native NC species, owing to the large purple flowers, triangular leaves, and growing in sandy soil in full sun; however, there are several other Callirhoe species that are native farther to the west. If this species is seen or known to occur in NC, please collect a specimen or part of a specimen, or photograph it, for current documentation.
Taxonomic CommentsNone

Other Common Name(s)Sand Poppy-mallow
State Rank[SU]
Global RankG3
State Status[W3]
US Status
USACE-agcp
USACE-emp
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