Vascular Plants of North Carolina
Account for Hairy Pinesap - Hypopitys lanuginosa   (Michaux) Small
Members of Ericaceae:
Members of Hypopitys with account distribution info or public map:
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Section 6 » Family Ericaceae
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Author(Michaux) Small
DistributionThis is half of the species known as "Pinesap" (see below); it apparently occurs statewide, but details of its range are not clear, as nearly all herbaria specimens simply are labelled as the original full species (again, see below). Because mostly just Weakley (2020) considers these two forms as separate species, this website cannot provide meaningful maps for either species. The county map below is simply that for the greater Hypopitys monotropa "species".

The overall range is fairly broad, and occupies much of the eastern U.S. Details are still being worked out.
AbundanceGenerally uncommon to infrequent over the state as a whole, as is its sister species -- the undescribed Hypopitys species 3. However, it is rather scarce, probably rare, in the southern Coastal Plain. It can be fairly common in the Mountains, but rather infrequent over the Piedmont. Whether both of these species have similar abundances in each of the three provinces is not known at the present time, though Weakley's maps show both species as "uncommon" in each province. However, based on the map below, it is clear that both species are quite scarce in the southern half of the Coastal Plain.
HabitatBoth of these two species grow in upland acidic forests, often in pine forests or mixed pine-hardwood stands.
PhenologyThe two Hypopitys species differ considerably in flowering time. This species -- H. lanuginosa -- blooms in late summer and fall, generally from early August to early November; H. species 3 blooms in early summer, generally from May to July. Fruiting occurs one to two months after flowering.
IdentificationThis is the "red" color form taxon of the Hypopitys group. It is a very small saprophytic herb with no chlorophyll, and the whole plant is bright red or deep pink. It is a slender, single-stemmed plant growing only to about 4-6 inches tall, with many small, ovate, clasping leaves covering the stem -- like scales. When in bloom, the top of the stem droops, such that the cluster of several flowers -- each about 1/2-inch long and the same color as the stem -- is reminiscent of a seahorse! These flowers dangle with the openings at the bottom. The sister species is colored in tan, crème, pale yellow, or pale salmon, but otherwise has a similar growth form. Normally, several to many plants grow in a dense stand, often just 1-2 inches apart from other individuals. It is surprising that it has taken well into the 21st Century for these two forms -- which bloom at considerably different times and with clearly different colors -- to both be described as good species.
Taxonomic CommentsThis is roughly "half" of what was formerly known as Monotropa hypopithys and later (or currently) as Hypopitys monotropa; yes, the second "h" in the genus has now been dropped. "Hypopitys monotropa" is now considered by Weakley (2020) and perhaps some other references to represent two separate species.

Other Common Name(s)Pinesap (used for both Hypopitys species), Appalachian Red Pinesap
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Global RankG5
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