Vascular Plants of North Carolina
Account for Water Tupelo - Nyssa aquatica   L.
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Section 6 » Order Cornales » Family Nyssaceae
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AuthorL.
DistributionScattered across the Coastal Plain, but oddly local and “missing” from a few expected areas. Found across the province, but very scarce to absent in the Sandhills, much of the south-central Coastal Plain, and a few areas near the coast. Most widespread in the northern third, and near the SC border, in the province. Casual in the extreme eastern Piedmont (Wake County), where its occurrence is of uncertain provenance.

This is a mainly Coastal Plain species ranging from eastern VA, southern IL, and southeastern MO, south to northern FL and eastern TX. It is essentially absent in montane regions and most of the Piedmont, except in AL.
AbundanceVery local, but can be common to dominant in some swamps, such as along the Roanoke River, Lumber River, and Waccamaw River. Rare to uncommon in many areas, and not often found along creeks or smaller rivers.
HabitatThis species favors frequently flooded swamps, with some or much standing water, but normally where the waters are at least slowly moving. This includes both brownwater (e.g., Roanoke) and blackwater (e.g., Lumber) floodplains. It can occasionally be found in isolated waters (lake and pond margins), but it is mainly a species of the wetter floodplains.
See also Habitat Account for Gum and Tupelo Forests
PhenologyFlowers in April and May, and fruits in September and October.
IdentificationThis is a familiar deciduous swamp tree that grows to medium to tall height, to about 80-90’ tall. The crown is usually fairly narrow, and the species may grow in extensive stands, though often mixed with Bald Cypress (Taxodium distichum). The trunk base is normally swollen, but the trunk is normally straight. The alternate leaves are quite large, being somewhat elliptical, mainly entire but with a few scattered teeth, to about 6” long. The scattering of teeth give the leaves an uneven (not smoothly rounded) margin. The petioles are often at least 1” long. In fall, the large and elongated dark purple fruit (drupe) is conspicuous, being 1-1.5” long and dangling below the branches. Swamp Tupelo (N. biflora), which can often grow with Water Tupelo, has smaller leaves that seldom have teeth, are more obovate, and have a more rounded leaf tip.
Taxonomic CommentsNone

Other Common Name(s)Tupelo Gum, Cotton Gum, Large Tupelo, Water Gum
State RankS4
Global RankG5
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Scott PohlmanNyssa aquatica. Walnut Creek floodplain, Wake County; 2 September 2019. WakePhoto_natural
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