Vascular Plants of North Carolina
Account for Yellowseed False-pimpernel - Lindernia dubia   (L.) Pennell
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Section 6 » Order Scrophulariales » Family Linderniaceae
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Author(L.) Pennell
DistributionThroughout the state, and probably occurs in all 100 counties. Note that the range map includes the formerly named L. anagallidea, as Weakely (2018) and some other authors lump that speices within L. dubia.

This is a very widespread species over much of North America. It occurs through the Eastern states.
AbundanceCommon to very common in the Coastal Plain; common in the eastern Piedmont, but just fairly common to frequent in the central and western Piedmont and mountains. The State Rank of the species is clearly S5.
HabitatThis is a widespread species of muddy places. It is often seen on the drawdown zones around lakes and ponds in summer, or in mud at marsh openings, openings and wet spots in bottomlands, in ditches, and in wet, sandy places.
See also Habitat Account for General River Bars and Sparsely Vegetated Shorelines
PhenologyBlooms from June to September, and fruits shortly after flowering.
IdentificationThis is a familiar small plant of muddy places, in fresh waters. Stands of these plants quickly occupy recently exposed mud of shorelines in summer. It grows only to about 6-8" tall, with several stems from the base. It has scattered pairs of opposite leaves, each about 1" long, 1/3" wide, elliptical to more often obovate and tapered to the stem; they may be slightly toothed. Single flowers grow from many leaf axils, on variable-length stalks. In the form dubia, the stalks are shorter than the leaves, but in form anagallidea, these flower stalks are longer than the leaves. Each flower is like a tiny snapdragon, about 1/3" long, pale violet-white or blue-white (at least are whitish with a slight violet or blue tint); the 3-lobed lower lip extends beyond the 2-lobed upper lip, though you will need to be on hands and knees, or use binoculars or a telephoto lens, to see the flower structure. Mostly you can simply identify the species by its tiny, mini-bush look, with leaves tapering to a narrow base (not wide and clasping as in some Gratiola species), violet-tinged small white flowers, and usually growing in colonies on exposed mud.
Taxonomic CommentsMost references still consider several varieties as valid, including var. anagallidea, though Weakley (2018) does not, considering them as just forms.

Other Common Name(s)False-pimpernel
State RankS4 [S5]
Global RankG5
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