Vascular Plants of North Carolina
Account for Green-violet - Cubelium concolor   (T.F. Forster) Rafinesque ex Britton & A. BrownOnly member of Cubelium in NC.
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Section 6 » Family Violaceae
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Author(T.F. Forster) Rafinesque ex Britton & A. Brown
DistributionScattered over the mountains and Piedmont, and barely into the edge of the Coastal Plain along the Roanoke River.

This is an Eastern species, ranging from VT and southeastern MN, south to northern FL and eastern OK.
AbundanceRare to uncommon in the mountains and Piedmont, and very rare in upper the Coastal Plain, where known only from Halifax County.
HabitatThis is a species restricted to high pH soils, over mafic or calcareous rocks, such as amphibolite, gabbro, or limestone. It grows only in rich hardwood forests, mainly on slopes, where it is a characteristic species of Basic Mesic Forests, less so in Rich Cove Forests.
See also Habitat Account for Rich Wet-Dry Hardwood Forests
PhenologyBlooms from April to early May, and fruits from late May into June.
IdentificationThis is a fairly coarse herb that grows to about 2' on average, rarely almost to 3' tall, but often just 1' high. There are numerous alternate leaves on the unbranched stem; each leaf is generally elliptical with an acuminate tip, about 3-4" long and 1" wide. In most leaf axils grow one to a few small pale green to yellow-green flowers, on short but dangling stalks, so that the flower is held below the axil. The flower structure is somewhat complex and difficult to describe, but the gist is a closed-looking flower only about 1/4" high that looks like no other flower in NC, as this species is the only one in its genus. The "violet" in the common name is a misnomer; though Cubelium is related to Viola, within the same family (Violaceae), the flower does not resemble a Viola flower in the slightest. To look for this species, you will need to locate a very rich slope, on Iredell or other high pH soil. Even so, if you have never seen the species before, you likely will be puzzled over such an ordinary-looking herb, especially if the small greenish flowers in the axils are not visible.
Taxonomic CommentsUntil recently, the species was named as Hybanthus concolor.

Other Common Name(s)Eastern Green-violet
State RankS3
Global RankG5
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