Vascular Plants of North Carolina
Account for Fringed Sedge + - Carex crinita var. crinita   Lamarck
Members of Cyperaceae:
Members of Carex with account distribution info or public map:
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Section 5 » Order Cyperales » Family Cyperaceae
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AuthorLamarck
DistributionAcross most of the state, except rare in the upper Piedmont and southern Coastal Plain.

N.S. to Man. south to GA and LA.
AbundanceUncommon to locally frequent.
HabitatSwamp forests, floodplain forests and bottomlands, riverside marshes, seepage bogs, lake and impoundment margins, beaver ponds.
PhenologyFlowering and fruiting May-August.
IdentificationFringed Sedge and its close relatives have tall culms (flowering stems) with 2-5 drooping or arching female spikes that taper to the tip. It is readily separated from var. brevicrinis by having a groove or constriction in the side of the achene. Separated from C. mitchelliana and C. gynandra by glabrous leaf sheaths (vs. scabrous) and retuse tips of female scales (vs. truncate to acuminate).
Taxonomic CommentsIn the past, C. crinita var. brevicrinis was lumped here.

The genus Carex is the largest in North America, and among the largest in the world. In temperate and boreal regions, Carex is often the dominant or co-dominant ground layer in many habitats. Seeds (achenes) are valuable food for birds and small mammals, while foliage is used by birds and mammals to make nests and as food by mammals. Species of Carex often look vastly different from one another -- spikes erect vs. drooping, tiny inflorescence vs. whopping, culms leafy vs. naked, perigynia beaked vs. beakless, stems densely bunched vs. single, etc. The genus has been divided into many sections (or groups), based on shared characters; some taxonomists have suggested that these be different genera, but that proves unworkable (so far). All Carex share the feature of a perigynium (an outer covering) which completely surrounds the achene (seed). This covering may fit tightly or loosely (like a small bladder), depending on which group or species. Details of perigynia shape, ornamentation, presence and size of beak, number of striations (or veins) are all important ID features. In recent years Rob Naczi and colleagues have stressed the importance of arrangement of perigynia -- whether spiral (3+ ranks) or distichous (2-ranked) -- and have named a number of new species as well as split off some older synonyms. Therefore, RAB's (1968) key, excellent for its time, can only be used in a general way today. Members of some sections of Carex are difficult to key out (notably Ovales, Laxiflorae, Griseae); this is in part due to variation among individuals of a species, or failings of the key. FNA has drawings of most species and some species may be found in two or more places within a key, to acount for variability. New species to NC, and new to science(!), continue to be found in NC.
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