Moths of North Carolina
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118 NC Records

Apoda y-inversa (Packard, 1864) - Yellow-collared Slug Moth


Taxonomy
Superfamily: Zygaenoidea Family: LimacodidaeP3 Number: 660025.00 MONA Number: 4667.00 MONA Synonym: Apoda y-inversum
Comments: Apoda y-inversa is one of five members of the genus that occur in North America, three of which occur in North Carolina.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Covell (1984); Beadle and Leckie (2012)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIF, BOLDTechnical Description, Adults: Forbes (1923)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Dyar and Morton (1895); Wagner (2005)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: In this species the head, palps, antennae, thorax, dorsum of the abdomen, and ground color of the forewings are creamy yellow or pale orange to light brown, with a scattered dusting of reddish brown specks. The forewing has a reddish to dark brown median line that runs from near the mid-point of the inner margin to just beyond the mid-point of the costa. A similar line runs in the opposite direction from the costa to the outer margin near the tornus. Together they form a trapezoidal shape. This species has two distinctly different forms, with numerous gradations in between. Both forms show an X or vertical hour glass shape that is centered inside the trapezoid. These are the only markings on the light form and they are sometimes faint. On the dark form, the trapezoid is filled with dark brown or black scaling, with the loops of the hour glass lighter and having the same color as the lighter ground color of the forewing. The length from the tip of head to the apex of the forewing for a resting individual averages 13 mm (n = 5).
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: Dyar and Morton (1895) studied populations in New York that are single-brooded and provided an account of the life history as follows. The larvae pass through seven instars and the larval period lasts about two months. The yellowish eggs are laid singly and the first three instars skeletonize leaves and produce linear tracks on the upper sides of the leaf. The later instars switch to consuming the entire leaf. The final instar spins a tough, thin-walled, brownish cocoon for overwintering.

The slug-like, final instar larvae have a smooth, light green body with faint, diffuse yellowish spots along the sides and dorsum. The most conspicuous mark is a yellow subdorsal line that is broad and distinct and bordered above by a series of well-spaced bluish to blackish-green dots. A yellow rim is present along the front edge of the thorax, and the tail is very short and quadrate (Dyar and Morton, 1895; Wagner, 2005). The larva is similar to that of A. biguttata in being greenish with a pair of sub-dorsal stripes, but the latter differs by having a more whitish stripe with a continuous dark line above. It also lacks the yellow rim along the front edge of the thorax (Wagner, 2005).
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos, especially where associated with known host plants.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Apoda y-inversa is found throughout most of the eastern US and in adjoining portions of southern Canada (Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick). In the US the range extends from Maine southward to southern Florida, and westward to central Texas, central Oklahoma, central Kansas, Iowa and Minnesota. This species occurs in all three physiographic provinces in North Carolina, but is relatively uncommon in the Coastal Plain and at the higher elevations in the Blue Ridge.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Immature Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: The adults mostly fly from May through August in most portions of the range, with a more extended flight season in the southernmost populations. As of 2023, our records extend from early May through mid-September. Populations in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont appear to be bivoltine, while those in the Blue Ridge probably have only one generation per year.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: This species is generally associated with deciduous woodlands.
Larval Host Plants: The larvae feed on broadleaf trees, with hickories appearing to be particularly important (Dyar and Morton, 1895; Wagner 2005; Heppner, 2007; Murphy et al., 2011; BugGuide). The reported hosts include American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata), Mockernut Hickory (C. tomentosa), American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) and oaks (Quercus). In North Carolina, we have observed larvae feeding on hickory. - View
Observation Methods: The adults are readily attracted to lights.
Wikipedia
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: G5 S4S5
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments: This species is relatively common in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont and appears to be secure within the state.

 Photo Gallery for Apoda y-inversa - Yellow-collared Slug Moth

83 photos are available. Only the most recent 30 are shown.

Recorded by: David George, Jeff Niznik, Stephen Dunn on 2024-06-29
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish, Lior S. Carlson on 2024-06-17
Lincoln Co.
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Recorded by: Emily Stanley on 2024-06-15
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-06-14
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-05-24
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Stephen Dunn on 2024-05-20
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Rich Teper on 2024-05-13
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Rich Teper on 2024-05-13
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Rich Teper on 2024-05-13
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2024-04-29
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: R. Teper, David George on 2023-09-25
Caswell Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-09-15
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-09-07
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: Chuck Smith on 2023-08-05
Davidson Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka, David George on 2023-08-05
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Darryl Willis on 2023-08-03
Cabarrus Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-07-31
Macon Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-07-31
Swain Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik, Rich Teper, Becky Watkins on 2023-07-30
Swain Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik, Rich Teper, Becky Watkins on 2023-07-29
Swain Co.
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Recorded by: Lenny Lampel on 2023-07-28
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: Chuck Smith on 2023-07-27
Davidson Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2023-07-25
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Steve Hall, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik, Rich Teper, Becky Watkins on 2023-07-22
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Chuck Smith on 2023-07-20
Davidson Co.
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Recorded by: K. Bischof on 2023-07-16
Transylvania Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-07-14
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2023-07-07
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2023-07-06
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Emily Stanley on 2023-06-29
Yancey Co.
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