Moths of North Carolina
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Marmara serotinella
MONA_number: 717.00
The genus Marmara contains about 20 described species from North America and numerous undescribed species. Most species are monophagous, and the mines have been found on over 80 North American plant genera in 40 families (Eiseman et al., 2017). This suggests that there are dozens of undescribed species in the US.The following is based on the description by Busck (1915). The labial palp is silvery white, and the second joint has a blackish brown apical annulation. The maxillary palp is dark fuscous. The face a...This species is dependent on Black Cherry for reproduction. Black Cherry is common in hardwood and mixed-hardwood forests in the mountains and elsewhere. The seeds are dispersed by birds, and plants o...Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) is the primary and perhaps exclusive host (Robinson et al., 2010). Eiseman (2019) found a mine on Fire Cherry (P. pensylvanica) that closely resembled tha...The adults appear to very rarely visit lights and most records are based on stem mines. We encourage naturalists to search for the stem mines on Black Cherry. ...GNR SUAs of 2020 we have only two state records, which likely reflects the fact that little effort has been put forth to document stem miners in North Carolina. We need additional data before the conservat...
Cisseps fulvicollis
Yellow-collared Scape Moth
MONA_number: 8267.00
One of three species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010), and the only one found in North CarolinaFore-wings are narrow and colored brown to blackish gray; the head is black with a yellow or orange vertex; the collar is also yellow or orange, the thorax dark gray, and the body deep blue-black. So...Found in a wide variety of open and forested habitats, ranging from dune grasslands and maritime forests on the barrier islands to river bottoms, sandhills, and dry ridges; uses old field habitats and...Oligophagous, feeding on grasses and sedges (Wagner, 2005)...Diurnally active and often seen feeding on flowers. Also comes well to blacklights, with up to 77 being collected in a single trap...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 [S5]Abundant, widespread, and occupying a very wide range of habitats; this species is one of the most secure in the state...
Phyllonorycter tiliacella
Basswood Round-blotch Miner
MONA_number: 797.00
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Stigmella quercipulchella
MONA_number: 99.00
Members of the genus Stigmella are a group of small leaf-mining moths that typically create linear mines, although a few species form linear-blotch or blotch mines. Newton and Wilkinson (1982) recognized 51 species in their revision on the North American fauna, and new discoveries have since raised the total to around 57 species. Almost all species are specialists and rarely use more than one genus of host plants. Host-specificity, mine characteristics, and genitalic differences are helpful in recognizing closely related forms that are externally similar. The following description of adults is based on Wilkinson and Scoble (1979). The palps are whitish and the antenna is grayish brown with a gray luster. The eye-cap is shining white to silvery. The tu...In North Carolina, local populations occur in a wide variety of mesic habitats that support oaks. Populations have been found at sites ranging from rich hardwood slopes in the mountains to riparian an...Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra) appears to be an important primary host, but S. quercipulchella will use other oaks, including Scarlet Oak (Q. coccinea), Bear Oak (Q. ilicifol...The adults appear to only occasionally visit lights, so we recommend searching for active leaf mines on Quercus rubra or other oaks and rearing the adults. ...GNR S3S4We currently do not have adequate information to assess the conservation status of this species in the state. ...
Stigmella sclerostylota
MONA_number: 91.10
Members of the genus Stigmella are a group of small leaf-mining moths that typically create linear mines, although a few species form linear-blotch or blotch mines. Newton and Wilkinson (1982) recognized 51 species in their revision on the North American fauna, and new discoveries have since raised the total to around 57 species. Almost all species are specialists and rarely use more than one genus of host plants. Host-specificity, mine characteristics, and genitalic differences are helpful in recognizing closely related forms that are externally similar. The following description of the adults is from Newton and Wilkinson (1982). The palps are whitish. The antenna is dark brown and the eye-caps are shining white. The tufts on the front of the head and...Stigmella sclerostylota specializes on oaks, but there are very few locality records and much to learn about its habitat requirements. ...The documented hosts include White Oak (Quercus alba), Water Oak (Q. nigra), and possibly Black Oak (Q. velutina)....The adults appear to only occasionally visit lights. We recommend searching for mines and rearing the adults. Adult identification generally requires DNA barcoding or the examination on genitalia. ...GNR SNRThis species appears to be uncommon based on the scarcity of records in the eastern US. We currently do not have sufficient information on its distribution and abundance in North Carolina to assess i...
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Proleucoptera smilaciella
MONA_number: 474.00
The genus Proleucoptera contains only a single described species in North America.The following is primarily based on the original description by Busck (1900a). The antenna is golden white with a well-developed eye cap. The thorax, head tuft and face are silvery white, and the labi...Local populations are restricted to sites with greenbrier (Smilax spp.), particularly species that inhabit moist to mesic forests or forest edge habitats. ...Proleucoptera smilaciella is monophagous on greenbriers. Documented host plants include Cat Greenbrier (Smilax glauca), Smooth Carrion-flower (S. herbacea), Downy Carrion-flower ...The adults are attracted to lights, and the large leaf mines are easy to spot on the upper surfaces on greenbrier leaves. ...GNR S3S4This species is probably more common than our records suggest since most records are based on leaf mines, which in general have received little attention from naturalists and field biologists. ...
Cosmopterix clandestinella
MONA_number: 1475.00
Cosmopterix is a very large genus of small, colorful moths that are found on every continent except Antarctica. There are 31 species that are currently recognized in North America, and all are leafminers. The following description focuses on forewing and antenna patterning, and is based on a more detailed description presented by Koster (2010). The head and thorax lack the white, median lines that are ...Local populations are most likely to be encountered in shaded to partially shaded woods, and along ditches and low areas where the host species occurs. ...The only known host is Deer-tongue Witchgrass (Dichanthelium clandestinum). ...The adults occasionally visit lights. We recommend searching Dichanthelium clandestinum leaves for the mines and rearing the adults. The mines should be evident by late April or May, and again...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S1S3...
Ectoedemia rubifoliella
MONA_number: 48.00
This genus includes 15 Nearctic species of very small, leaf-mining moths. The following description of the adults is based on Braun (1917) and Wilkinson and Scoble (1979). The palps are whitish and lustrous, and the vertex and the tuft on the front of head are ochreous. The...Populations are associated with habitats that support Rubus spp. Examples include forest gaps, woodland margins, roadsides, thickets, abandoned fields, and other open and sunny habitats. ...The larvae specialize on blackberries and their relatives (Eiseman, 2019). The known hosts include Common Dewberry (R. flagellaris), Swamp Dewberry (R. hispidus), Black Raspberry (R. ...The adults appear to very rarely visit lights and most records are for adults that were reared from leaf mines. ...GNR SUWe currently do not have sufficient data on the distribution and abundance o this species within the state to assess its conservation status. ...
Thyris sepulchralis
Mournful Thyris Moth
MONA_number: 6077.00
......Larvae feed on Grapes (Robinson et al., 2008)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4 S4...
Catocala ultronia
Ultronia Underwing
MONA_number: 8857.00
One of 103 species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010, 2015), 67 of which have been recorded in North Carolina. Included by Barnes and McDunnough (1918) in their Group XVII (also adopted by Forbes, 1954), which feed mainly on members of the Rosaceae; 12 other members of this group (as redefined by Kons and Borth, 2015b) also occur in North Carolina.......Larvae are oligophagous, feeding on several members of the Rosaceae. Wagner et al. (2011) state that Prunus species are the main host plants but that they also use Apple and Hawthorn to some extent.......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
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Caloptilia hypericella
MONA_number: 608.00
Caloptilia is a large genus with nearly 300 described species; 64 species have been described from North America north of Mexico. The larvae mostly feed on woody plants and begin as leaf-mining sap-feeders. The latter instars usually exit the mines and feed within a conical roll that begins at the leaf apex or at the tip of a leaf lobe. This species lacks the bold patterning that is seen in many Caloptilia and has an overall drab, ochreous coloration with darker mottling. Braun (1918) described the forewings as having an oche...Given the large number of host species used, populations likely occur in a wide range of habitats such as old fields, roadsides, rocky woods, and dry to mesic forests. ...As the name implies, C. hypericella is a specialist on Hypericum species (St. John's Wort). Eiseman (2019) found this species on Triadenum, which is now generally treated as bein...The adults appear to only rarely visit lights, and searching for leaf mines on Hypericum species may be the most productive way to document local populations. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUCaloptilia hypericella appears to be uncommon throughout its range based on the rather small number of locality records for eastern North America. ...
Dichomeris kimballi
MONA_number: 2310.10
......Host plants appear to be unknown (Hodges, 1986)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Dichomeris inversella
Dichomeris Species Group
MONA_number: 2310.00
......Larvae possibly feed on Pecans (Hodges, 1986)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Acrobasis angusella
Hickory Leafstem Borer Moth
MONA_number: 5673.00
"All Acrobasis with a 3 are very tricky for ID. In some cases it requires close look at male antennae, in others a look at the underside of the wings in males. In some cases females cannot be distin...North Carolina records come mainly from the Mountains, including sites with cove forests and northern hardwoods. Our one record from the Piedmont comes from a site adjacent to a rich bottomland stand ...Larvae feed on Hickories, including Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, and Carya tomentosa (Neunzig, 1972)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4...
Marmara unidentified species
MONA_number: 718.01
The genus Marmara contains about 20 described species from North America and numerous undescribed species. Most species are monophagous, and the mines have been found on over 80 North American plant genera in 40 families (Eiseman et al., 2017). This suggests that there are dozens of undescribed species in the US. The adults have proven to be particularly challenging to rear, which has hampered the description of new species. We have several records for both adults and mines from North Carolina that are very likely undescribed species. ...............
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Homosetia unidentified species
MONA_number: 295.01
Homosetia is a genus with 12 currently described species and several undescribed species that are found in eastern North America. Homosetia bifasciella is a member of a complex of externally-similar species that all have gray forewings with small patches of dark-yellow scaling and blackish tufts of raised scales at about one fifth, one half, and four fifths of the wing length from the base, with some or all of the tufts lying within a diffuse dark fascia that extends the entire breadth of the forewing. The tufts are often missing from wear and may be indiscernible in some specimens. Terry Harrison (microleps.org) has discovered at least five undescribed species in this complex that occur in Illinois, and that are likely found farther east, including in North Carolina. These forms are best identified based on genital morphology. Other specimens of have been found that do not fully conform to the descriptions of named species, which suggests that additional undescribed species may be present in the eastern US. Many of the specimens below do not readily fit the named species. ...............
Caloptilia azaleella
Azalea Leafminer Moth
MONA_number: 592.00
Caloptilia is a large genus with nearly 300 described species; 64 species have been described from North America north of Mexico. The larvae mostly feed on woody plants and begin as leaf-mining sap-feeders. The latter instars usually exit the mines and feed within a conical roll that begins at the leaf apex or at the tip of a leaf lobe. The adults have a dark brown ground color on the upper head, thorax, and forewings with a conspicuous pale yellow patch that extends from about one-quarter of the basal region to near the apex. The pa...Because this species uses ornamental azaleas as hosts, it is primarily found in city, suburban, and rural landscapes where azaleas are planted....This species is only known to use azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) as hosts. Non-native, ornamental azaleas appear to be the primary hosts. ...Adults occasionally come to lights. Ornamental azaleas should be checked for evidence of leaf mines and leaf shelters. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [SNA]C. azaleella does not merit any conservation concerns given that it is an introduced species that appears to rely almost entirely on ornamental azaleas as hosts. ...
Epiblema strenuana_abruptana complex
MONA_number: 3172.50
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Xanthorhoe ferrugata
Red Twin-Spot Moth
MONA_number: 7388.00
A double, black, subterminal spot is located along the Outer Margin opposite the cell; the postmedian line towards the costa is fine, double, and filled with white; the hindwing is not black or heavil...Mesic forests, woodlands, wooded swamps, and wet meadows (Wagner et al., 2001). Our records come from rich mesic and bottomland forests along the lower Roanoke River in the Coastal Plain. In the Mount...Polyphagous, feeding on many species of forbs, including clover, dandelion, ground ivy, knotweed, and pigweed (Wagner et al., 2001)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S3S4...
Homosetia tricingulatella
MONA_number: 295.00
Homosetia is a small genus with 12 recognized species that are found only in North America. The following description is primarily based on that of Forbes (1923). The head is blackish with a prominent shaggy tuft of erect hair-like scales, and the face whitish. The antenna is grayish and the...The habitats are poorly documented. ...The feeding ecology is undocumented, but it is very likely that this species does not depend on living plants as hosts. It presumably feeds on detritus, fungi, lichens, bird feathers or other organic ...The adults occasionally visit lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUWe currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of this species to assess its conservation status. ...
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Hypatopa vestaliella
MONA_number: 1218.00
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Xystopeplus rufago
Red-winged Sallow
MONA_number: 9942.00
...Wagner et al. (2011) list woodlands, forests, and barrens as habitats used by this species. Our records come from a variety of dry, open woodlands and barrens, including maritime scrub, pine-oak heath...Larval host plants include heaths and oaks, as well as other hardwood trees and shrubs (Wagner et al., 2011).......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S3S4...
Chaetaglaea rhonda
Eastern Trembling Sallow
MONA_number: 9949.10
Currently this genus of 5 species is wholly North American and three of the species are found in North Carolina. The genus is quite similar to other "glaeas" and distinguished largely by features of the male valve and aedeagus.The species is best recognized by its large size and lack of distinct patterning. It comes in a variety of color forms, reddish and gray being the most common. The cross lines are visible but the pat...In the Coastal Plain, our records come mainly from maritime dunes and Coastal Sandhill Scrub habitats, which is consistent with the coastal and lakeshore dune habitats described for this species by St...There are only a few records of larvae found in the wild, where they were observed feeding on Gaylussacia baccata and Vaccinium angustifolium. Captive larvae have been reared on a wider range of speci...Adults come to lights and bait but with so few fall flowers in late October and November, it is unlikely they visit them....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S2S4We have relatively few records for this species and more surveys need to be conducted during its fall flight period to better determine its distribution, abundance, host plants, and habitat associatio...
Platynota idaeusalis
Tufted Apple Budmoth
MONA_number: 3740.00
In males, the vertex of the head and the dorsum of the labial palps are usually gray, lacking any white or cream scales (Powell and Brown, 2012). The ground color is ash gray, variably shaded with bla......Larvae are widely polyphagous, feeding on trees, shrubs, and forbs (Powell and Brown 2012). In the eastern United States, it is considered a significant pest of apples.......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Pelochrista pallidipalpana
MONA_number: 3153.00
............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
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Nepticulidae
MONA_number: 118.99
The Nepticulidae are a group of tiny moths that have had a complex taxonomic history. There are many undescribed species in North America and species that are sometimes placed in different genera are very similar based on external patterning (e.g., certain Ectoedemia and Stigmella). This page includes submissions whose generic identity is uncertain based on photographic images. ...............
Dichomeris ochripalpella
Shining Dichomeris Moth
MONA_number: 2289.00
......Larvae are leaf-folders on Composites, including Asters and Goldenrods (Hodges, 1986)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Dichomeris bilobella
Bilobed Dichomeris Moth
MONA_number: 2291.00
......Larvae are leaf rollers on Composites, including Asters and Goldenrods (Hodges, 1986)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Glyphidocera juniperella
Juniper Tip Moth
MONA_number: 1136.10
Glyphidocera is a large but poorly studied genus with numerous undescribed species in the Neotropics, where they reach their greatest diversity. Adamski (2005) described 88 new species from Costa Rica alone. There are currently 11 described species in North America, and seven species in North Carolina. They are small to medium-sized moths and, with rare exceptions, vary from pale yellowish brown to dark brown. Most have few, if any, diagnostic markings on the wings. Host associations are unknown for almost all species, which suggests that they may be detritivores or fungivores that do not feed on living plants. The following is based on the description by Adamski and Brown (1987). The palps are strongly recurved and reach backwards to the middle of the head. The head, thorax, antenna, labial palp and forewin...Local populations are dependent on junipers as host plants, and presumably use both Southern Red Cedar and Eastern Red Cedar as hosts. The former is common on barrier islands where it can be found in ...Adamski and Brown (1987) described this species from larvae collected on cultivated Juniperus horizontalis. That species is native to the northern US and Canada, and red cedars seem like the mo...The adults are attracted to lights. Observations of host use are needed, so we recommend searching for larvae and rearing adults. ...GNR S4S5This species occurs statewide and appears to be relatively secure. ...
Olethreutes auricapitana
MONA_number: 2830.00
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Cenopis cana
Gray Sparganothis Moth
MONA_number: 3728.00
.........Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Cenopis saracana
MONA_number: 3724.00
......Larvae feed on Sassafras (Forbes, 1923; Brown et al., 2008)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.[GNR] SU...
Ectoedemia platanella
MONA_number: 43.00
Wilkinson and Newton (1981) divided the North American Ectoedemia into four species groups based primarily on genitalic differences. The platanella group consists of four species (E. clemensella; E. platanella; Ectoedemia similella; E. virgulae) that have similar traits, such as the presence of multi-branched setae on the inner sides of the valves.The following description is based on Braun (1917) and Wilkinson and Newton (1981). The palps are buff. The eye-cap is shining white and the antenna is dark brown. The tuft on the front of the head is...Local populations are found in association with the American Sycamore. Sycamores are common along stream banks and in other wet habitats, particularly where scouring or soil disturbance reduces the l...The only known host is American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis). ...Almost all locality records are based on leaf mines, which are rather conspicuous on sycamore leaves. Photographic records of adults are needed, and we encourages participants to rear and photograph ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4We currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of this species in North Carolina to assess its conservation status....
Cosmopterix pulchrimella
Beautiful Cosmopterix Moth
MONA_number: 1472.00
Cosmopterix is a very large genus of small, colorful moths that are found on every continent except Antarctica. There are 31 species that are currently recognized in North America, and all are leafminers. The following description focuses on forewing and antenna patterning, and is based on a more detailed description presented by Koster (2010). The vertex has two lateral white lines and a medial line ......Larvae feed on members of the Urticaceae. The known host plants include Pennsylvania Pellitory (Parietaria pensylvanica) and Greenfruit Clearweed (Pilea pumila; Koster, 2010). ...Adults are attracted to UV lights, and can be reared from the host plants. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S1S3...
Lascoria ambigualis
Ambiguous Moth
MONA_number: 8393.00
Males are easy to identify based on the notch they possess on the outer margin of the forewing. Females, however, can be difficult to distinguish from both males and females of Phalaenophana pyramusal...Wagner et al. (2011) describe its habitats as including shrubby fields, woodlands, and forests. Our records span the entire range of habitats in North Carolina, from maritime dunes, bottomlands, swamp...Highly polyphagous, feeding on both dead and living plants. Wagner et al. (2011), including graminoids, forbs, and hardwood shrubs.......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
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Cameraria bethunella
MONA_number: 809.00
Cameraria is a genus of leaf-mining micromoths. Many species are stenophagous and specialize on a small number of closely related host species. There are currently more than 50 described species in North America.The following is largely based on Chambers' (1871) original description. The face and palpi are silvery white; the antennae silvery white beneath and brownish banded with white above. The head tuft is......This species is a rather generalized feeder on members of the Fagaceae (Eiseman, 2019). The documented hosts include American Chestnut (Castanea dentata), Bear Oak (Quercus ilicifolia), ...The adults are attracted to lights. The blotch mines can be found on the upper surfaces of oaks and American Chestnut. Rearing of adults is required to separate these from other Cameraria spe...GNR SUThis species is poorly documented in the state; additional documentation of its distribution and abundance is needed before we can determine its conservation status. ...
Prionoxystus macmurtrei
Little Carpenterworm Moth
MONA_number: 2694.00
One of three members of the genus in North America, two of which are found in North Carolina. Very similar in appearance to members of the genus Acossus, though no species in that genus occurs in the southeastern U.S. It is among the largest of the "micro-moths."Subtly sexually dimorphic. The forewings of the female are brownish to smoky gray, marked by variable black, transverse lines, and are noticeably translucent. The hindwings are largely unmarked gray a...Our records come from fairly nondescript locations, including building lights in towns. One comes from a Piedmont monadnock and two others come from habitats associated with artificial reservoirs....Borers into the wood of deciduous trees such as ash, maples, and oaks (Covell, 2005)....Females are attracted to lights to some extent, males far less so. Since the mouthparts of the adults are rudimentary, they do not feed and consequently do not come to bait or visit flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it in state parks and on other public lands.G4 [S3S4]Forbes (1923) noted that this species is quite rare in collections. That agrees with our records, which are few and far between in North Carolina. However, the records do not indicate any significant ...
Acleris curvalana
Blueberry Leaftier Moth
MONA_number: 3504.00
...North Carolina records come from both high elevation heath thickets -- e.g., from near the summit of Mt. Mitchell -- to heath thickets associated with longleaf pine habitats along the coast....Larvae feed primarily on Blueberry and Huckleberry, including cultivated varieties of Vaccinium, of which it is considered a major pest. In addition to Heaths, it has also been reported on Oak and Ros......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S2S4...
Hybroma servulella
Yellow Wave Moth
MONA_number: 300.00
This species is easily recognized by its sulphur yellow and dark brown color patterning. The following detailed description is based on Dietz (1905). The head, thorax and and ground color of the forew...The habitats are poorly documented. The larvae presumably do not feed on living plants and are not host-dependent. Dietz (1905) found adults resting on tree trunks. ...The larvae and their food resources have never been reported. Like almost all tineids, they presumably feed either on dead organic matter such as feathers, scat, and plant or animal remains, or feed o...The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUThis species is regularly encountered at lights and seems to be relatively secure within the state. ...
Idaea furciferata
Notch-winged Wave Moth
MONA_number: 7108.00
One of thirty species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Pohl et al., 2016). Thirteen have been recorded in North Carolina....Our records come mainly from fairly dry, open habitats. In the Coastal Plain, we have records from sandhill habitats; in the Piedmont, we have records both from mafic barrens, glades, Piedmont Longlea...Host plants appear to be unknown......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4 [S3S4]...
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Hypoprepia miniata
Scarlet-winged Lichen Moth
MONA_number: 8089.00
One of four members of this genus in North America, two of which occur in North Carolina. Some populations of both miniata and fucosa show strong departures in size and coloration from the typical patterns and may represent undescribed species (Wagner, 2005).Strongly bicolored with scarlet and slate gray longitudinal bands on the wings and on the head, thorax, and abdomen. Usually larger than Hypoprepia fucosa, which is also usually tricolored, with yell...Habitats include forests and fields (Wagner, 2005). In North Carolina, we have records from a wide range of habitats across the state. It appears to be especially common in maritime forests and scrub...Like most Lithosiines, probably feeds on lichens, bark algae, and Cyanobacteria (Covell, 1984; Wagner, 2005)...Comes well to blacklights; none of our records come from bait...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 [S5]Although far less common than H. fucosa, this species is nonetheless widely distributed and occupies a broad set of habitats, making it secure in the state ...
Pelochrista kimballi
MONA_number: 3043.10
...Habitats in North Carolina range from the mesic, montane forests represented at the type locality at Highlands, to dry-xeric hardwood forests in the Piedmont, to wet-mesic Longleaf Pine savannas in th...Host plants are unknown......GNR S2S3...
Coptodisca lucifluella
MONA_number: 247.00
This New World genus includes 16 described North American species of small leaf-mining moths, as well as several undescribed species. When mature, the larva cuts a disc of tissue out of the leaf and uses it to form a cocoon. All known species of Coptodisca feed on woody plants, and most are restricted to a single plant genus. The following description is primarily based on Chambers (1874). The head, thorax and much of the basal half of the forewing are silvery white to light gray, while the remainder of the forewing has c...Coptodisca lucifluella is a specialist on hickories and is found is found in a variety of forested habitats with hickories. ...The reported hosts include Pignut Hickory (C. glabra), Pecan (C. illinoinensis), Shagbark Hickory (C. ovata), Mockernut Hickory (C. tomentosa), and Black Hickory (C. tex...Adults occasionally visit lights and the leaf mines are often readily evident on hickory leaves. This species has a very brief generation time and adults have been successfully reared from leaf mines...GNR S2S4We currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of this species in North Carolina to assess its conservation status. However, it generally appears to be uncommon thro...
Phyllocnistis magnoliella
Magnolia Serpentine Leafminer Moth
MONA_number: 851.00
Phyllocnistis liriodendronella and P. magnoliella are the only species of Phyllocnistis in our area that have a longitudinal golden streak from the base to the middle of the forewing. According to Forbes (1923), brown edging occurs along the golden streak in P. liriodendronella, but is absent in P. magnoliella. Forbes also noted that P. liriodendronella is a specialist on the Tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera), while P. magnoliella specializes on several species of native magnolias (Magnolia). Eiseman (2019) raised specimens from both Liriodendron and Magnolia in Massachusetts and found that the adults of both conformed to Forbes’ description of P. liriodendronella. A colleague of Eiseman also found just one species on Liriodendron and Magnolia. Based on these results, Eiseman (2019) suggested that P. magnoliella will eventually be synonymized with P. liriodendronella. Jim Petranka reared specimens from Liriodendron and Magnolia mines from Madison County that also were indistinguishable and conform to P. liriodendronella as described by Forbes (1923). However, larvae on Magnolia tended to pupate beneath curled leaf edges, while those on Liriodendron tended to pupate in folds of the leaf that were inward from the leaf edge. This behavioral difference suggest the possibility of two species. Until taxonomic issues are resolved, we have arbitrarily decided to treat leaf mines on Liriodendron as being those of P. liriodendronella, and leaf mines on magnolias to be those of P. magnoliella. Adults that were collected at sites that had Liriodendron, but no Magnolia, are also presumed to be P. liriodendronella. In cases where representatives of both host genera were present -- and the specimen possessed a golden streak that was edged with brown -- the specimen was assigned to the Phyllocnistis liriodendronella__magnoliella complex. Phyllocnistis liriodendronella and P. magnoliella that we have reared from different host plants in North Carolina are indistinguishable, and the following description applies to both s...This species mines the leaves of at least four species of native magnolias. It has been observed in the mountains primarily in forests with moist to well-drained soils, and typically with circumneutra...As of 2021, we have records of leaf mines on five of our six native magnolias: Cucumber Magnolia (M. acuminata), Fraser's Magnolia (M. fraseri), Southern Magnolia (M. grandiflora)...We recommend searching for the mines on leaves on native magnolias, and rearing and photographing the adults....GNR SU...
Coptotriche castaneaeella
MONA_number: 140.00
Coptotriche is a genus of specialized leafminers that currently consists of 28 recognized Nearctic species. Most species fall within one of two major groups. Members of the first group typically have orangish to yellowish fore wings (rarely white) and specialize on oaks and chestnuts, while members of the second group have dark gray, brown, or blackish fore wings and mostly feed on members of the Rosaceae (Braun, 1972; Eiseman, 2019).The following is from Braun's (1972) description based on studies of 29 specimens from throughout the range of the species. The face varies from whitish ocherous to pale straw-colored. The scales of t...This species utilizes oaks and American Chestnut during the larval stage and is restricted to habitats with the host species. It presumably uses a variety of habitats with these species such as mixed...The larvae of C. castaneaeella mine the leaves of oak species and American Chestnut (Castanea dentata). The known oak hosts include Swamp White Oak (Q. bicolor), White Oak (Qu...Direct searches for the leaf mines with their distinctive concentric crescent marks is the best way to document local populations. Since C. castaneaeella appears to rarely visit lights -- and...GNR S2S4...
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Phyllonorycter aeriferella
MONA_number: 726.00
Phyllonorycter is a genus of small and often colorful moths, with 79 described species in North America. The larvae of most form underside tentiform mines on woody plants and pupate within the mines. The following is mostly based on descriptions provided by Clemens (1859) and Braun (1908). The antenna is dark brown above and white beneath. The front of the head is silvery white, while the vertex, ...This species exploits oaks, and is found in a wide variety of habitats that range from bottomland forests to drier forested bluffs and ridges. ...The larvae feed on a wide selection of oaks (Eiseman, 2019). Documented hosts include White Oak (Quercus alba), Swamp White Oak (Q. bicolor), Southern Red Oak (Q. falcata), Bear ...The adults are attracted to UV lights and have been successfully reared from leaf mines. ...GNR S2S4We currently do not have sufficient data on the distribution and abundance of this species within the state to accurately assess its conservation status. ...
Ectoedemia quadrinotata
MONA_number: 51.00
This genus includes 15 Nearctic species of very small, leaf-mining moths. The following description of the adults is based on Braun (1917) and Wilkinson and Scoble (1979). The head and tufts are dark brown, and the palps are gray-brown with a gray luster. The eye-cap is sil...Populations are found in a variety of habitats that support the host species. Examples include streambanks and floodplain forests, rich circumneutral forested slopes, and forest edges and openings. ...The larvae feed on members of the Betulaceae, including Ironwood or American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), American Hazelnut (Corylus americana), American Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virg...The adults are rarely attracted to lights and most records are for adults that were reared from leaf mines. We recommend searching for occupied leaf mines on the undersides of Corylus, Carp...GNR S2S4We currently do not have sufficient data on the distribution and abundance of this species within the state to assess its conservation status. ...
Coleophora ostryae
MONA_number: 1295.00
The genus Coleophora is one of the most taxonomically challenging groups in North America. With only a few exceptions, most species cannot be identified based on photographs or external characters. The shape of the larval cases and host plants are very useful in identifying species, and high-quality dissections of genitalia are essential to recognize the majority of species. There are numerous species complexes with many undescribed species, and the taxonomy of Nearctic species remains largely unresolved. Here we treat forms that feed on American Hop Hornbeam as C. ostryae, with the understanding that these may represent several closely related forms. The following is based in part on the description by Heinrich (1914) for Coleophora carpinella. The labial palp is grayish white and tinged with reddish brown. The antenna is slightly thickened...The host plants occur in a variety of hardwood forests that range from stream margins and bottomland forests, to rich, mesic slopes and cove forests. ...The primary hosts appear to be American Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) and American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). There are also records of this species using Pignut Hickory (Car...The adults are attracted to lights. We recommend searching for the cases and evidence of feeding on Hop Hornbeam or other hosts during the spring and rearing the adults. ...GNR S2S4We have only three records as of 2021 that reflect the efforts of Tracy Feldman to document leafminers in the state. Additional information is need on the distribution and abundance of this species w...
Cameraria ostryarella
MONA_number: 832.00
The following description of the adults is based primarily on Braun (1908). The face and palps are white, while the antenna is whitish with brown annulations above. The ground color of the thorax and ...Local populations are strongly affiliated with the host plants, American Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) and American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Ostrya occurs in rich wood...American Hop-hornbeam and American Hornbeam appear to be the primary hosts. As of 2022, all but one of our site records for North Carolina were based on leaf mines on American Hop-hornbeam. This spec...We recommend searching for the rather conspicuous leaf mines on Ostrya and Carpinus during the late spring and summer months. We encourage individuals to rear and photograph the adults....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4This species was only recently discovered in North Carolina, which likely reflects the fact that little effort has been put forth to document leafminers within the state. ...
Cameraria corylisella
MONA_number: 817.00
This is one of over 50 Cameraria species that have been described from North America. The forewings of the adults have a light tawny ground color that is overlain with three narrow white bands that are edged on the posterior margin with black. The subterminal band is broken, and there ...This species primarily uses hazelnuts as hosts and local populations mostly occur where hazelnuts are present. Our two native species of hazelnuts occur in a wide variety of habitats that range from ...Cameraria corylisella is a rather specialized leafminer that uses both beaked hazelnut (Corylus cornuta) and American Hazelnut (C. americana). It also uses American Hornbeam (C...Local populations are most easily located by searching for the distinctive leaf mines that occur on hazelnut leaves. The adults appear to only occasionally come to lights....GNR S2S4North Carolina is at the southernmost range limit of Cameraria corylisella. This species was only recently discovered in North Carolina and we have only 10 records as of 2022. The previous sou...