Moths of North Carolina
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Bucculatrix luteella
MONA_number: 563.00
Bucculatrix is a large genus of small leaf-mining moths, with around 300 species worldwide. A total of 103 Nearctic species have been described, and many others will likely be described in the future. Braun (1963) covered 99 species in her monograph, and four additional Nearctic species have been described since then. The following description is based on that of Braun (1963). The head is white, and the tuft white with a few yellow hairs in darker specimens. The eyecap is white, and the antennal stalk white with di...The hosts are poorly documented, with White Oak being the only definitive host. This common and widely distributed species is found in mesic to somewhat drier conditions, particularly in the Piedmont ...This species is an oak specialist. The only documented host (Eiseman, 2022) is White Oak (Quercus alba), but other members of the white oak group are likely used. ...The adults appear to rarely visit lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUThere are very few records for this species in the eastern US, and only two site records for North Carolina. It is uncertain if this reflects the fact that adults are not attracted to lights, or true ...
Bucculatrix coronatella
MONA_number: 559.00
Bucculatrix is a large genus of small leaf-mining moths, with around 300 species worldwide. A total of 103 Nearctic species have been described, and many others will likely be described in the future. Braun (1963) covered 99 species in her monograph, and four additional Nearctic species have been described since then. This is a tiny moth with three costal streaks and one tornal streak, a black raised scale patch, a black apical spot, and a black apical ciliary line. The following detailed description is based on Br...This species appears to rely heavily on River Birch, and at least two of our records come from river and lake shorelines in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where River Birch is common. ...Larvae are leafminers on River Birch (Betula nigra), although other birches may be possible hosts (Braun, 1963). Eiseman (2022) also lists Gray Birch (Betula populifolia), which is not n...All of our records come from lights. We recommend searching for leaf mines on River Birch and other birches to better document host use in North Carolina. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S4S5This small moth that is easily overlooked. It appears to be both common and widespread based on the number of state records, its host plants, and habitat associations. ...
Acleris chalybeana
Lesser Maple Leafroller Moth
MONA_number: 3539.00
The following description is based in part on those of Fernald (1882) and Forbes (1923) and is most relevant to North Carolina specimens. The palps and head are light tan, while the thorax is concolor...This species is generally associated with hardwood forests, particularly those where maples are well-represented. ...Maples appear to be an important host group, but several other deciduous hardwoods are used (Ferguson, 1975; MacKay, 1962; Geise et al., 1964; Prentice, 1966; Covell, 1984; Drooz, 1985; Brown et al., ...The adults are attracted to UV lights, and will visit bait during the cooler months of the year....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S3S4]This species can be locally abundant in the Blue Ridge, but is uncommon in the Piedmont....
Platynota idaeusalis
Tufted Apple Budmoth
MONA_number: 3740.00
The following description is based primarily on that of Forbes (1923) and Powell and Brown (2012). The vertex and labial palps are usually ashy gray, but sometimes rusty gray in the males. The female ...This wide-ranging species can be found in a wide array of habitats. Examples include hardwood and mixed hardwood-conifer forests, forest edges, early successional habitats, fencerows, apple and other ...Larvae are widely polyphagous and feed on trees, shrubs, vines and forbs (Dyar, 1904; Meyrick, 1938; Prentice, 1966; Meagher and Hull, 1986; Godfrey et al., 1987; Santos-Gonzales et al., 1998; Heppner...The adults are attracted to lights and pheromone traps. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S4S5Populations are widespread and common in North Carolina and appear to be secure. ...
Baltodonta broui
MONA_number: 7971.10
...Our records come almost entirely from blackwater habitats in the Coastal Plain. Most sites are located along small streamhead bottomlands or beaver ponds. A number of specimens were also collected at ...Larvae feed on American Snowbell (Styrax americana) (George Smiley, BugGuide, accessed 2022-10-23). A larva was found on this species in North Carolina by Tracy Feldman. However, S. american...Adults appear to come well to 15 watt blacklights....[GNR] S2S3This recently described species appears to be a specialist on blackwater swamp forest habitats. We have records from several sites in the Coastal Plain and one in the Piedmont. Currently, it appears t...
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Bucculatrix pomifoliella
MONA_number: 577.00
Bucculatrix is a large genus of small leaf-mining moths, with around 300 species worldwide. A total of 103 Nearctic species have been described, and many others will likely be described in the future. Braun (1963) covered 99 species in her monograph, and four additional Nearctic species have been described since then. This is a minute brownish white moth with a dark oval patch on the dorsal surface of the forewings when held at rest. The ground color of the forewing, the head, and thorax is white and dusted with br...The habitats are rather poorly documented in North Carolina, but include an old apple orchard, a high elevation forest, and several sites with second growth or edge habitats. Given the large number of...Larvae are polyphagous and feed on a variety of trees and shrubs in the Rosaceae. The known hosts include species of serviceberry (Amelanchier), flowering-quince (Chaenomeles), hawthorn ...The adults occasionally visit lights and the mines are easy to identify on Black Cherry, apples, and other rosaceous species. Searching for mines is the most productive way to document new populations...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S4S5As of 2024 we have numerous records for this species that are mostly based on leaf mines. The adults of this minute species are easily overlooked, and the species is probably more widespread and commo...
Acleris viburnana
Viburnum Acleris
MONA_number: 3527.00
Acleris viburnana was formerly treated as a subspecies of A. schalleriana, but was treated as a separate species by Gilligan et al. (2020), with A. schalleriana (sensu stricto) now restricted to the Palearctic region. Acleris viburnana has a variable dorsal pattern, but usually can be recognizable based on external morphology. Most specimens have an overall reddish-brown color with a diffuse costal triangle ...Local populations are commonly found in association with our native Viburnum species, which can be found in mesic to somewhat drier forests and forest edges. ...This species appears to rely rather heavily on species of Viburnum as a food source (Clemens, 1860; Ferguson, 1975; Brown et al., 2008). The reported hosts include Choke Cherry (Prunus virgi...The adults are attracted to lights and to sugar and wine bait. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4This species can be locally common at sites that support the host plants. ...
Lygropia tripunctata
Sweetpotato Leafroller Moth
MONA_number: 5248.00
The adults have an overall light yellowish ground color on both the forewing and hindwing that is overlain with dark brown markings. The head, thorax and abdomen are light yellow with the former two s...Local populations are commonly found in open or disturbed habitats, including Sweet Potato fields, road corridors and suburban neighborhoods. ...Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) appears to be an important host, but other members of the Convolvulaceae are also used, including other Ipomoea species (Jones, 1917). The reported hosts i......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Amorbia humerosana
White-line Leafroller Moth
MONA_number: 3748.00
This species is easy to distinguish based on its very large size (the largest tortricine in the eastern United States) and its overall grayish coloration. The following description is based primarily ...Local populations are generally associated with conifer, mixed conifer-hardwood, or hardwood forests, as well as forest edges and residential neighborhoods. The habitats that are used in North Carolin...The larvae are polyphagous leaf-rollers that feed mostly on trees and shrubs, including both conifers and hardwoods (Frost, 1926; Schaffner, 1959; MacKay, 1962; Prentice, 1966; Chapman and Lienk, 1971...The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR[S4S5]Amorbia humerosana is relatively common in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont where populations appear to be secure. ...
Glena plumosaria
Dainty Gray Moth
MONA_number: 6452.00
............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4 S4...
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Sinoe robiniella
MONA_number: 1834.00
Sinoe was traditionally treated as a monotypic genus that is restricted to the eastern US. It has since been split into four species. In a revision of the genus, Lee and Brown (2012) redescribed S. robiniella and recognized two additional species (S. chambersi; S. kwakae) that occur in North Carolina. The following is based on the description in Lee and Brown (2012). The head and thorax are white with a mixture with gray and brown scales. The antenna is brownish gray and about two-thirds the length...Local populations appears to primarily use Black Locust as a host, but other species are also used. Black Locust is common in edge habitats such as along roadways or fencerows, but also occurs in mesi...Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is the primary host throughout the range. There appears to be a valid record of this species using a Gleditsia species (Lee and Brown, 2012), and Robi...The adults occasionally visit lights, and the bound leaflets have been found on Black Locust and occasionally on other hosts. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUWe currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of populations within the state to assess the conservation status of this species. ...
Epimecis hortaria
Tulip-tree Beauty Moth
MONA_number: 6599.00
......Polyphagous, feeding on many hardwood trees and shrubs......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Pseudothyatira cymatophoroides
Tufted Thyatirid Moth
MONA_number: 6237.00
......Larvae are polyphagous, feeding on American Hornbeam, birch, blackberry, serviceberry, and probably many other woody plants (Wagner, 2005). As of 2024, we have only one record from a blackberry.......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S4S5...
Caloptilia belfragella
MONA_number: 594.00
The following is based in part on the original description by Chambers (1875a). The head is purplish brown except for the white face. The labial palp is white, with a dark dot on the tip of the seco...Both the hosts and habitats are poorly documented. The larvae depend on dogwoods (genus Swida; formerly Cornus), and our native species include ones that inhabit habitats ranging from al...The only known host are Alternate-leaf Dogwood (Swida alternifolia), Silky Dogwood (S. amomum) and Rough-leaf dogwood (S. drummondii). Records of this species feeding on Sumac (The adults occasionally visit lights, and the rolled leaves are easy to spot on native dogwoods. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SU...
Macronoctua onusta
Iris Borer
MONA_number: 9452.00
...In the Fall-line Sandhills, our records come from beaver pond habitats where Iris virginica is the likely host. In the Piedmont and Mountains, records come from residential areas where the hosts are p...Larval feed on members of the Iris family, including Iris and Gladiolus (Wagner et al.,2001)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 SU...
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Arctia caja
Great Tiger Moth
MONA_number: 8166.00
One of four members of this genus that occurs in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010) and the only one in our area. The species occurs circumboreally at high latitudes; the subspecies listed for North America is A. caja americana (Forbes, 1960). A large, spectacular Tiger Moth with strongly contrasting colors and patterns on the fore- and hindwings: the forewings are brown and variably marked with a network of white or cream spots and interco...North Carolina records are all from Northern Hardwoods and perhaps Spruce-fir Forests (Mt. Mitchell) from elevations around 4,000' and higher....Larvae are polyphagous, feeding on a wide range of herbaceous and woody plants (Covell, 1984; Wagner, 2005). Covell specifically lists alder (Alnus), poplar (Populus), willow (SalixComes moderately well to blacklights; like other Arctiini, Arctia probably does not come at all to bait...Listed as Significantly Rare by the Natural Heritage Program. That designation, however, does not confer any legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S1One of our rarest moths and among the most vulnerable to the effects of global climate change: higher temperatures, increased droughts and fires, and invasion by exotic species are all likely to have ...
Chionodes fuscomaculella
MONA_number: 2079.00
The genus Chionodes is the most species rich genus of gelechiid moths in the Western Hemisphere, with 187 recognized species. Our knowledge of the diverse array of species in North America is largely due to the monumental work of Hodges (1999), who spend decades working on the group and described 115 new species (Powell and Opler, 2009). Many exhibit substantial variation within species and have drab coloration, typically with brown, dark gray, or blackish patterning on the forewings. These can only be confidently identified by examining secondary sexual characteristics and/or the genitalia of one or both sexes. Others are more boldly marked and can be identified by wing patterning. Many of our state records are based on Hodges (1999) database of over 19,000 specimens that he examined from major collections in the US. These include North Carolina specimens that he collected mostly from Highlands, and from a few other areas within the state. The head and thorax are brownish to dark gray and similar to the ground color of the forewing. The antenna has alternating pale and blackish or fuscous bands. The second segment and base of third seg...Local populations depend on hardwood forests where they feed on oaks, chestnut, and other hardwoods. Most of our records are from mesic sites in the mountains, although oaks that grow on drier sites...The larvae are polyphagous (Hodges, 1999; Robinson et al., 2010; Marquis et al., 2019). They feed primarily on oaks, but have also been reared from a hickory (Carya sp.), American Chestnut (...The adults are attracted to lights, and the distinctive larvae can be found within leaf ties on oaks and other hosts. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S2S4Our records are based on identifications by Hodges (1999). While we have no recent records, this species is common throughout the eastern US, and populations in North Carolina are likely to be secure....
Sphinx kalmiae
Laurel Sphinx
MONA_number: 7809.00
This large genus of some 27 species ranges from England to Japan and down through the Americas. There are approximately 14 resident species in North America and at least 5 in North Carolina. Two very different larval types occur in the genus and it is likely that Sphinx is composed of more than one genus.This beautiful yellow-brown sphinx is easy to identify and one of our more common species in this genus. This looks like a smaller version of S. frankii but the abdominal spots are white and the moth...Records from the Coastal Plain come from a rich, brownwater floodplain along the Roanoke River but also from a blackwater area at the Great Dismal Swamp State Park; several species of Ash are common a...Stenophagous. Originally thought to be associated with Laurel (Kalmia) -- hence the scientific and common names. However, this was discounted by Forbes (1948); instead it appears to feed on var...Adults visit flowers at night and also are attracted to lights. Most of our records come from 15 watt UV blacklights, but only as single individuals; use of mercury-vapor or other high intensity UV l...Not currently listed by the Natural Heritage Program but probably should be considered for addition to the Watch List, based mainly on degree of threat due to the Emerald Ash Borer.G5 [S2S3]This handsome species is always a treat to see. As with many Sphinx species, records are few and one can question whether or not we know how to locate the species outside the mountains. This species,...
Metalectra diabolica
Diabolical Fungus Moth
MONA_number: 8503.00
One of eleven species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010), six of which have been recorded in North Carolina.Intermediate in size between Metalectra tantillus and M. albilinea. According to Forbes (1954), diabolica is generally fuscous and marked with extensive areas of light luteous, whereas tantillus is a ...We have two records from riparian habitats and one from a wet pine savanna located close to a blackwater swamp forest...Probably feeds on fungi, like other members of this genus...We have too little information to determine how well this species comes to lights. Other members of this genus have been observed at bait...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4 [SU]We currently have very few records for this species but we do not have enough evidence to know if it has any breeding populations established in the state. There is also no evidence that it is a habit...
Sparganothoides lentiginosana
Lentiginos Moth
MONA_number: 3731.00
The genus Sparganothoides consists of 32 described species that are mostly found in the Neotropics. The greatest diversity of species is in the mountains of Mexico and Central America (Kruse and Powell, 2009; Powell and Brown, 2012). The following description is based mostly on that of Kruse and Powell (2009). The frons is white, the vertex is yellowish-white, and the antennae are pale with darker brown annulations. The forewing g...The preferred habitats are poorly documented. We have records from a barrier island, the edge of a floodplain, and a residential neighborhood. ...The host plants are undocumented. Powell and Brown (2012) reared larvae on Achillea millefolium, but doubted whether this species is used in the wild. ...The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S2S3]This species is seemingly uncommon in the state, but additional information is needed on its host plants, preferred habitats, and distribution and abundance before we can accurately assess its conserv...
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Eueretagrotis attentus
Attentive Dart Moth
MONA_number: 11009.00
This genus contains 3 northern New World species that come down the Appalachian Mountains into North Carolina.This species has a chocolate-colored collar, rather than the black found in the other two species (Forbes, 1954); however, there may be a black stripe (Sullivan, pers obs.). It has a strong but diffu...The majority of our records come from Northern Hardwood and Spruce-fir Forests above 3500’, but we also have records from hardwood forests on slopes and ridges at lower elevations, particularly ...Larvae are likely feeding on low growing forbs and woody plants. Larvae have been found on blueberry and willow and are associated with blueberry barrens and bogs in the northern part of the range (W...Adults come readily to light but we could not find information regarding their attraction to bait or flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4 [S3S4]This species appears to be a specialist on mesic montane forests and may, thus, be at some risk due to the effects of climate change. More needs to be known about its distribution, habitats, and host ...
Catocala blandula
Charming Underwing
MONA_number: 8867.00
One of 103 species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010, 2015), 67 of which have been recorded in North Carolina. Included by Barnes and McDunnough (1918) in their Group XVII (also adopted by Forbes, 1954), which feed mainly on members of the Rosaceae; 12 other members of this group (as redefined by Kons and Borth, 2015b) also occur in North Carolina.A medium-sized Underwing, with contrasting pale and dark areas on the forewing and yellow-orange hindwings that have heavy black bands. The median area of the forewing is a light blue-gray and bordere......Larvae feed on Apple, Crabapple, Hawthorn, and probably Serviceberry (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S4...
Hyppa contrasta
MONA_number: 9579.00
Currently the genus contains 6 species (Troubridge and Lafontaine, 2004). The type is Eurasian but the remaining species are from North America, two of which occur in North Carolina. The pattern of maculation is strongly conserved.The genus is fairly easy to recognize from the wing pattern, the two species are more difficult and shown in the accompanying figure. The brownish suffusion in H. contrasta and the overall darker app...Woodlands and forests in the mountains, usually at altitudes of 3000’ or higher, but with at least a few records from below 3,000'. Most of our records come from mesic stands, including Cove For...Wagner et al (2011) state that Hyppa caterpillars feed on a wide variety of forbs and low woody plants but they were unable to rear any caterpillars to adults and thus the food preferences and larval ...Adults readily come to lights but information on their response to bait and flowers is lacking. Caterpillars should be sought at night....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.[G3G4] [S3S4]This species appears to be associated with mesic montane forests, often at high elevations. It is likely to be at risk due to climate change but more needs to be learned about its host plants and exac...
Polia nimbosa
Stormy Arches Moth
MONA_number: 10275.00
............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Gazoryctra sciophanes
MONA_number: 23.10
Gazoryctra sciophanes a member of the Ghost Moth, or Swift family, a primitive group of over 500 species that is found worldwide. In North America, the family is made up of at least 20 species in four genera, with the vast majority of species having northern or western affinities. Gazoryctra sciophanes is one of at least 10 species in the genus, and the only one found in North Carolina. The taxonomy of the group remains in flux. This species has a rounded forewing with varying amounts of sooty black to dark brown coloration and diffuse gray, dark brown, or black mottling and streaking. It typically has an elongated white bar ...All of our records come from Spruce-Fir Forests at elevations above 4,000 feet in elevation....Because most specimens have been taken in the spruce/fir zone, it was thought that the larvae most likely feed on the roots of Fraser fir or other conifer species, or on other plants associated with s...Like other members of the family, this species appears to fly for just a short period right around dusk, and during a relatively short window in late June through mid-July. This species is at least so...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it in state parks and on other public lands.GU S1?G. sciophanes is a southern Appalachian endemic described by Ferguson (1979) from a series collected in Jackson County. Additional series were collected by Grehan (1998) in Yancey and Mitchell ...
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Macaria ulsterata
Birch Angle
MONA_number: 6330.00
This is one of 73 species in this genus that occur in North America, with 17 species occurring in North Carolina. In the latest checklist of North American Lepidoptera (Pohl and Nanz, 2023), North American members of the genus Speranza and Epelis were treated as junior synonyms of Macaria.A pale gray or white species with a yellow to rust-brown head and the usual Macaria pattern of lines, spots, and subapical excavation on the outer margin. Distinguished by its yellow head from the sig...Almost all of our records come from upland sites in the High Mountains, from stands of Northern Hardwoods where Yellow Birch is common....Stenophagous, reported to feed on Birch, Alder, and Willow (Ferguson, 2008). Ferguson noted that subspecies appalachiana is almost always found where Yellow Birch occurs....Comes well to 15 watt blacklights but we do not have any records from either bait or flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4G5 [S3S4]Appears to be a habitat specialist, strongly associated with Northern Hardwood communities. As such, it is likely to be at least somewhat vulnerable to the effects of climate change, which are likely...
Paraclemensia acerifoliella
Maple Leafcutter Moth
MONA_number: 181.00
This is a readily identifiable species that has a black antenna and steel blue forewings that are fringed with black. The thorax is also steel blue and contrasts with the bright orangish yellow scales...Local populations are generally found in rich hardwood forests, particularly where Sugar Maple is present at mid- to higher elevations in the Blue Ridge. The habitats used in the Piedmont were not re...Although P. acerifoliella feeds on a variety of hardwood species, Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) and Black Maple (A. nigrum) appear to be the primary hosts. Larvae can reach high de...The adults are attracted to UV and mercury vapor lights, and the distinctive leaf cases and oval feeding patterns are easy to spot on maple leaves. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4We currently do not have sufficient data on the distribution and abundance of this species within the state to assess its conservation status. ...
Phyllonorycter maestingella
MONA_number: 766.10
............
Eueretagrotis sigmoides
Sigmoid Dart Moth
MONA_number: 11007.00
This genus contains 3 northern New World species that come down the Appalachian Mountains into North Carolina.The collar is blackish. The ground color of the forewing is reddish and mottled. The costa is contrastingly pale, as are often the orbicular and reniform, with the cell in between usually blackish (F...Found in the northern hardwood and spruce-fir regions above 3700’....Unknown but probably similar to its two congeners....Adults come readily to light but we could not find information regarding their attraction to bait or flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 [S2S3]We have few records for this species, all from high elevation forests that are under threat from climate change as well as other adverse environmental factors. More needs to be learned about its host ...
Martania basaliata
Square-patched Carpet Moth
MONA_number: 7316.00
...Our records come from Spruce-fir Forests, Northern Hardwoods, and cove forests...Host plants are apparently unknown.......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S2S3...
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Pseudochelaria pennsylvanica
MONA_number: 1862.00
This is a small and largely grayish moth, with a distinct shield-like mark that can be seen when a resting moth is viewed from above. The following detailed description is based on those of Busck (190...The preferred habitats are poorly documented. We have records from both residential neighborhoods and more natural settings such as a mountain bog complex and a high elevation site. ...The hosts are undocumented. ......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUThis species is at the southern limit of its range in western North Carolina, where it appears to be uncommon. More information is needed on host species, distribution, and abundance before we can ass...
Haploa lecontei
Leconte's Haploa Moth
MONA_number: 8111.00
One of six species currently recognized in North America, all of which occur in North CarolinaOne of four species of Haploa that have all white hindwings. The forewings are white and outlined on all margins with black (usually interrupted at the wing angles). Lecontei usually has a strong bl...Records from the Mountains come from both riparian areas (e.g., New River State Park) as well upland forests on slopes and ridges, with perhaps a concentration in mesic habitats. Habitats in the Piedm...Polyphagous, feeding on many species of herbaceous and woody plants (Forbes, 1960; Wagner, 2005). Wagner (2005) specifically lists Apple, Eupatorium, and Willow....Comes moderately well to blacklights, but none of our records come from bait; flushes easily during the day and appears to be at least partially diurnal...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 [S4S5]This species may have a distribution covering the western two-thirds of the state and appears to occupy a moderately wide range of habitats. It is probably secure in the Mountains but more needs to b...
Archips fervidana
Oak Webworm Moth
MONA_number: 3655.00
Archips is a large genus with species occurring worldwide. Most are found in Holarctic and temperate regions and they are well-represented in the Old World. North America has 26 species, including a few that are introduced. The following is based in part on the descriptions by Clemens (1860) and Forbs (1923). The palps, antennae, head and thorax vary from brownish-yellow to yellowish-brown. The forewing ground varies fro...Local populations are associated with mesic to dry hardwood forests that support oaks. ...Oaks appear to be the most important hosts, but other species of trees such as poplars, cherries, and hickories are also used (Craighead et al., 1950; Freeman, 1958; Schaffner, 1959; MacKay, 1962; Pr...The adults are attracted to lights and the nests can be found on oaks and other hosts. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S2-S4] This species reaches its southern limits in the southern Appalachians and appears to be uncommon in the state. More information is needed on its distribution, abundance, and host use within the state ...
Pococera maritimalis
MONA_number: 5603.00
...We have records from three widely scattered sites, none of which have Larch or Spruce but would have several species of oaks present....Robinson et al. (2010) list Larch and Spruce as hosts. A record from Texas submitted to BugGuide by George Smiley shows larvae and an adult found and reared on an Oak (BugGuide, accessed 2020-10-30)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SU...
Polia imbrifera
Cloudy Arches Moth
MONA_number: 10276.00
............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
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Tripudia flavofasciata
MONA_number: 9009.00
...Our records all come from alluvial forests in the Coastal Plain, mainly brownwater floodplains but with some records from blackwater rivers...Larval host plants appear to be unknown......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SU...
Pyrausta generosa
MONA_number: 5056.00
This species has a dark brown to reddish-brown ground color on the forewing, with two yellow marks that crisply contrast with the ground. These include a rectangular, subapical mark that extends inwar......The host plants are poorly documented. Robinson et al. (2010) list Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) as a host. ...The adults are attracted to lights and are occasional seen resting in the open on vegetation during the day. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Dinumma deponens
MONA_number: 8554.50
This species is easily identified by the presence of a large brownish-black median band on the forewing, together with a dark spot near the outer margin....Generally restricted to habitats that support the host plant. Albizia julibrissin occurs throughout North Carolina where it thrives in disturbed, sunny habitats such as old fields, stream edges and ro...Monophagous and only known to feed on Albizia julibrissin in the US....The adults are attracted to black lights and incandescent lights, and will come to bait (Adams et al. 2013). ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [SNA]As an introduced species, Dinumma does not merit any concerns about its conservation. Since it is apparently restricted to feeding on a host plant that is itself an introduced species, its spr...
Laetilia coccidivora
Scale-feeding Snout Moth
MONA_number: 5949.00
"Easily recognized by the rather abundant, scattered-brownish-red scales on the forewing (Neunzig, 1997). According to Heinrich (1958), the red scaling is heaviest between the middle of the wing and t............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Pelecystola nearctica
MONA_number: 434.10
The genus Pelecystola contains seven widely scattered species known from the Palearctic, Indomalayan, and Ethiopian regions, as well as one from eastern North America (Davis and Davis, 2009). The following is based on the description by Davis and Davis (2009). The head is mostly cream-colored, with the most caudal scales of the occiput fuscous. The antenna is dark brown to fuscous. The la...The larvae have never been observed and the preferred habitats are unknown. Many of our records are from forested or semi-forested sites. ...Given that very few teneids feed on living vegetation, P. nearctica is very likely a detritivore or fungivore. ...The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SUWe currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution, abundance, and habitat requirements of this species to assess its conservation status. ...
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Furcula cinerea
Gray Furcula Moth
MONA_number: 7937.00
...Almost all of our records come from sites where willows are present but not poplars, including a large number from barrier islands....Larvae feed on Poplars and Willow (Wagner, 2005). In North Carolina, we have observed the species feeding on Black Willow (Salix nigra).......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S3S4...
Dolba hyloeus
Pawpaw Sphinx
MONA_number: 7784.00
The only species in the genus. Hodges (1971) placed the genus near Manduca based on genitalic characters.Wing pattern consists of brown and white patches, much like Manducia rustica, but this species is much smaller and lacks the yellow spots that rustica has on the sides of its abdomen. Paratrea plebej...Most common in hardwood habitats, especially rich mesic woodlands or along river floodplains and rich bottomlands where Common Pawpaw occurs. In the Coastal Plain it is also common in wet pine flatwo...Oligophagous, with Pawpaw, probably both species (Asimina triloba and A. parviflora), as well as Inkberry (Ilex glabra) and other hollies reported as foodplants for the caterpillars (Wagner, 2005). T...Adults come readily to lights -- multiple individuals can occur in a single trap -- and have been observed visiting flowers at dusk, especially petunias and buttonbush. There is no attraction to ferme...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 S4S5Given its use of multiple, fairly common host plants, broad habitat associations, and extensive occurrence across the state, this species appears to be secure....
Psilocorsis quercicella
Oak Leaftier Moth
MONA_number: 955.00
Psilocorsis is a small genus with around 15 described species and several undescribed forms. They range from southeastern Canada to northern South America, but appear to be absent from the West Coast (Hodges, 1974). Seven species occur in North America north of Mexico (Pohl et al., 2016), three of which have been recorded in North Carolina.The following is primarily based on descriptions in Forbes (1923) and Clarke (1941). The head and thorax are dark yellowish brown and the labial palp is slender, strongly recurved, and pointed. The se...This species is dependent on hardwoods for successful reproduction, and appears to rely more on oaks than any other group of hardwoods (Marquis et al., 2019). Most of our records are from the Piedmon...Oaks appear to be the primary hosts (Clarke, 1941; Hodges, 1974, Robinson et al. 2010; Marquis et al., 2019), but the larvae also feed on American Chestnut (Castanea dentata) and American Beech...The adults are attracted to lights, and the larvae can be found beneath the tied leaves of oaks, American Beech and other host plants. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S5Populations appear to be widespread and somewhat common in the Piedmont and lower mountains despite the fact that many hardwood forests have been timbered and replaced with agricultural lands or stand...
Oreana unicolorella
Ladder-marked Caterpillar
MONA_number: 5767.00
"Similar to other mainly gray phycitines, but can be told with good photo" (Scholtens, 2017)......The larvae are polyphagous and feed on a variety of hardwood trees and shrubs (Prentice, 1966; Robinson et al., 2010). The reported hosts include Red Maple (Acer rubrum), Yellow Birch (Betul......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4...
Episimus argutana
Sumac Leaftier Moth
MONA_number: 2701.00
As currently recognized, Episimus argutana exhibits substantial geographic variation in molecular markers and likely reflects a species complex. ......The larvae are polyphagous, with sumacs and Witch-hazel being two of the most commonly used host groups (Forbes, 1923; Heinrich, 1926; Craighead et al., 1950; Schaffner, 1959; Prentice, 1966; Baker, 1......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Eulithis diversilineata
Lesser Grapevine Looper
MONA_number: 7196.00
This is one of fourteen species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Pohl et al., 2016), five of which have been recorded in North Carolina.Similar in pattern to E. gracilineata but is usually darker and has the median area shaded with the dark brown, particularly in the lower half; in E. gracilineata, this area is filled wi...We have records from a very wide range of habitats, corresponding with the distribution of Muscadine Grape. These include maritime dunes and forests, swamp forests and bottomlands, xeric sand ridges, ...Larvae feed on Grape and Virginia Creeper (Wagner, 2005)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Arogalea cristifasciella
Stripe-backed Moth
MONA_number: 1851.00
Arogalea is a small genus of New World moths with only seven recognized species. Most have subtropical and tropical affinities, and only one is found in the eastern US. This is a distinctive small white moth with a bold fascia that projects forward from the costa towards the dorsal margin. The following description is primarily based on the description by Forbes (192...Local populations depend on oaks and are found in a variety of settings with oak trees. These include semi-wooded residential neighborhoods, as well as oak-hickory forests, mixed pine-hardwood forest...The larvae specialize on oaks and use a variety of species (Robinson et al., 2010; Marquis et al. 2019). The documented hosts include White Oak (Quercus alba), Scarlet Oak (Q. coccinea),...The adults are attracted to lights, and the colorful larvae can be found between layered oak leaves that are tied together. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S4S5This is a common and widespread species that appears to be relatively secure in North Carolina. ...
Stigmella intermedia
MONA_number: 72.00
Members of the genus Stigmella are a group of small leaf-mining moths that typically create linear mines, although a few species form linear-blotch or blotch mines. Newton and Wilkinson (1982) recognized 51 species in their revision on the North American fauna, and new discoveries have since raised the total to around 57 species. Almost all species are specialists and rarely use more than one genus of host plants. Host-specificity, mine characteristics, and genitalic differences are helpful in recognizing closely related forms that are externally similar. The following description of the adults is based on Braun (1917) and Wilkinson and Scoble (1979). The palps are off-white and lustrous, and the antennae are slate gray and lustrous. The head and tuft ...This species is a specialist on sumacs (Rhus spp.), which are often found in rather open, sunny, habitats such as fencerows, roadsides, and recently abandoned fields. Sumacs also occur in natur...The larvae feed on sumacs (Robinson et al., 2010), including Fragrant Sumac (Rhus aromatica), Winged Sumac (R. copallinum), Smooth Sumac (R. glabra), and Staghorn Sumac (R. typ...The adults appear to rarely visit lights and almost all records are based on either leaf mines, or adults that were reared from mines. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4This species may be more common than our small number of records suggest because of minimal collecting effort within the state. ...
Oedemasia semirufescens
Red-washed Prominent
MONA_number: 8012.00
The forewings are dull reddish with a variable amount of luteous shading (Forbes, 1948). The basal dash is nearly obsolete and a dark patch is located over and/or beyond the reniform dot; in our speci...Woodlands and forests (Wagner, 2005). The majority of our records come from wet to mesic sites....Polyphagous, feeding on hardwood trees and shrubs but apparently with a preference for Poplars and Willows (Wagner, 2005)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Eumorpha pandorus
Pandorus Sphinx
MONA_number: 7859.00
This is largely a Neotropical genus but 12 species are recorded from the U.S. and 5 from North Carolina. A moderately large Sphinx moth with a distinctive pattern of pale and dark green patches on its wings and body. Markings are similar to that of Eumorpha intermedia, which is typically shaded ...The host plants used by Eumorpha pandorus occupy a wide range of habitats in North Carolina and we have larval records -- indicating resident populations -- from sites as different and far apar...Stenophagous. Larvae feed on members of the Grape family (Vitaceae), usually wild grapes and Virginia Creeper but will attack domestic grapes as well....Known to visit flowers but not found at bait. They are attracted to high intensity lights, including mercury-vapor, but come far less to 15 watt UV lights or incandescent porch lights; many of our re...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 [S5]Its widespread occurrence across the state and use of a broad range of habitats makes this species relatively secure....