Moths of North Carolina
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sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Pelochrista argentialbana
MONA_number: 3038.00
Pelochrista argentialbana is closely related to certain other members of the agricolana group of Wright and Gilligan (2017). The authors treat it as a separate species from P. agricolana and synonymized a previously recognized subspecies (Pelochrista argentialbana britana (McDunnough, 1927) with P. agricolana. This species is wide-ranging across North America and geographically variable (Wright and Gilligan, 2017). In eastern populations the head, palps, and antennae are dull white to tannish-white and usua...The preferred habitats are poorly documented for eastern populations. ...The host plants are poorly documented, but limited evidence suggests that composites may be the primary host. Individuals from one western population were reared on Common Wormwood (Artemisia vulga...The adults are attracted to lights. ...We have a very limited number of records and do not have sufficient information to assess the conservation status of this species within the state. ...
Pelochrista adamantana
MONA_number: 3021.00
Pelochrista is a large Holarctic genus and around 75% of the 226 described species are native to North America. The highest species richness occurs in the western half of North America. This is a medium-sized Pelochrista with a distinctive patterning. The head, palps, antennae, thorax, and legs are a rich reddish-brown and are concolorous with an X-shaped mark on the forewing....This species appears to prefer dry, sandy habitats. All but one of our records are from habitats in the Sandhills in communities with well-developed herbaceous ground cover. ...The hosts are undocumented. ...The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S2-S3]This species appears to be uncommon to rare throughout its range, as appears to be the case for North Carolina. ...
Pelochrista guttulana
Speckled Pelochrista Moth
MONA_number: 3009.20
Pelochrista is a large Holarctic genus and around 75% of the 226 described species are native to North America. The highest species richness occurs in the western half of North America. Pelochrista guttulana is a distinctive species that varies from medium brown to blackish gray and is sprinkled with lighter markings. The head, palps, and thorax have a mixture of whitish and b...Populations are typically found in sandy, xeric communities and largely in communities such as dunes and maritime forests with herbaceous ground cover. In North Carolina, this species is fairly common...The host plants are undocumented, but Heterotheca subaxillaris is suspected since it is almost always present where local populations occur in North Carolina (J.B. Sullivan, per. obs.)....The adults are attracted to lights. Like most Pelochrista, the host plants are unknown and in much need of study. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4This species reaches its northern limit in North Carolina and appears to be restricted to dunes and maritime communities. It can be locally abundant in dune habitats. ...
Pelochrista robinsonana
Robinson's Pelochrista Moth
MONA_number: 3009.00
Pelochrista is a large Holarctic genus and around 75% of the 226 described species are native to North America. The highest species richness occurs in the western half of North America. Wright and Gilligan (2017) provide a comprehensive review of species that are found in North America. The adults are boldly marked with white and brown patterning and are difficult to confuse with other species. The head and palps are predominantly white, but have light brown scales that are intermixe...Our records come primarily from open, herb-dominated habitats, although at least a few come from forested sites. A large number were recorded in dry-xeric sand ridge habitats....The host plants appear to be unknown, but there is one records which suggests that the larval may use goldenrods (Wright and Gilligan (2017). ......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4...
Pelochrista fraudabilis
MONA_number: 3053.00
Pelochrista is a large Holarctic genus and around 75% of the 226 described species are native to North America. The highest species richness occurs in the western half of North America. ............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S1S3...
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Pelochrista quinquemaculana
Five-spotted Eucosma Moth
MONA_number: 3008.00
Pelochrista is a large Holarctic genus and around 75% of the 226 described species are native to North America. The highest species richness occurs in the western half of North America. This is a boldly marked and distinctive species. The head, palps, and thorax are medium brown. The forewing is also medium brown -- but sometimes with fine darker striations -- and has several bold wh...Almost all of our records are from xeric habitats that support pines and a diverse herbaceous ground layer. ...The host are undocumented. ...The adults are attracted to lights, but perhaps only weakly so given that there are surprisingly few records across the range of this species. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S2S3This is an apparently uncommon species both in North Carolina and throughout its range. ...
Pseudexentera maracana
MONA_number: 3254.00
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. The following description is based in part of Kearfott's (1907b) original description. The head and palps vary from grayish to brown and the antenna is blackish. The thorax is variable, but often has ...The larvae feed on hawthorns and local poputations are generally associated with forested habitats. Our two site records as of 2022 are both from residential neighborhoods in the Piedmont....The larvae are known to feed on hawthorns (Crataegus spp.; Miller, 1986), but information on host use is very limited and needs additional study....The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Elaphria nucicolora
Sugarcane Midget Moth
MONA_number: 9676.00
One of fourteen species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010), nine of which have been recorded in North Carolina...Bahia Grass has become well-established in North Carolina, occurring particularly along roadsides, lawns, and other disturbed areas. Most our records for this moth come from the Outer Coastal Plain, m...Larvae feed on grasses, including Sugarcane, Bahia Grass, and Rye (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.[GNR] S4S5...
Pseudexentera haracana
MONA_number: 3252.00
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. The head, palps, antenna, and thorax vary from medium brown to blackish-brown. The forewing has a light brown ground color that is overlain with a dark basal patch that covers a third or more of the f...Local populations are found in hardwood or mixed hardwood forests with chestnuts and oaks. They also occur in residential neighborhoods where the host plants are present. ...The larvae feed on members of the Fagaceae, including chestnuts (Castanea spp.) and oaks (Miller, 1986; Brown et al., 2008). The specific species of oaks that are used are poorly documented and...The adults occasionally visit light during March and April. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4This species appears to be uncommon in North Carolina, but we currently do not have sufficient data on habitat requirements, host use, and abundance to accurately assess its conservation status within...
Pseudexentera spoliana
Bare-patched Leafroller Moth
MONA_number: 3251.00
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. Pseudexentera spoliana is one of the fasciate species that has been a source of confusion with respect to identification. The general coloration of the head, thorax, and forewing varies from gr...Local populations are generally associated with hardwood or mixed hardwood-pine forests as well as residential neighborhoods with oaks.... The larvae feed on several species of oaks (Miller, 1986; Marquis et al., 2019). Some of the known hosts include White Oak (Q. alba), Scarlet Oak (Q. coccinea), Northern Red Oak (Q. ...The adults are attracted to lights during the early spring months. We need information on host use in North Carolina....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Pseudexentera vaccinii
MONA_number: 3254.10
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. The following is based in part on the original description by Miller (1986). The thorax, the outer portion of the palps, and the front and crown of the head are all brownish white, as is the outer por......The larva feeds on blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). ......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Pseudexentera unidentified species
MONA_number: 3258.01
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. ...............
Pseudexentera virginiana
MONA_number: 3258.00
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. ...This species is generally associated with hardwood forests or wooded residential neighborhoods, but the specific habitats requirements are poorly documented. ...The larval hosts have not been reported. ...The adults visit lights during the early spring months. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4Scattered populations are known primarily from the lower mountains and Piedmont, but we do not have sufficient information on habitat requirements, host use, and abundance to assess the conservation s...
Pseudexentera hodsoni
no common name
MONA_number: 3257.10
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. In this species the head, palps and antennae vary from grayish-brown to light brown. The thorax tends to be two-toned, with the anterior portion warm brown to light chestnut brown and the posterior ha......Host records are fragmentary, but the larvae appear to specialize on oaks, including Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) and red oaks (Miller, 1986). .........
Pseudexentera sepia
MONA_number: 3252.10
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. The colors of this species are predominantly light brown (Miller, 1986). The scales on the head, thorax, and abdomen vary from light brown to a mixture of white and brown scales. The ground of the for...Our records are mostly from areas with hardwood forests, including semiwooded residential neighborhoods. ...The larval host plants are unknown (Miller, 1986)...The adults are attracted to lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4We have several documented populations from throughout the state, but currently do not have sufficiently detailed information on habitat requirements, hosts, and abundance to assess the conservation s...
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Pseudexentera mali
Pale Apple Leafroller Moth
MONA_number: 3247.00
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. The following description is based primarily on that by Freeman (1942). The adults are sexually dimorphic with the females being more strongly marked than the males. In the males the external surfaces...This species is commonly found in apple orchards and possibly used hawthorns of other members of the Rosaceae as native hosts before the introduction of apples to the US in the 1600's. ...Larvae feed on members of the Rosaceae, including Hawthorn (Crataegus sp.), Apple (Malus domestica = Pyrus malus), and Pear (P. communis; Freeman, 1942; Brown et al., 2012). ...The adults are attracted to lights and larvae can be found on apples and other hosts soon after the spring leaf-out. We need more information on native plant use and the larvae should be searched for ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S2S4As of 2022 we have only one record for North Carolina and do not have sufficient data to assess the conservation status of this species. ...
Pseudexentera cressoniana
Shagbark Hickory Leafroller Moth
MONA_number: 3246.00
The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species. The following description is based primarily on that of McDunnough (1940). The palps, head, thorax, antenna and basal area of the forewing are concolorous and a deep leaden to pale slate gray. A large...Local populations are associated with hardwood or mixed hardwood-conifer forests, particularly where hickories and oaks are well-represented. Populations have been found in both natural communities an...The larvae feed on hickories, including Shagbark Hickory (Carya ovata; Brown et al., 2008; Miller, 1986). They also feed on Northern Red Oak (Quercus rubra) and other oaks (Heinrich, 192...The adults are attracted to lights. We need observations on host use in North Carolina populations and detailed studies of the larval life history. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S2-S4]We currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of this species to accurately assess its conservation status. ...
Hypena scabra
Green Cloverworm Moth
MONA_number: 8465.00
One of 29 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010). Fifteen species have been recorded in North Carolina....This is one of our most ubiquitous and omnipresent species. Habitats range from maritime dunes and forests on the barrier islands to high elevation stands of northern hardwoods....Polyphagous. Larvae show a preference for members of the pea family but also feed on a wide range of other forbs, shrubs, and trees (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Pseudexentera costomaculana
MONA_number: 3257.00
...Local populations occur in proximity to Witch-hazel, which occurs in a variety of forest and forest-edge habitats that range from floodplain forests to mesic or somewhat dry upland forests. As of 2022...The larvae appear to be monophagous feeders on American Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana; Miller, 1986)...The adults are attracted to lights and the rolled leaves can be found in early spring on Witch-hazel. Rearing may be necessary since other moths also roll Witch-hazel leaves. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4...
Lacinipolia implicata
Implicit Arches Moth
MONA_number: 10414.00
...Our records come mainly from hardwood forests, including wet, mesic, and dry....Forbs, including many lawn weeds (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Nadata gibbosa
White-dotted Prominent
MONA_number: 7915.00
...Barrens, woodlands, and forests (Wagner, 2005). Our records come from nearly all types of hardwood forests found in the state, including bottomlands, mesic slopes, dry sand ridges, cove forests, and n...Larvae are polyphagous, feeding mainly on oaks and other Fagaceae but also recorded on a number of other species of hardwood trees and shrubs.......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Orthosia rubescens
Ruby Quaker Moth
MONA_number: 10487.00
One of 22 species (two others provisional) that occur in this genus north of Mexico (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 210); five have been recorded in North CarolinaThe ground color of the forewings is luteous, variably overlain by reddish-brown, ranging from predominantly reddish to completely suffused with gray (Forbes, 1954). Usually heavily marked with reddis...Forests and woodlands (Wagner et al., 2011)...Larvae feed on many species of shrubs and trees, including conifers (Wagner et al., 2011); also feeds on forbs to some extent......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Lithophane patefacta
Dimorphic Pinion
MONA_number: 9886.00
One of 51 species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010, 2015), 25 of which have been recorded in North Carolina...Woodlands and forests (Wagner et al., 2011)...Larvae feed on many trees and shrubs (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S4S5...
Tetanolita mynesalis
Smoky Tetanolita Moth
MONA_number: 8366.00
...This species has one of the widest habitat ranges of any of our species, occurring in maritime grasslands and forests on the barrier islands to high elevation forests on the top of Grandfather Mountai...Probably feeds on dead leaves......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S5...
Ochropleura implecta
Flame-shouldered Dart Moth
MONA_number: 10891.00
...Fields, waste lots, woodlands, and general open areas...Larvae have been recorded primarily on forbs but also on Willow (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Orthosia garmani
Garman's Quaker Moth
MONA_number: 10488.00
One of 22 species (two others provisional) that occur in this genus north of Mexico (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 210); five have been recorded in North CarolinaThe ground color of the forewings is dull brown or reddish-brown, with the terminal area contrastingly lighter (Forbes, 1954). The lines and spots are usually fairly inconspicuous, although darker in ...Woodlands and forests (Wagner et al., 2011)...Larvae feed on many hardwood trees and shrubs (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Spaelotis clandestina
Clandestine Dart Moth
MONA_number: 10926.00
...Fields, forest edges, and other mainly open areas (Wagner et al., 2011)...Polyphagous, feeding on both herbs and woody plants, including many crop species (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Orthodes majuscula
Rustic Quaker Moth
MONA_number: 10585.00
...Fields, woodlands, and other mostly open habitats (Wagner et al., 2011)...Polyphagous, feeding on many species of forbs and also grasses (Wagner et al.,2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Lacinipolia renigera
Bristly Cutworm Moth
MONA_number: 10397.00
...Fields, meadows, and woodlands (Wagner et al., 2011)...Polyphagous on both Graminoids and Forbs, including many crop species; also recorded on Apple, Grape, and Poplar (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Pyreferra slotteni
MONA_number: 9932.10
...A population in Orange County appears to be strongly associated with Hop Hornbeam, which is common at this site where the moth has been regularly observed over a twenty year period.........[GNR] S3S4...
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Abagrotis magnicupida
One-dotted Dart
MONA_number: 11043.10
...Our records come from a wide variety of habitats, ranging from the barrier islands to montane river valleys. Both open, herb-dominated habitats and closed-canopy forests are used. Both nutrient-rich...Larvae are polyphagous, feeding on many species of both herbaceous and woody plants (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Apoda biguttata
Shagreened Slug Moth
MONA_number: 4669.00
One of five members of the genus to occur in North America, three of which occur in North Carolina. Formerly placed in the genus Cochlidion.The broad forewing is light brown at the base with a chestnut-colored, tear-dropped shaped mark at the apex and a similarly-colored spot at the anal angle. A straight, white line bisects the forewing,...Our records come primarily from stands of wet to mesic hardwoods, with almost none from Longleaf Pine habitats, peatlands, or dry maritime habitats....Beech and Oak, primarily, but also reported to use Hickory and American Hornbeam (Wagner, 2005)....Readily attracted to lights but not to bait or flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it in state parks and on other public lands.G5 [S5]Occurs commonly across the state, makes use of a wide range of habitats and presumably host plants; seems secure in North Carolina...
Euclea delphinii
Spiny Oak-slug Moth
MONA_number: 4697.00
One of five representatives of this genus found in North America, one of which occurs in North Carolina and another one is possibleChestnut or chocolate brown to grayish brown forewings, often with a violet sheen and typically bearing a black discal spot; the thorax and abdomen are also brown. FW bears a well-defined, elongated o...We have records from essentially all habitats occurring across the state....A variety of woody plants including Blueberry, Apple, Ash, Beech, Cherry, Chestnut, Hickory, Maple, Oak, Sycamore, and Willows (Wagner, 2005)....Readily attracted to lights but like other Limacodids does not appear to come to bait or to visit flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it in state parks and on other public lands.G5 [S5]Common across the state and utilizes a very broad range of habitats and host plants. Appears to be quite secure in North Carolina....
Spragueia apicalis
Yellow Spragueia Moth
MONA_number: 9131.00
...Our records almost all come from pond, lake, and stream shorelines, all habitats where Sida spinosa can be found...Wagner et al. (2011) have found larvae on Sida spinosa. While records from other hosts seem questionable, Sida spinosa is not native. The only native species of Sida in the state is Sida elliottii, n......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S2S4...
Darapsa myron
Virginia Creeper Sphinx
MONA_number: 7885.00
This genus of medium sized moths contains three species, all found in North Carolina.A moderately small Sphinx moth that is broadly banded with tan or olive green on its body and forewings; hindwings are extensively reddish orange. The bands are broader than in Darapsa versicolor and ...Habitats seem to be the same as for several other Vitaceae-feeding Sphinx moths, including dune and scrub communities on the Barrier Islands but hardwood-dominated forests over the rest of the state. ...Stenophagous, feeding on members of the Vitaceae, including grapes and Virginia Creeper....Adults visit flowers and are attracted to bait. Comes well to 15 watt UV lights. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 [S5]Given its wide distribution across the state, broad range of habitats and use of common host plants, this species appears to be secure....
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Clemensia albata
Little White Lichen Moth
MONA_number: 8098.00
One of three species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010). All three are found in North Carolina. Small with relatively broad wings; white or dingy yellow ground color on the forewings mottled with darker gray or brown, usually with a prominent dark reniform spot. Fairly easy to recognize over mos...Our records come from virtually all types of forested or wooded habitats in the state, including martime forests, peatlands, Longleaf Pine communities, floodplain forests, mesic slopes, and dry ridget...Stenophagous, feeding primarily on bark algae (Protococcus viridis) (McCabe, 1981)...Comes well to blacklights, with up to 130 collected in a single trap; three of our records have been obtained from bait...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 [S5]Widespread, ubiquitous, and using many types of habitat, this species is considered secure in North Carolina...
Tolype minta
Southern Tolype Moth
MONA_number: 7675.00
One of eleven species in this genus that occur in North America (Franclemont, 1973), four of which have been recorded in North Carolina.Tolype minta is a moderately small, predominantly white Lasiocampid. The head, sides of the thorax, and the abdomen are usually all white, with a dark patch of metallic scales in the dorsal area of th...All but one of our records come from shallow depressional wetlands containing populations of Pond Cypress (Taxodium ascendens). These habitats include Cypress Savannas, Carolina Bays, and Non-riverin...Larvae have apparently not been recorded in the wild, but the association with Pond Cypress appears to be fairly strong. Other members of this genus, including T. notialis and laricis, feed primarily...Comes well to blacklights. Adults do not feed, so do not come to bait or visit flowers....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G4 S2S3This species appears to be a narrow habitat specialist and has a restricted distribution in North Carolina. The distribution of Carolina bays and other shallow depressional wetlands has been greatly ...
Cisseps fulvicollis
Yellow-collared Scape Moth
MONA_number: 8267.00
One of three species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010), and the only one found in North CarolinaFore-wings are narrow and colored brown to blackish gray; the head is black with a yellow or orange vertex; the collar is also yellow or orange, the thorax dark gray, and the body deep blue-black. So...Found in a wide variety of open and forested habitats, ranging from dune grasslands and maritime forests on the barrier islands to river bottoms, sandhills, and dry ridges; uses old field habitats and...Oligophagous, feeding on grasses and sedges (Wagner, 2005)...Diurnally active and often seen feeding on flowers. Also comes well to blacklights, with up to 77 being collected in a single trap...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 S5Abundant, widespread, and occupying a very wide range of habitats; this species is one of the most secure in the state...
Artace cribrarius
Dot-lined White Moth
MONA_number: 7683.00
...Fields, woodlands, and forest edges (Wagner, 2005). North Carolina records come from most wooded habitats, from maritime forests, peatlands, bottomlands, Longleaf Pine habitats, mesic forests, cove fo...Polyphagous, feeding on Cherry, Rose, Oaks, and probably other species of hardwood trees and shrubs (Wagner, 2005)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S5...
Gypsonoma salicicolana
MONA_number: 3228.00
The following description is based in part on that of Forbes (1923). The head, palps, antenna, and thorax are dull brown to grayish-brown and concolorous with the dark basal region on the forewing. Th...Local populations are generally associated with willow thickets. ...Larvae feed on Willows (Robinson et al., 2010)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR SU...
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Gypsonoma fasciolana
MONA_number: 3223.00
The following description is based in part on that of Forbes (1923). The head, antenna, palps, and thorax are medium to dark brown. The ground color of the wing is white and often shaded with gray tow...The disjunct population on Clingman's Dome in the Smokies is associated with spruce-fir forest and early successional habitats. ...The primary hosts are members of the Salicaceae, including willows (Salix spp.), Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera), and Quaking Aspen (P. tremuloides; Prentice 1966). There is a...The adults are attracted to lights and in North Carolina are likely restricted to high-elevations sites. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S1]The population on Clingman's Dome in the Smokies comprises a major southern disjunct for this northern species and is protected. ...
Pococera robustella
Pine Webworm Moth
MONA_number: 5595.00
The Pine Webworm Moth is a small grayish to brownish moth with broad wings and broad bands on the forewing. The following description is based in part on that of Forbes (1923) and Mayfield (2007). The...Our records come mainly from wet to somewhat dry forests, including riparian habitats, lakeshores, mesic slopes, and mixed pine-hardwood forests. Virginia Pine appears to be the most important host in...The larvae feed primarily on yellow pines, but on rare occasions may use White Pine (Pinus strobus). The known hosts (Mayfield, 2007; Robinson et al., 2010) include Jack Pine (P. banksianaThe adults are attracted to lights and the conspicuous frass nests are easy to spot on pine shoots. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S4This species appears to be relatively secure within the state due to the fact that it is found statewide and depends on yellow pines as hosts. ...
Acronicta insularis
Henry's Marsh Moth, Marsh Dagger
MONA_number: 9280.00
One of 74 species in this genus found in North America north of Mexico (Schmidt and Anweiler, 2020), 42 of which have been recorded in North Carolina....Wagner et al. (2011) list wetlands and fields as habitats used by this species. Our records come from marshes, pond edges, and wet savannas....Larvae feed on grasses, cattails, sedges, and low-growing forbs; also on some low woody species (Wagner et al., 2011)......Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S3S4...
Melittia cucurbitae
Squash Vine Borer Moth
MONA_number: 2536.00
One of roughly 130 members of Sesiidae to occur north of Mexico, 30 of which have been recorded in North Carolina. Of six species of Melittia, this is the only one found the eastern U.S. Perhaps the most familiar member of the family, especially to those who tend vegetable gardens, where it can be a destructive pest. Members of this family closely mimic wasps or hornets in both appearance and behavior.This species is among the most easily identifiable members of the family. The thorax and forewings are a matching, opaque gunmetal gray or dark grayish-green; the hindwings (hidden at rest) are hyalin...Across its range prefers gardens and other open spaces where host and nectar plants are found....Cucurbitaceae, especially cultivated squashes, pumpkins, and gourds....Most likely to be observed on sunny days in and around vegetable gardens, but the species also visits flowers to take nectar. As is the case with other sesiids, the male of the species shows a strong ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.This species is common across North Carolina. Like other sesiids, though, it is generally inconspicuous and at best only uncommonly encountered....
Notocelia culminana
Crescent-marked Notocelia
MONA_number: 3211.00
The head and palps of fresh specimens are medium to dark brown. The antenna is light brown and the thorax tends to be heavily mottled with light to dark brown scaling. The ground color of the forewing...The preferred habitats are poorly documented. Our two records are both from residential settings where roses or other hosts were presumably present. ...The known larval hosts are apples (Malus) and roses (Rosa spp.; Powell and Opler, 2009)....The adults occasionally visit lights. Host use in North Carolina is undocumented and in need of study. ....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [S2-S4)We currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of this species to assess its conservation status. ...
sciNametaxonomic_commentsid_commentshabitatfoodobservation_methodsstate_protectionNHP_ranksstatus_comments
Notocelia rosaecolana
Doubleday's Notocelia Moth
MONA_number: 3208.00
Notocelia rosaecolana and N. trimaculana are two species that are difficult to separate based on either wing patterning or genitalia. These species are found in the Old World and one or both were thought to have been introduced into the US where they feed primarily on cultivated roses. Miller et al. (2000) reported that the presence or absence of melanic sex scales on the hindwing of males is a diagnostic trait that can be used to separate the two species. Specimens that they examined from throughout the US all appear to be N. rosaecolana, and N. trimaculana is now assumed to be restricted to the Old World. The following is based in part on the original description by Doubleday (1850). The antenna, palps, head, thorax, and basal third of the forewing are a rich dark brown and concolorous. The ground of t...Local populations are found in association with native or cultivated roses and commonly in disturbed habitats or urban or residential settings. ...The larvae feed on both native and cultivated roses (Rosa spp.), including Multiflora Rose (R. multiflora). Miller et al. (2000) reported one instance of an adult being reared from Black...The adults are attracted to lights. More information is needed on host use in North Carolina, particularly the extent to which native roses are used as hosts. ...Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR [SNA]This species does not appear to be native to North America and does not merit any conservation concerns. ...
Leucanopsis longa
Long-streaked Tussock Moth
MONA_number: 8217.00
One of three species in this genus that occur in North America (Lafontaine and Schmidt, 2010) and the only one found in North CarolinaSimilar in size, wing shape, and yellowish coloration to the Halysidota species but lacking the tessellated bands and green thoracic lines found in those species and possessing a prominent brown longi...Almost all of our records come from fairly wet sites, including freshwater marshes, pond and lake shorelines, riparian forests, peatlands, hillside seepage bogs, and fairly wet Longleaf Pine savannas....Probably stenophagous, feeding on a restricted range of wetland graminoid ("wide-bladed marsh grass" according to Covell, 1984)....Comes well to blacklights, with up to 11 or 12 being collected in single traps. None of our records come from bait....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public landsG5 [S4]This species is uncommon and somewhat of a habitat specialist. Nonetheless, it occurs in a variety of habitats and across approximately a third of the state; appears to be relatively secure...
Heterophleps triguttaria
Three-spotted Fillip
MONA_number: 7647.00
A large genus with most members from India and China. Three species occur in the USA and two in North Carolina. Our species appear to be congeneric with some of the species from China but other species from China may be misplaced.A moderately small Geometrid with disproportionately large forewings. The three black costal markings on a field of yellow-green are diagnostic....Over most of the state, this species is associated with riparian forests and freshwater marshes, habitats where Clearweed is common (Weakley, 2015). It also is associated with riparian habitats in th...Monophagous, Larvae recorded from Clearweed (Pilea) (Wagner et al., 2001). Earlier reports that Maples are used were questioned by Wagner et al., who failed to rear them on Maples under artificial re...Adults have been recorded in light traps and are unlikely to be attracted to bait. Occasionally seen when walking through wet areas....Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.G5 S4S5Although a host plant specialist and at least something of a habitat specialist, this species is currently widespread in riparian habitats across the state and mesic hardwoods in the Mountains....
Sonia paraplesiana
Hebrew Sonia Moth
MONA_number: 3218.10
Sonia is a taxonomically challenging genus because many of the species are difficult to distinguish based on either external patterning, genitalia, or DNA barcoding. The genus is currently undergoing a much needed revision and our identifications are best viewed as being provisional until the new findings are published. ............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands....
Sonia constrictana
Constricted Sonia Moth
MONA_number: 3218.00
Sonia is a taxonomically challenging genus because many of the species are difficult to distinguish based on either external patterning, genitalia, or DNA barcoding. The genus is currently undergoing a much needed revision and our identifications are best viewed as being provisional until the new findings are published. ............Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.GNR S3S4...