Moths of North Carolina
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138 NC Records

Apoda biguttata Packard, 1864 - Shagreened Slug Moth


Taxonomy
Superfamily: Zygaenoidea Family: LimacodidaeP3 Number: 660027.00 MONA Number: 4669.00
Comments: This is one of five members of the genus that occur in North America, three of which occur in North Carolina. This species was formerly placed in the genus Cochlidion.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Covell (1984); Beadle and Leckie (2012)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIF, BOLDTechnical Description, Adults: Forbes (1923)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Dyar, 1897b; Wagner (2005)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: In this species the antennae are brown and the head, palps, and thorax vary from creamy white to light brown. The distal half of the forewing is occupied by a broad "Y" shaped mark that is filled with brown to brownish gray scales and margined on all sides with a wide whitish line. The proximal half of the forewing is light brown with a diffuse longitudinal cream-colored streak that extends from the base of the middle of the wing to the Y-shaped mark described above. The other conspicuous marks are a chestnut-colored, tear-dropped shaped mark at the apex and a similarly-colored spot at the anal angle that is smaller and more rounded, and nested within the "V" of the "Y" shaped mark. Individuals often rest with the abdomen raised and curled forward above the wings. The abdomen is brown with whitish stripes along the sides that match those of the Y-shaped mark on the forewing. Together, they appear to act as disruptive coloration that breaks up the outline of the body. Apoda biguttata is most similar in appearance to the dark form of A. y-inversum, but the "Y" on that species is dark brown and bordered by dark lines. The length from the tip of head to the apex of forewing at rest averages 12 mm (n = 7).
Wingspan: 25-30 mm (Forbes, 1923)
Adult Structural Features: In this species the antenna of the male is simple and the palps barely reach the vertex. In both sexes the costa of the forewing is nearly straight, the apex is square rather than rounded, and there are four spurs on each hind tibia (Forbes, 1923).
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: The slug-like larvae feed on several taxa of deciduous hardwoods, particularly oaks. Dyar (1897b) noted that females in New York lay their eggs singly on the lower branches of oaks. The eggs hatch in 7-8 days, and there are six or seven instars. The younger instars skeletonize the undersides of leaves in patches, while the older larvae consume the entire leaf. Many populations appear to be univoltine, with the final instar spinning a tough, brownish, rounded cocoon with a texture that resembles cardboard. Overwintering occurs on the ground in the cocoon, and presumably in the prepupal stage, with the adult emerging after the spring leaf-out from a lid-like structure on the cocoon.

The later instars have smooth, pale bluish-green to whitish-green bodies. The dorsolateral region has a broad, yellowish, longitudinal line that is edged with dark green on the inner margin, and extends the entire length of the body. The posterior end bears a short, squared-off tail (Dyar, 1897b; Wagner, 2005). The fully grown larvae are 9.5-12 mm in length.
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos, especially where associated with known host plants.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Apoda biguttata occurs throughout much of the eastern US and adjacent regions of southern Canada (Ontario; Quebec; New Brunswick; Nova Scotia). In the US the range extends from Maine southward to Florida, and westward to central Texas, central Oklahoma, Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota. This species occurs statewide in North Carolina from the barrier islands to the higher elevations in the Blue Ridge.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ‚Č• 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: The adults fly from February through October in Florida and other southern localities, and mostly from April through September farther north. As of 2023, our records extend from early May through mid-August. Populations appear to be univoltine in North Carolina.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Our records come primarily from stands of wet to mesic hardwoods, with almost none from Longleaf Pine habitats, peatlands, or dry maritime habitats.
Larval Host Plants: The larvae feed on deciduous hardwoods (Dyar, 1897b; Wagner, 2005; Heppner, 2007; Beadle & Leckie, 2012). Dyar (1897b) only found the larvae on oaks in New York, with most on White Oak (Quercus alba) and much less so on other oaks. Other reported hosts include American Hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), hickories (Carya), and American Beech (Fagus grandifolia). - View
Observation Methods: The adults are readily attracted to lights but not to bait or flowers.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Hardwood Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: G5 [S5]
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it in state parks and on other public lands.
Comments: Apoda biguttata is common across the state and uses a wide range of habitats and host plants. This species appears to be secure in North Carolina.

 Photo Gallery for Apoda biguttata - Shagreened Slug Moth

75 photos are available. Only the most recent 30 are shown.

Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-05-14
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Rich Teper on 2024-05-13
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Rich Teper on 2024-05-13
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Rich Teper on 2024-05-13
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: Emily Stanley on 2024-05-10
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Basinger on 2024-04-28
Brunswick Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Basinger on 2024-04-28
Brunswick Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Jeff Niznik, Rich Teper on 2024-04-16
New Hanover Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-08-18
Caswell Co.
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Recorded by: Darryl Willis on 2023-08-03
Cabarrus Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-07-31
Macon Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-07-31
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-07-31
Swain Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik, Rich Teper, Becky Watkins on 2023-07-30
Swain Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik, Rich Teper, Becky Watkins on 2023-07-29
Swain Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-07-26
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Emily Stanley on 2023-07-07
Yancey Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-07-06
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2023-06-24
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-06-20
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-06-04
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Stephen Dunn, Jeff Niznik on 2023-06-03
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Stephen Dunn on 2023-05-31
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-05-25
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Jeff Niznik on 2023-05-17
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson on 2022-08-03
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson on 2022-07-30
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2022-07-24
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson on 2022-07-23
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-07-19
Buncombe Co.
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