Moths of North Carolina
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View PDFGracillariidae Members: 3 NC Records

Anarsioses aberrans (Braun, 1930) - No Common Name



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Gracillarioidea Family: GracillariidaeSubfamily: LithocolletinaeP3 Number: 330256.00 MONA Number: 725.00 MONA Synonym: Phyllonorycter aberrans
Species Status: This genus of this taxon was recently changed from Phyllonorycter to Anarsioses. Davis (2019) placed it in a new monotypic genus (Anarsioses) based on differences in genitalia, life history characteristics, and molecular differences when compared with Phyllonorycter species.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: MPG; BugGuideTechnical Description, Adults: Braun, 1930; Davis, 2019.Technical Description, Immature Stages: Braun, 1930; Davis, 2019.                                                                                 
Adult Markings: The following description of the adults is primarily from Davis (2019); the original description is in Braun (1930). The frons is white, and the dorsal scale tuft has a mixture of white and dark brown, piliform scales. The antenna is mostly brown with whitish annuli, while the scape and a few succeeding flagellomeres are white on the anterior surface. The thorax is white, with brown and brownish ochreous scales intermixed. The forewing pattern is complex. It consists of partially brownish ochreous coloration with black tipped scales, along with two strongly angulate white fasciae that occur near the basal third and the distal two thirds of the wing. The costal arms of the fasciae are shorter than the dorsal arms. There is a pair of white irregularly margined spots on the costal and dorsal wing margins near the distal third of the wing. There is also a pair of much smaller, and more slender, white spots near the apex. The basal margins of the fasciae and spots are bordered with patches of black scales that often appear as dark streaks. The cilia are predominantly white, but are tipped with a few black scales below the apex. The hindwing is pale silvery gray with slightly ochreous cilia. The legs are white, and the apices of the segments are dark brown. The posterior tibiae has diagonal, dark brown bands. The abdomen is gray to brown dorsally, and silvery white ventrally.
Wingspan: 6.0-6.5 mm (Braun, 1930).
Forewing Length: 2.7-3.0 mm (Davis, 2019).
Adult Structural Features: Davis (2019) provides a detailed description and illustrations of the male and female genitalia. According to Davis (2019), Anarsioses differs from Phyllonorycter and other Lithocolletine genera in the asymmetry of the male genitalia and eighth abdominal sternite. The right valva in Anarsioses is broad with a rounded apex, and the left valva is extremely narrow with a bifurcated apex. The phallus is strongly curved, and the male eighth sternum terminates in a slender, curved lobe. The males of several species of Phyllonorycter also have asymmetrical valvae, but in most of these species the left valva is broad and the right slenderer. The phallus in Phyllonorycter is typically straight. The male eighth sternum also is typically symmetrical in Phyllonorycter.
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: The larva mines the upper surface of the leaf and initially creates an irregular linear mine that rapidly expands into a blotch. The linear portion is often obliterated by the expanding blotch, which is unwrinkled and white due to the loosened, thin epidermis (Braun, 1930). Each mine contains a single larva, but adjoining blotches may fuse with time to give the appearance of a communal mine. The larvae are sap-feeders with flattened bodies, except for the last instar that is cylindrical with functional mouthparts for feeding on parenchyma. The larva eventually leaves the mine and constructs a smooth, flat, whitish silk cocoon that is sometimes in the fold of a leaf (Braun, 1930; Davis, 2019).
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos, especially where associated with known host plants.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Anarsioses aberrans is found in the east-central and southeastern United States from Ohio, Kentucky, and Maryland southward and westward to Missouri, Arkansas, Tennessee, Georgia, and the Carolinas, with an apparent disjunct in northern Florida (Davis, 2019; Eiseman and Davis, 2020). As of 2020, our records for North Carolina are from Durham, Wake, and Scotland Cos, and reflect Tracy Feldman's work on leafminers in this region of the state.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Immature Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: Populations appear to be univoltine in Ohio (Braun, 1930), but may be bivoltine in North Carolina. Based on the discovery of active, mature mines in early May (Davis, 2019), the females in North Carolina begin laying eggs in April. Active mines have also been found in August-September (Davis, 2019), which suggests that a second brood is produced then.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats:
Larval Host Plants: Anarsioses aberrans specializes on legumes (Fabaceae). Davis (2019) listed the following documented hosts: American Groundnut (Apios americana), Hoary Tick-trefoil (Desmodium canescens), Panicled Tick-trefoil (D. paniculatum), Tall Tick-trefoil (D. glabellum), Maryland Tick-trefoil (D. marilandicum), Perplexing Tick-trefoil (D. perplexum), Hairy Lespedeza (Lespedeza hirta), and Hairypod Cowpea (Vigna luteola).
Observation Methods: The adults appear to rarely visit UV lights, and most records are from individuals that were reared from leaf mines. Look for the mines in May, and again in August and September.
Wikipedia
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR SU
State Protection:
Comments: We currently do not have sufficient data on the distribution and abundance of this species within the state to accurately assess its conservation status.

 Photo Gallery for Anarsioses aberrans - No common name

Photos: 6

Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2021-10-03
Mecklenburg Co.
Comment: A view of several mature upper-surface mines on Apios americana.
Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2021-10-03
Mecklenburg Co.
Comment: A view of the underside of a leaflet of Apios americana that had several upper-surface mines (see companion photo).
Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2021-10-03
Mecklenburg Co.
Comment: A mature larva from Apios americana.
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2015-08-26
Scotland Co.
Comment: Mines on the upper side of leaves of Apios americana.
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2015-08-26
Scotland Co.
Comment: Young mines on the upper side of leaves of Apios americana.
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2015-08-26
Scotland Co.
Comment: An adult that emerged on 2015-09-18 from leaf mines collected on 2015-08-26.