Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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CICADELLIDAE Members: NC Records

Ceratagallia agricola - American Clover Leafhopper



© Paul Scharf- side view

© Kyle Kittelberger- female, top view

© Kyle Kittelberger- male

© Kyle Kittelberger- male
Taxonomy
Family: CICADELLIDAESubfamily: Megophthalminae
Identification
Online Photographs: BugGuide                                                                                  
Description: An overall brown to dark gray leafhopper, typically tawny with brown (often pale) markings typical for Ceratagallia. The only eastern member of this genus with long wings that extend well past the abdomen (BG). This species has very distinct, dark wing venation with characteristic white segments on parts of the wing. The white patches extend onto the pronotum and head, and there is a distinct black spot on the corner of each eye, as well as two black spots on the forehead (BG). Male subgenital plates are long, more than twice as long as wide across the truncated, rounded tips. Females have a pregenital sternite that is slightly produced at the middle with a posterior margin that is shallowly notched at the middle; it is truncated. Adult males are 2.6- 3.1 mm long while females are 2.8- 3.3 mm. (Hamilton 1998)
Distribution in North Carolina
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Distribution: Eastern and central United States with some scattered pockets in the Southwest; probably a western species that has spread eastward from agriculture. (Hamilton 1998)
Abundance: Recorded across the state in all three regions; likely most common in grassy areas, especially those near agricultural fields.
Seasonal Occurrence
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Grassy areas, such as fields
Plant Associates: Primarily legumes. Trifolium pratense has been noted as a principal host. (Hamilton 1998)
Behavior: A pest species, it can stunt vegetation growth and is the most important vector of several viral plant diseases.
Comment: This species was previously confused with C. sanguinolenta before being shown to be a separate species; historical records that exist in NC for sanguinolenta likely pertain to C. agricola and have been entered on this site as agricola. (Hamilton 1998)

NOTE: It is very important to obtain accurate measurements and a detailed view of the underside of individuals in this genus, showing the shape of the subgenital plates or pregenital sternite. There are three members of this genus that have been recorded in North Carolina, and a fourth species that could possibly be found here (C. robusta whitcombi, which has been recorded in Georgia). It can be very challenging to identify members of this genus. For example, females of agricola cannot be distinguished from accola, and distinguishing the males can be challenging too; however, agricola is typically larger and paler in color (though agricola can get quite dark too). See below for info on how to distinguish these species, taken from Hamilton 1998.

accola- males 2.3-2.6 mm long, females 2.5-3.0 mm. Males have very short subgenital plates. Female pregenital sternite indistinguishable from agricola.

agricola- males 2.6-3.1 mm long, females 2.8-3.3 mm. Adults tawny with brown markings usual for genus; coronal maculae and scutellar angles black. Some individuals can be very dark. Has long wings that extend past the abdomen. Female pregenital sternite indistinguishable from accola. Only whitcombi has male subgenital plates as long and as strongly tapered as agricola.

robusta whitcombi- males 2.3-3.0 mm long (usually 2.5-2.7 mm), females 2.5-2.8 mm. Males tawny with brown markings usual for genus; female pale, with brown veins. Only agricola has subgenital plates as long and as strongly tapered as whitcombi, but agricola has longer wings.

vulgaris- adults 2.5-3.0 mm long. Pregenital sternite half as long as wide.

Status: Native
Global and State Rank:

Species Photo Gallery for Ceratagallia agricola American Clover Leafhopper

Photo by: Paul Scharf
Warren Co.
Comment: Caught Sweeping
Photo by: Paul Scharf
Warren Co.
Comment: Caught Sweeping
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)
Photo by: Kyle Kittelberger, Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf
Avery Co.
Comment: grassy, brushy field-type habitat in old christmas tree farm; female, 3.0 mm (brown) and male, 2.9 mm (black)