Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erasmoneura vulnerataA dark leafhopper with a reddish-brown color pattern, sometimes with a brighter red or green hue. The extensive brown patches on the wings and head are characteristic of this species; the brown color sort of resembles the color of dried-blood (hence 'vulnerata') (BG). Some individuals however have very vibrant red wings and sometimes a red head and thorax. There are small pale spots on the side of an otherwise dark head with a pale midline; these pale spots resemble white stripes next to the eyes. The pronotum and mesonotum are also mostly dark, and the anteclypeus is brown or black. There is a white patch on the costal margin of the wings, and the wing tips are a dark brown. The underside of the thorax (the mesosternum to be exact) is dark, the rest is pale. Adults are 2.7-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species showing the array of variation, see: BG.

Nymphs are reddish-brown with yellowish markings dorsally, divided by a yellowish stripe. The underside of the abdomen is a bold red color; the legs are yellow.

Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont where it is common; likely abundant across the state in the right habitat.Recorded from mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, and grassy areas.Vitis riparia, Vitis sp., Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Ilex decidua, Cercis canadensis, Aesculus sp., Ulmus alata, among others (3I); has also been found on Black Gum.
Erasmoneura fulminaA fairly dark and variable species, with two main forms. The vertex is mostly a dark brown to blackish color, sometimes with some small pale spots to either side of a whitish midline. The anteclypeus (lower part of the face) is brown or black, while the pronotum is dark brown or blackish with some white speckling. The scutellum is largely dark, with a pale midline between two dark lateral triangles. The underside of the thorax is entirely dark. In the nominate form, the dorsum is yellow or white, with a red, orange, brown or blackish color pattern on the wings that contrasts with pale patches. In form "bicolorata" the basal half of the wings is entirely dark, contrasting with the much paler distal half of the wings. Adults are 2.7-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Rare, recorded from a single county in both the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Vitis sp. (3I)
Balclutha incisaA slender species that ranges from yellow, yellowish-green, and green in color, sometimes pale. The wings are concolorous with the body color, and the cells of the forewings are sometimes fuscous (see images above). The head is as wide as or slightly wider than the pronotum; the vertex is the same length in the middle as next to the eye. The female pregenital sternite is is seemingly variable in shape, ranging from a straight posterior margin to one that is concavely bilobate. The male subgenital plates are triangular, with short finger-like projections that extend from the tapered apexes. Adult males are 2.9 to 3.6 mm long, females are 2.8 to 3.8 mm. Nymphs are a light brown color. (Knight, 1987)

For images of specimens of nymphs and adults, see: BOLD. For a couple diagrams of the genitalia, see: 3i.

Scattered records across the state, rare; likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, forest edge; also in grassy areasProbably grasses; Knight (1987) reports the following host plants for this species from around the world, most from the Caribbean: Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus ferax, Daucus carota (carrot), Eriochloa subglabra, Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Oryza sativa (rice), Panicum barbinode, Saccharum sp. (sugar-cane)
Amphigonalia gothicaA pinkish-brown species, distinctive in coloration among hoppers in the region; however, there can be slight variation in coloration and some individuals can range in color from yellowish to grayish-green. There is an "M" or omega-shaped dark brown to black mark on the top of the head, between the eyes, that is distinctive for this species; there is also a small dark spot at the apex of the head (which G. hieroglyphica lacks). Some individuals though can have head markings that are not very bold. This vertex of this species is slightly narrower and more pointed than in G. hieroglyphica. The wings tends to be concolorous with the rest of the body; sometimes some cells are darker than the venation. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 5.5-6.0 mm long. (DeLong 1960)

Nymphs are mostly pale in coloration with dark-brown to blackish bands running the entire length of the side of the body; the eyes are also mostly black with some white speckling.

Uncommon to rare; some old collection records and a couple recent from the mountains (low and high mountains); probably more abundant in this region. Shrubby, grassy, vegetated, open montane areasWillow (Salix sp.)? (DeLong 1948)
Macrosteles bifurcatusYellow to yellowish green overall, often with a faint smoky tint to the wings. The body is comparatively elongate. The vertex is rather short and rounded anteriorly; it is more than twice as wide as long. The spot pattern on the head is isolated, or partly confluent. The face has prominent black transverse bands. The male subgenital plate has 9 to 10 prominent macrosetae lining the lateral margins, with a produced, tapered tip to the plate lacking setae. Adult males are 3.5-3.9 mm long, females are 3.8-4.2 mm. (Kwon & Kwon, 2022)

For images of the holotype male, see: BG.

Previously reported from the state but unclear from where exactly (Kwon & Kwon, 2022); recently found in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Wild rice, Scirpus validus, Sparaganium sp., Typha sp., Zizania aquatica (Kwon & Kwon, 2022)
Telamona maculataA reddish-brown species with a broad, tall pronotal crest (almost a plateau shape). The posterior tip of the pronotum is red, followed by a pale brown and then a dark brown, almost black band. The pronotal horns may be reddish as well and extend well to the sides of the rest of the pronotum. The front of the head is pale. Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state, primarily from the Piedmont and mountains. Seasonal distribution: 10 May- October (CTNC)Forest with oakCarya (hickory), Quercus alba (white oak) [nymphs on this plant], Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak) (Wallace 2014).
Pareuidella trilobaA light brown to reddish-brown species, with an unmarked face and body. This species can be both macropterous and brachypterous. The appendages at the tip of the male abdomen are a distinctive shape for this species.

For images of a pinned specimen, see: UDEL.

Several records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Flexamia sandersiLight brownish overall. The face varies from dark above and shading to paler apically to brown or black throughout, but often brown or tan; the interocular area is never black (no defined band present). The crown is produced, with the median length 1.48 x the interoculate width and 0.69 x the full head width. The female pregenital sternite has a sinusoidal posterior margin, with concave notches on the sides of a convex, relatively flat median projection with a small notch in the middle; the lateral margins of the sternite are roundly convex. The male genital plates are elongate, apically notched; in some specimens, they are bidentate. Together, the plates appear triangular. Adult males are 2.9-3.5 mm long, females are 3.2-3.9 mm. (Whitcomb & Hicks 1988)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser; not sure the genitalia are correct on here.

Scattered records across the state; likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy areas where host occursBroomsedge (Andropogon virginicus), Andropogon spp. (Whitcomb & Hicks 1988)
Enchenopa on-viburnum
Undescribed Enchenopa on Viburnum
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are reddish-brown, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont, likely found throughout much of the state where Viburnum is present.Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium)
Erythridula victorialisA fairly distinctive Erythridula. Adults are yellowish or white with a bold red or orange claval streak on each wing parallel to the claval suture, giving this species the appearance of having a bold dorsal V across the wings. The vertex is unicolorous with a pale midline, and the face, pronotum, mesonotum, and thoracic venter are also pale. The abdomen is also pale dorsally. Adults are 3.1-3.4 mm long. (3i)Rare, a couple recent records from the mountains. Recorded in NC from open herbaceous areas. Vaccinium sp. (3i)
Fieberiella florii
Privet Leafhopper
A distinctive looking species: its shape mimics the buds of its plant hosts (UC). It is rufous overall with fine black spots all over the wings and pronotum, characteristic of this species. There is a white band with thin white border going across the sides of the eyes and head. Females have a prominent white band across the middle of an otherwise rufous abdomen; the face is a yellowish color. Nymphs are green with a small blue line across the body lengthwise. There are small black freckles across the body, and the tip of the abdomen is a pink/red color. (BG)

For diagrams of this species, see: 3i.

Scattered records in the Piedmont and coastal plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.This species feeds on a wide variety of broad-leafed, woody trees, shrubs and vines. Favorite host plants include privet, boxwood, myrtle, hawthorn, pyracantha, Ceanothus, Cotoneaster, fruit trees in the Rose family (such as cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, apples, and crabapples), and other woody plants in the rose family. (BG) (UC)
Macrosteles quadrilineatus
Aster Leafhopper
A yellow to yellowish-green species, sometimes with faint smoky markings on the wings, with a bold head pattern. It has narrow wings and [typically] 6 bold black marks on the head: 4 lines (hence quadrilineatus) and 2 spots posterior to the lines (this species used to be known as the Six-spotted Leafhopper). Sometimes the number of marks is reduced to just 4 or 2 bold ones, with the spots not present on every individual (they can disappear partly); additionally, the boldness of the head markings can vary. The vertex is broad, being more than twice as wide as long and rounded anteriorly in both sexes. The scutellum has two small black triangles in the upper corners, though these 'triangle's can sometimes be reduced to just a small black base/line; in other individuals, the scutellum is entirely green. This species has very long wings for the genus, longer than related species, with the wings 4.5 x as long as wide. The subgenital plates have 7-9 macrosetae on each side. Adult males are 3.1-4.0 mm long, while females are 3.4-4.3 mm. (Hamilton 1983, Kwon & Kwon, 2022)

Nymphs are greenish with some dark coloration, especially on the wing pagds. The crown shows black markings similar to those found on adults. For an image of a nymph associating with an adult, see: BG.

Scattered records across the state where it is uncommon, likely more abundant in the right habitat, especially agricultural areas.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas. Abundant in agricultural areas as well.Asters and corn; polyphagous (BG). Also from grasses and cereals, potato, lettuce, and rice (Kwon & Kwon, 2022).
Eratoneura hymettanaThe wings and body are mostly a pale whitish color, but there are four dark faded marks (almost rectangular in shape) on the middle of the wings, forming an upside down U when viewed from above; these dark marks can vary from reddish-brown to dark gray. There are a couple broken orange bands towards the rear of the wings, past the darker marks. There is a small black spot at the base of the 4th apical cell in each wing. The vertex is yellowish brown, and there is a yellow and orange set of markings across the anterior edge of the pronotum; the rest of the pronotum is almost entirely pale. The scutellar angles are yellow-orange, and there are a couple large orange spots on the base of the wings to either side of the scutellum. Adults are 2.9- 3.2 mm long. (3I)Recorded from the Piedmont and mountains, and likely to occur in the mountains as well since it has been collected across the border in Appalachia Tennessee; likely a very uncommon to rare species in the state.Forested areas with sycamoreAmerican Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis; 3I)
Macrosteles superiorA pale yellow to yellowish-green species. The vertex spot pattern is isolated and sometimes partly reduced. The face has the dark transverse bands [typical of other similar species] reduced. The male subgenital plates taper to produced apices and have 7 macrostetae along the lateral margins. Males are 3.6-3.9 mm long, females are 3.7-4.1 mm. (Kwon & Kwon, 2022)Rare, known from a single collecting date from a single county in the mountains; likely under-collected.?
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Macrosteles slossoniA distinctively marked yellow to yellowish-green species with prominent dark markings across the body and smoky markings on the forewings. Adults have a black and yellowish-green pattern on the scutellum, pronotum, head, and face; there are three pairs of spots on the vertex and one next to each eye. These spots are often confluent: connected with each other. Males tend to have darker and bolder markings on the head and pronotum than females. The wings are typically a grayish color with a dark diamond-shaped pattern. Some individuals can be quite dark though, with darker wings. The vertex is rounded anteriorly in males and somewhat pointed in females. The female pregenital sternite is relatively straight across the posterior margin. Male subgenital plates are triangular with pointed attenuated apices that slightly diverge from one another; there are 6-7 macrosetae along each edge. Adult males are 2.5-2.8 mm long, females are 2.8-3.1 mm. (DeLong 1948; Kwon & Kwon, 2022)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Recorded from several counties in the mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat, especially in higher elevation areas.Grassy areas, such as shores and wet places, where its host plants grow (BG)Sedges and rushes (Juncus spp.) (BG); swamp grasses
Macrosteles lepidusA yellow, ochreous to yellowish green species overall, sometimes with faint smoky tinting to the wings. The vertex is essentially rounded in males and slightly pointed in females. There are six prominent large, black markings on the vertex: 2 large ones in the middle of the head (between the eyes), 2 on the vertex edge (these are tear-shaped), and 1 on the side of each eye. Median spots are always absent on the vertex, while lateral spots are sometimes present and, if so, isolated. The size and boldness of these head markings can vary among individuals. The face has transverse streaks reduced or absent. There is a small black spot in each lateral triangle of the scutellum. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin convexly rounded on either side of a broad but shallow median excavation. The male subgenital plates are short, with attenuated apexes; there are 9-11 macrosetae along the lateral margins. Adults males are 3.2-3.7 mm long, females are 3.5-4.0 mm. (DeLong 1948; Kwon & Kwon, 2022)

For images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont, where uncommon; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Near moist or swampy woodland areas?
Macrosteles parvidensThis is a highly variable species, with color (primarily on the wings) ranging from yellow to yellowish green to ochreous, often with dark markings enlarged on the pronotum and smoky tinting broadly on the wings; this can give the wings a heavily patterned look, especially as there may be paler areas within the smoky patterning. The head pattern is also variable; adults typically have 4 bold black spots on the head, 2 on the edge of the vertex (these anterior spots are large) and 2 posterior spots further in between the eyes on the top of the vertex, which are smaller than the anterior spots and isolated. Median spots are always absent, while lateral spots are often present and confluent with anterior spots (meaning they typically connect with the anterior spot through an extended bar on the edge of the vertex). The vertex is longer than half of the pronotum mesally and is deeply rounded anteriorly. The face can sometimes have brown transverse bands partially present. Furthermore, the basal angles of the scutellum are black [triangles], and there can sometimes be an horizontal black bar along the scutellar sulcus. The female pregenital sternite has a small triangular median notch; the rest of the posterior margin is relatively straight. The male subgenital plate tapers to an elongated process; there are 9 prominent macrosetae on the lateral margins. Adult males are 3.4-3.7 mm long, while females are 3.7-4.2 mm. (Kwon 2010; Kwon & Kwon, 2022)Scattered records across the state, where it is seemingly most abundant in the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in brushy, grassy areas.?
Scaphoideus luteolus
White-banded Elm Leafhopper
Adults are typically a dusky amber yellow to orange color overall. The tip of the crown (top of the head) is whitish to yellow with a thin brown marginal line. There is a broad orange { shaped mark between the eyes, typically above a thin pale base of the crown (before the pronotum). The eyes are reddish (sometimes bright red) with a whitish longitudinal line going through them. The face is a golden yellow to pale orange color, as is the rest of the underside of this species; the abdominal segments though have a thin white border to the posterior edge. The pronotum is mostly an orange color, with a pale bluish-gray T-shaped marked. The scutellum is bicolored, with the anterior half orange and the posterior part a cream color. The wings are golden yellow to orange, with some scattered white spots; the tip of the wings have a thin dark border. The wing venation is brownish-yellow. The male genital valve and plates are golden yellow to orange. The female pregenital sternite is golden yellow to orange, with some dark brown shading; it has a narrow medial notch posteriorly, with two ventrally curved areas on either side of the notch. Adult males are 4.7-5.3 mm long, while females are 5.2-5.7 mm. (Barnett 1976) The nymph is dark overall except for 2 to 3 whitish abdominal segments.

See here for more images of this species: BG.

A single county record; rare in the state but likely under collected and therefore more abundant. Herbaceous woodland habitatsWillow, elm (Ulmus americana), Vitis, cottonwood, other herbaceous plants (Barnett 1976)
Osbornellus unicolorThis species is brownish overall, with dense brown coloring and no bold markings on much of the body and wings; the wing venation is dark, and the tips of the wings are blackish. The face, vertex and pronotum are a uniform brown color. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin truncated, often times with an indication of a central tooth; on either side of this tooth the segment is emarginate. Adults are 5.0 mm long. (Beamer 1937), (DeLong 1948)

For images of a live individual, see: BG.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; rare, possibly under collected.WoodlandsHerbaceous vegetation
Deltanus bicolorA distinct, boldly marked species that is yellowish-green on the anterior two-thirds of the body and wings. The color of the crown is ivory with a round yellowish spot on the disc either side of the median line. The pronotum and scutellum are yellowish-green, mottled with ivory and with an indistinct longitudinal stripe on either side of the middle. The wings are yellowish-green on the basal two-thirds, with the posterior third black with three large, elongate clear areoles within the black region before the apical crossveins. The underside of the head is largely black, and the rest of the underside of the body is mottled with black. The crown is slightly concave, and the antennae are one-third as long as the body. The female pregenital sternite has the lateral margins one-third as long as the median length, with the posterior margin slightly and broadly trilobed; the underlying membrane is produced into two rounded lobes that are almost as long as the median portion of the sternite. Adults are 5 mm long. (Beamer, 1950)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, one record from the Coastal Plain; likely found elsewhere along the coast.?
Hymetta kansasensisThe most boldly-marked member of this genus. The wings are milky-white with a bold, dark brown and red color pattern. The first two crossbands are brownish to reddish, with the first typically quite thick and strongly narrowed on the costal margin while the second is more of a broken oblique zig-zag line running from the plaque to the transverse apical red line; together they tend to form a large, characteristic dark saddle. The third band is a very dark inverted V. The costal plaque is [sometimes] dark. There is a black dot on the corium which touches the claval suture, and a small brownish spot on the clavus caudad of these; there are many small reddish flecks on the corium, clavus and [sometimes] costal plaque. The vertex is either unicolorous or with orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch. The disc of the pronotum is usually darkened, resulting in a diagnotistic yellowish-brown circular patch. The scutellum has a small black dot at the apex. The thoracic venter is entirely pale. Adults are 3.2-3.5 mm long. (3I; Fairbairn, 1928)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Young nymph instars are pale with blackish tarsi, with brownish-olive markings on the body. Young instars have darker markings, and the rest of the legs become olive-blackish.

Rare, only known from one county in the state, in the Piedmont; likely overlooked. Can be found in mixed hardwood forest. Cercis canadensis (red bud) (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Chlorotettix attenuatusA pale yellow, yellowish-green, to light brown species with dark eyes; the forewing is yellowish subhyaline. The vertex is bluntly, angularly produced and is three-fifths longer at the middle than next to the eye. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin angulate, excavated to about one-half the length of the segment and bearing a short median spatulate process, which does not extend past the posterior angles. The male subgenital plates are broad at the bases and narrowed to long acute apices with slightly sinuate lateral margins; the plates are almost as long as the pygofer. Adult males are 6.5-7.1 mm long, females are 6.9-7.6 mm. (DeLong 1948, Cwikla 1988)

To view some pinned specimens, see: BOLD. For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

A few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Probably grassy areas, forest edge
Xestocephalus n-species2
Probable Undescribed Xestocephalus Species
This species is mottled in color, with the wing cells an array of orange, brown, white, and black. The pronotum and head are a pale brown with largely scattered whitish patches, strongly contrasting with the wings and giving this species a unique appearance. The head has pale ][ shaped markings on the vertex. The underside is dark brown to blackish, and the female pregenital sternite has a concave posterior margin with a V-shaped notch. This species is large for the genus, being around 3.5 mm long. Recorded from a handful of counties across the state. Possibly more abundant in the right habitat, especially in coastal counties.Has been found in mixed to open forest habitat.
Telamona stephaniA dark species that is sexually dimorphic in size, coloration and some features of the pronotal crest. In males, the pronotal crest is low in elevation and curves from the front of the pronotum before angling downward posteriorly. Males have mostly a dark brown to black pronotum with pale but vibrant light greenish-white to green marks. In females, the pronotal crest is much larger, taller and less rounded, angling downwards posteriorly very sharply. Females also have dark and pale mottling similar to the males, but much less vibrantly and with more pale than dark areas; the dark patches are also more of a brownish rather than dark brown to black color. The wings have dark brown to black tips, and the venation is a bold black. The legs are dark with pale spots, and the underside of the body is dark. Males are 8.0-8.4 mm long, females are 9.3-9.5 mm. (Wallace, 2018)

The nymph of this species is unknown.

Scattered records across the state, where it is uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat. This species differs from other telamonine species in its seasonal occurrence, being found in late summer and fall; most other telamonines in the eastern U.S. are found in the late spring and early summer. (Wallace, 2018)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, including in higher elevations (Pilot Mountain).?
Dikrella cruentataA pale white or yellowish species, with two pairs of oblique yellow to bright red lines across the wings, a median stripe on the vertex, and two stripes on the pronotum that arise from the vertex. There are black markings at the cross nervures of the wing apices. The female pregenital sternite is one-half longer than the preceding, with the posterior margin strongly produced from lateral angles to a broad median, convex tooth. Male subgenital plates drastically taper toward the apices, appearing pinched on the lateral margins. Adults are 2.75-3.0 mm long. (Ball & DeLong, 1925)

There are three described varieties of this species: kansiensis (which has a slightly different shape to the pregenital sternite), lavata (which is entirely pale, creamy, or with slight smoky indications near the cross-veins), and rubricata (which has an entirely red scutellum and broader red markings and smoky band than usual).

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, one recent record from the Piedmont; likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), Betula papyrifera (white birch), Rubus sp., Viburnum alnifolium (hobble bush) (3I); also speckled alder, witch-hazel, jewelweed, buckeye, apples, striped maple, skunk cabbage, and American hazel (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017).
Hebetica sylviaeA brownish-green species, with the pronotum a unicolorous green or pale brown color with a darker apex and black pronotal pits. The legs are pale brown except that the femora are dorsally black for most of their length. Short, numerous setae cover the pronotum. Adult males are 7.5-8.2 mm long and 4.5 mm wide, females are 8.9-10.0 mm long and 5.0 mm wide. (McKamey & Sullivan-Beckers, 2019)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recorded from a single county so far in the Piedmont.WoodlandUnclear, perhaps oaks (Quercus spp.); in NC, has been found on white mulberry.
Empoa vestitaYellowish or greenish with dark brown markings, with the pronotum characteristically infumose to dark brown; sometimes the head is also dark, and the wings are typically concolorous with the pronotum. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Beirne, 1956; Christian, 1953, Hamilton 1983)

For other images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single recent record from the upper Piedmont; likely much more abundant in this part of the state.WoodlandUlmus spp. (Christian, 1953, Hamilton 1983)
Typhlocyba transviridisA pale yellow to white species with a broad dark brown transverse band across the wings, roughly posterior of the middle of the wings. Fresh specimens can be green with the transverse wing band a greenish-brown color. The abdomen starts out bright green before changing to a paler yellow color. The male subgenital plates are not enlarged at the apex. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian 1953, Beirne 1956).

For images of the genitalia, see: 3I. For additional pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a couple recent records from the northern mountains; probably more abundant in the mountains. Should occur from June through July at the very least.Tilia americana (basswood) (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Balclutha punctataThis species ranges in color from pale green to a dull brown/yellow. The face frequently has brown lines on either side of the midline, and there are often orange markings on the vertex and pronotum; there tend to be dark longitudinal bands on the pronotum. The wings vary from having scattered brown/black dots to being unspotted; the abdominal dorsum is dark. The head is distinctly narrower than the pronotum, which is overall triangular in shape; this results in the head having a strong curve around the pronotum and therefore appearing pointed rather than circular. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated posterior margin, sometimes slightly sinuate. The vertex is typically no longer in the middle than next to the eye, though in some specimens it is longer. Adult males are 3.6 to 4.7 mm long, females are 3.7 to 4.4 mm. (Blocker, 1967)

For images of some specimens, see: BOLD. For more images of a pinned specimen and diagrams of pattern and genitalia, see: 3i.

Previously reported from North Carolina but unclear from where.Grasslands, fields, similar habitat; forest edge.Grasses; Knight (1987) reports the following host plants for this species from North America: Elymus sp., Poa compressa, Prunus avium (sweet cherry)
Daltonia estacadusStramineous in color with darker markings. The vertex is wider than the median length as well as the pronotum and has a yellow margin, anterior and parallel to a broad black band. The pronotum has a transverse indistinct median pale band. The venation on the wings is creamy and bold, contrasting sharply with the wing cells. The female pregenital sternite is short, with the posterior margin slightly and broadly emarginate. The male subgenital plates are triangular and broad at the base, convexly rounding in the middle and then gradually narrowing to acute tips. Adults are 2.6 to 3.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948, Blocker & Fang 1993)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Rare, a single recent record from the Piedmont, likely also found in the mountains.Grasslands, meadows, other grassy areas (DeLong 1948)Grasses (DeLong 1948)
Eratoneura ligataRed or orange color pattern on an otherwise yellowish-white body. The zigzag red-orange color pattern on the wings is typically characterized by the lines along the claval margin being darker than the other markings. There is a dark spot on the costal margin of each wing, and the inner apical cell has a prominent brown spot basally. The vertex has orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The anteclypeus is pale, concolorous with the rest of the face. The pronotum has a Y-shaped yellow to red mark in the middle (though this is absent in some individuals) and a concolorous line on the lateral margins. The mesonotum is entirely pale, with dark lateral triangles and a pale apex, contrasting with the rest of the mesonotum. The thoracic venter is entirely pale. Adults are 3.0-3.3 mm long. (3I)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single recent record from the Piedmont.Mixed hardwood forest, where oaks are present.Quercus alba, Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus spp. (3I)
Erasmoneura nigraA dark brown to black hopper with mostly black wings and body with some pale spots. The head has a white midline, while the face is pale. The pronotum has three small white dots on the anterior margin; otherwise, it is entirely dark. In some individuals, there is a prominent heart-shaped or circular "white saddle" on the middle of the wings. Other individuals lack this white spots and have a couple smaller, fainter white patches or lines instead. Both forms have white on the costal margin of the wings and white transverse veins toward the wing tips. Legs are pale. Adults are 2.6-3.1 mm long. (3I)

Nymphs are pale with black wing buds, a black final segment of the abdomen, and a mostly black pronotum (with some black extending onto the head).

A single recent confirmed record from the Piedmont, likely under-reported across the state.Mixed hardwood forest habitat.Polygonum muehlenbergii, Circaea lutetiana, Ilex decidua, Crataegus mollis, Polygonum virginianum (Persicaria virginiana), Aesculus sp., Cercis canadensis, Vitis sp., among others (3I)
Erasmoneura atra or nigraA dark brown to black hopper with mostly black wings and body with some pale spots. The head has a white midline, while the face is pale. The pronotum has three small white dots on the anterior margin; otherwise, it is entirely dark. In some individuals, there is a prominent heart-shaped or circular "white saddle" on the middle of the wings. Other individuals lack this white spots and have a couple smaller, fainter white patches or lines instead. Both forms have white on the costal margin of the wings and white transverse veins toward the wing tips. Legs are pale. Adults are 2.6-3.1 mm long. (3I)

Nymphs are pale with black wing buds, a black final segment of the abdomen, and a mostly black pronotum (with some black extending onto the head).

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is fairly uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.For E. atra: Cercis canadensis, Acer saccharum, Celtis sp., among others (3I)

For E. nigra: Polygonum muehlenbergii, Circaea lutetiana, Ilex decidua, Crataegus mollis, Polygonum virginianum, Aesculus sp., Cercis canadensis, Vitis sp., among others (3I)

Haplaxius pusillusA reddish-brown species. The head and thorax are a pale sordid stramineous to pale yellowish-brown color, often times tinged with green. The vertex is yellowish-green, and the face itself is greenish-orange to orange-brown. The pronotum can be a boldly contrasting orange color. The abdomen is pale, ranging from greenish to orange on the underside; dorsally the abdominal segments are dark, outlined in orange. The wings are very hyaline without any dark marks; the veins and each stigma are pale to clear, sometimes darkened at the apex in some specimens. Adult males are 3.5-4.0 mm long, females are 3.7-4.3 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Uncommon, with several records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat surrounded by mostly pine and some hardwoods; also swept from a marsh.Has been swept from black needlerush and spartina; unclear if these are host plants.
Haplaxius enotatusThe head and thorax are stramineous to yellowish brown in color; the basal half of the frons and clypeus are sometimes orange or orange-brown. The crown and thoracic dorsum lack definite darker markings. The wings and veins are transparent pale to yellowish brown, with each costal margin ivory or whitish through the stigma. Adult males are 3.8 to 4.3 mm long, females are 4.1 to 5.0 mm. (Kramer, 1979)

For images of a specimen of this species, see: UDEL.

Has been recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Grassy areas, especially marshes and similar habitatGrass, Juncus (Rush, Juncaceae), ‘marsh grasses’ (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Thionia ellipticaThis species varies in color from grayish to brown but is generally yellowish or greenish-tan with brown speckling. It has a characteristic vertex (top of the head) that is concave from the frontal view, with the lateral margins flared prominently, and from the dorsal view, the vertex is wider than long (BG). See here for a nice depiction of the noticeably wider than long vertex. Nymphs are light brown to black in color, heavily marked with cream spots, and have red eyes. See W & W 1987 for more information and drawings of the nymphs of T. elliptica. (BG)Uncommon to rare, only one recent record from the Piedmont.Mixed hardwood forest, where oaks are present. Quercus ilicifolia (bear oak, Fagaceae), Q. marilandica (blackjack oak) (UDEL); nymphs have also been found on red maple and Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo, black gum).
Hebata alboneuraA robust, yellowish-green (tinged with orange) to dull-green (tinged with brown) species that has pale wing venation; this gives the species a striped appearance. The crown is relatively broad and bluntly rounded, with a median stripe that has an oblique pale dash on either side, near the eye. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is produced and rounded medially, with a shallow but broad lateral emargination. Adults are 2.5-3.5 mm long. (Wheeler, 1940)Previously recorded from the state, though unclear from where; one recent record from the Piedmont.Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Erigeron sp., Trifolium repens, Anthemis cotula, Artemisia sp., Chrysothamnus sp., Vicia sp. (3I)
Scaphoideus intricatusThis whitish species has a very distinctive color pattern compared to other members of this genus, with the head, pronotum, scutellum, and basal cells of the wings largely pale and contrasting with the rest of the dark brown wings. In males, the crown is short with a cadmium orange bar between each ocellus, extending obliquely towards the pronotum; in females, the crown is white, with the anterior margin with a narrow apically interrupted brown line and a transverse brown wavy line between the ocelli. The face is white, and in females can have one to three transverse brown lines; the eyes can be brown. The pronotum is either entirely white or with one to seven brownish spots; the scutellum is white or yellowish-white with two anterior lateral brown spots. The wings are opalescent-translucent with brown veins. The legs are white to yellowish-white with black spots at the base of each lateral setae and brown at the base of the first tarsal segment; the coxae are white to yellowish-white. The abdomen is largely whitish ventrally. Male subgenital plates are white while the female pregenital sternite is white with a brown posterior area; the sternite is quadrate with a slight medial notch on the posterior margin. Adult males are 4.7-5.9 mm long, females are 5.7-6.1 mm. (Barnett 1976)

Nymphs are almost entirely white.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded recently from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Crataegus, Robinia, Amelanchier, Vitis, Cornus, osage orange, apple, dogwood, Ulmus americana, and Common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) (Barnett, 1976)
Telamona westcottiA somewhat distinctive species with a detailed color pattern across the pronotum, consisting of white, green, and black. Some individuals are more mottled green than others. The wings have a black base and tip, and the underside is dark. This species has a short pronotal crest compared to other members of this genus.A few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 25 June-5 September (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba (white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak), Tilia (basswood), Ulmus (elm) (Wallace 2014).
Anotia uhleriA fairly distinctive member of this genus, it has yellowish wings with reddish-brown bases and two dark marks on each wing tip, consisting of a large reddish mark and a dark brown asymmetrical mark. The wing venation is reddish where the wings are dark and white where the wings are pale. Wing vein CuA is branched, with cells C5, C4, C3, and C3a similar in size. The thorax, abdomen, and head are reddish, and the antennal stubs are yellow.

For more images of this distinctive species, see here: BG.

Only recorded from a few counties across the state, rarely encountered.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found on Acer (maples). (UDEL)
Empoa aureotectaThe head, pronotum, and scutellum are yellowish white to orange-yellow. The fore wings are light rose to bright reddish-orange, covering most of the wing to the apical crossveins. There are brown spots in the apices of the three inner basal and the first and fourth apical cells, while lunate white spots are anterior to these spots in the basal and fourth apical cells; the remaining areas of the apical cells are fumose hyaline. The abdomen is yellow to reddish-orange, lacking dark markings. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1953)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

A few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont, likely under-collected and more abundant in this region of the state.WoodlandQuercus sp. (3I)
Erythridula asperaA pale species with a yellow, orange, or red color pattern. The vertex has oblique lateral vittae with a pale midline. The pronotum is either dark with pale lateral margins or dark with two longitudinal orange stripes, concolorous with the wing stripes. The mesonotum varies from entirely pale, pale with dark lateral triangles on the scutellum, or entirely dark brown (note that the brown does not extend under the pronotum). In var. 'kanensis,' the scutellum is a dark brown and the upper apical cell of each wing is a hyaline brown. The anteclypeus is pale and concolorous with the rest of the face, the underside of the thorax is entirely pale; the abdomen is dark dorsally. Adults are 2.8-3.0 mm long. (3i)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, open habitat near forest; likely prefers areas near birch.Prunus virginiana, Prunus avium (3i)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Scaphoideus obtususA very distinctive member of this genus, with intense grayish-white and dark brown coloration. The crown is whitish with a thin, dark-brown marginal line, a transverse orange band between the eyes with a darker diamond shape in the middle, sometimes extending towards the pronotum. The eyes are dark brown to blackish, the face is brown to blackish (this varies among individuals) with one to three darker brown lines below the crown; the areas below the eyes on the side of the head are blackish. The pronotum is dark brown with a medial whitish-gray cruciate pattern; the posterior margin can be pale. The scutellum posterior half is yellowish-white with black marks on the lateral margins; the anterior half has a dark brown trapezoid-like shape in the middle and an orange-brown square on either side. The wings have a grayish-white base color with brown to blackish venation. There is a blackish diagonal band at the base of each wing and a broad dark-brown to black transverse vertical bar about 2/3 of the length of the wings; this wing pattern is distinctive and characteristic of this species. The wing tips have a smoky orange tint to them. The female pregenital sternite is anteriorly yellow and posteriorly brownish-black. The male subgenital plates are trapezoid-like in shape with blunt, rounded apices. Adult males are 4.9-5.3 mm long, females are 5.3-5.9 mm. (Barnett 1976)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recently recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont, likely more abundant in this region though. Woodland habitatsUlmus americana, Fraxinus nigra, cottonwoods (Barnett 1976)
Ossiannilssonola tunicarubraAn unmistakable species with the basal 2/3 of the wings bright red, contrasting with a yellowish thorax, head, and legs; the wing tips are pale with a yellowish tint. The dorsum of the abdomen is black with the outer margin of the segments yellow; the underside of the body is yellow. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded recently from several counties across the state, possibly more abundant in the right habitat but likely uncommon to rare in the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.White Oak (Quercus alba) (Christian, 1953)
Eratoneura paraesculiA boldly marked leafhopper with a yellowish body and [typically] a red or orange color pattern on the wings. There are two red crossbands on the wings that do not reach the lateral margin: the crossband at the base of the wings looks like two triangles radiating outwards towards the margin of the wings (almost like a red bowtie), while the lower crossband resembles a wide "U". However, in some individuals these crossbands may be very faint or not present at all. There is a small black dot on the lateral margin of each wing, and two black dots near the wing tip in the middle (when the wings are close, these two dots become one). The thorax and head are both pale, concolorous with much of the wing color. Adults are 3.5-3.7 mm long. (3I)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains; specimens have been collected just across the border in Tennessee, so probably more abundant in the mountains in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, open areas near forest edge.Collected on Aesculus sp. and Carya carolinae-septentrionalis (3I)
Erythridula divisaA largely bicolored hopper, mostly yellowish-white with a bold dark brown to blackish longitudinal band [typically] across the entire length of the body and often extending onto the pronotum; the clavus can range from bright red to dark brown. The width of the black band varies among specimens. The vertex midline is dark, and the anteclypeus is pale and concolorous with the rest of the face. The pronotum is dark with pale lateral margins or with two longitudinal stripes. The mesonotum is entirely dark, and the thoracic venter has a dark mesosternum; the rest of the venter is pale. The abdomen is dark dorsally. Adults are 2.9 to 3.1 mm long. (3I)A single recent record from the Piedmont, but likely under-collected and more abundant.WoodlandsBlack Walnut (Juglans nigra) (3I)
Erythridula complex 1
'Dark-backed' Erythridula
A largely bicolored hopper, mostly yellowish-white with a bold dark brown to blackish longitudinal band [typically] across the entire length of the body. The black band is sometimes bordered on each side by a couple of yellow to reddish-orange lines on the wings. The width of the black band varies among specimens. In some individuals, the black line is interrupted, appearing as a set up continuous patches. The band tends to taper on the margin of the head. Adults are around 3.0 mm longScattered records from the Piedmont and mountains, probably found throughout the state.Has been found in mixed hardwood and open forest habitat. See respective species links below.
Dikrella hamarA pale, yellowish to white species with a blunt head. The vertex is produced, tapered, and blunt at the apex. The vertex, pronotum, and scutellum are white tinted with yellow, while the elytra is lemon-yellow subhyaline and the wings are white subyaline. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced. Adults are 3.5 mm long. (DeLong & Ross, 1950).Rare, a few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont; likely more abundant and overlooked, especially where witch-hazel occurs.ForestAmerican/Common Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) (DeLong & Ross, 1950); has also been reported from White Oak in the state, perhaps Quercus can be another plant host or maybe these individuals are just resting on the oak.
Stobaera tricarinataKramer (1973) notes that "the forewing varies from nearly immaculate to strongly marked with fuscus like concinna or rarely nearly entirely fuscus. The interocular portion of the frons is tan in females to fuscus in males, followed by a pale and then blackish transverse band; the central portion of the frons is pale and unmarked in both sexes, the basal portion of the frons on each side of the central carina is almost always darkened with fuscus or black. The clypeus is either unmarked or lightly marked with fuscus. The otherwise pale legs are ringed with fuscus to black." Note that all of the Stobaera species are similar in appearance, but the face pattern is a key characteristic for distinguishing species. Also note that in tricarinata (and concinna), the vertex is about as wide as it is long, contrasting with the noticeably wider vertex of pallida. Males are 2.8 - 4.6 mm long while females are 2.9 - 4.8 mm. (Kramer, 1973), (UDEL)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state.Probably near grassy areasAmbrosia spp. (ragweed), Helianthus argophyllus (silverleaf sunflower) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Scolops sulcipes
Partridge Bug
This species is dark brown overall, with light brown legs and head. There is a dense meshwork of veins on the wings with white speckling, characteristic of this species. Adults are 5 to 7 mm long. The head process/projection extends well away from the rest of the body, giving the impression of a long 'nose' on this species. Nymphs are green with a long, slender 'nose', characteristic of the genus.

For more images of pinned specimens of this species, see this page: UDEL.

Scattered records across the state, primarily in the western Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat.Convolvulus (bindweed), Solidago, Fleabane (UDEL)