Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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Omolicna uhleriA dark and distinctive species with a bold pattern. The forewing has a dark brown stripe along the costal margin, and the margin itself is pale. There is a small black dot at the bottom corner of the wings, and a white streak curving upward from the base of the thorax. The rear tips of the wings are pink. The pronotum is reddish-orange, while the head is pale yellowish; the legs are also yellowish. The abdomen is dark, as are the eyes. A somewhat common species in the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont and some from parts of the Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat; forest edge; open forest; and mixed hardwood forest.?
Driotura gammaroidesA species with a robust, short head and a shining black coloration. Adults are brachypterous, meaning they have short wings. The pronotum and abdomen are also short (abdomen is inflated in females), with the pronotum being three times as wide as long. Rarely does this species have macropterous, long-winged adults. The eyes are black with silver-speckles, and the legs are orange with dark feet. The female pregenital sternite is broadly and convexly rounded. The male subgenital plates have the outer margins convexly rounded to bluntly-tipped apices. Adults are 3 to 4 mm long. (Lawson, 1920), (DeLong, 1948)

There is a uniformly reddish-brown form with the last segment of the abdomen and ovipositor dark, and the eyes and ocelli dark too. This form is known as D. gammaroidea var. fulva and primarily occurs in the western and central U.S. (Lawson, 1920) It is known from Tennessee though and could therefore turn up in North Carolina (3i).

Another form, D. gammaroidea var. flava, has been collected in North Carolina. This form has a black vertex, pronotum and basal section of the abdomen, but the wings and final two or three segments of the abdomen are yellow (DeLong, 1948).

Infrequently encountered, rare- recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Recorded in field/forest edge habitat.Grindelia ssp. (Lawson, 1920)
Megamelus palaetusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish-brown in color, mottled with dark brown. There is a spot before the apex of the clavus and the veins of the elytra are dark brown, sometimes bold. There is a dark spot in the middle of the inner margins of the wings. The legs and underside of the head and thorax are banded with black, yellow, and tan/white. The face is also mottled with dark bands, characteristic of this species. Brachypters are similar to macropters but tend to be lighter in color. The largest member of this genus in our area, macropterous males are 5.0 mm long while females are 5.5 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state. Probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Eichornia crassipes; Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae); broadleaf arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae), Paspalum sp. (Poaceae); Jatropha integerrima; Euphorbiaceae; Laurel (UDEL)
Telamona compactaThe pronotum is a shiny, glossy reddish-brown color in females (darkening to blackish/black in males), frequently irregularly mottled with white spots; these white markings are emphasized around the base and posterior face of the crest, and along the pale band transversing the pronotum posterior to the crest. The pronotum is low with a short, blunt apex as seen from above. The crest is low and quadrangular, longer than high and set well back, and it is thick and inflated on the anterior and posterior sides. Males have lower crests than the females. Adult females are 7.5 mm long with a width of 4 mm and a height of 4 mm. (Kopp & Yonke, 1974)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single recent record from the mountains.Woodlands, where oak occursWhite oak (Quercus alba), scrub oak (Q. ilicifolia), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), pin oak (Q. palustris), northern red oak (Q. rubra), black oak (Q. velutina)
Pissonotus albovenosusA fairly distinctive member of this genus, with cream-colored wing venation. The abdomen and thorax are dark with cream tints in areas. Note that there is a bold white band across the base of the frons, above a black postclypeus (lower part of the face); the rest of the face is black with some pale spots. The first antennal segment is also black. While adults are typically brachypterous, they can be macropterous, lacking the characteristic wing venation and tending to have darker bodies. Adult brachypterous males are around 2.29 mm long, while females are around 2.75 mm; macropterous males are around 3.05 mm long while females are around 3.40 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)

See here and here for images of a macropterous adult female.

Nymphs are a mottled stramineous to dark brown, with a prominent whitish section on the abdominal segments. Older nymphs have the characteristic dark postclypeus. For a nice set of images showing the life cycle of P. albovenosus with the fourth and fifth nymphal instars and adult stages, see: BG.

Found in the Coastal Plain, and from a single county in the Piedmont. Has been found to be present in North Carolina in Distichlis communities from May 11 to November 13, and in Juncus communities in all months except March. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Most abundant in coastal tidal marshes, but also found inland. Iva frutescens (Jesuit's bark); Lygodesmia grandiflora (largeflower skeletonplant); Borrichia frutescens (bushy seaside tansy/ sea oxeye) (Asteraceae) (UDEL); from Juncus roemerianus and Distichlis spicata in NC salt marshes (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000). Also reported from Aster dumosus (BG).
Otiocerus stolliiThe darkest member of this genus, with dark purplish wings. The venation is red, and there is a pale yellowish patch on the wing tips and some yellow along the inner edges of the wings. The face and head are also dark, and the legs are pale yellowish. Here is a nice image of an adult, and here is a nice closeup of well-developed antennae, which can resemble a mouth when viewed from the side. Adults are roughly 7.0 mm long (BHL). Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat but a rare species, so certainly scarce.Probably mixed hardwood forests, where oak is found.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found on Quercus (Oak). (UDEL).
Scolops pungensA brownish species with mottled wings, similar to that of S. perdix but with more mottling. See here for images of a pinned specimen: (1), (2). Note: this species is very similar to S. perdix and may not be distinguishable from pictures.Scattered records across the state, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Ambrosia artemisiifolia (annual ragweed) (UDEL)
Graminella planaA pale yellowish-orange species with four small but prominent black dots on the anterior margin of the vertex; the ocelli are also black, giving the impression of two more dots. The vertex is bluntly angled, one-fourth wider between the eyes than the median length. The face is pale, concolorous with the vertex. The wings are yellowish-orange with pale venation. The female pregenital sternite has short lateral margins, with rounded lobes on either side of a broad, sunken, truncated or slightly produced portion in the middle of the segment that is embrowned. The male subgenital plates are short and broad, with broad apices that are bluntly rounded. Adults are around 3.5-4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr 1937)

Nymphs are pale with two bold longitudinal lines running from the tip of the vertex to the tip of the abdomen. They have spots along the margin of the characteristic, characteristic of the adults.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties across the state, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy areas.
Phylloscelis atra
Black Leaf-leg
A variable species with several different color forms, ranging from completely black to brownish overall to boldly marked with pale lines. The length of the wings can also vary among individuals, from more rounded to longer, more rectangular (above pics). The head is not projected, being short and stout in profile, and the legs are enlarged and long. In the black form at least the insides of the legs are speckled with small white spots. Nymphs are brownish overall with pale abdominal segments, pale speckling over the body, and several groups of pale hairs extending from tip of the abdomen. Recorded recently from the western Piedmont, especially on top of Pilot Mountain; possibly more abundant in the state, especially in higher elevation areas like the mountains.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat near forest edge.Rhus copallina (winged sumac, Anacardiaceae) (UDEL)
Spangbergiella quadripunctataA greenish, distinctive leafhopper with a bluish tint to the green; it has a flat, somewhat pointed head. There are bold red lines across the wings, angling outwards, as well as on the pronotum and head. The wings have reddish-brown tips, and there are four small black dots towards the rear of each wing. A bold yellow-white line can be found around the sides of the body. Females have the abdomen extending past the wing tips, while males do not; females are also not as boldly colored as the males. Adult males are 4.6-4.9 mm long, while females are around 5.3 mm. Nymphs are completely green with two parallel lines down the middle of the abdomen. The bold yellow-white line found in the adults is present in the nymphs. A somewhat uncommon to rare species, with scattered records across the state; probably more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in open mixed hardwood forest. Likely preset in grassy areas.Grasses (such as Muhlenbergia schreberi) (BG)
Saccharosydne saccharivora
West Indian Canefly
A distinctive green species with orange eyes and black lines on the front of yellowish antennal segments. The head is narrow with respect to the thorax and projects forward past the eyes; likewise, the frons is also narrow. (UDEL)A locally common species where found, primarily in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Grassy, brushy areasAndropogon bicornis, Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem), Saccharum officinarum (Sugarcane); Sorghum sudanense (Sudangrass) (UDEL)
Cedusa obscuraAdults are bluish overall (dark bluish-black wings with lighter blue waxy coating, characteristic of the blue Cedusas) with dark, orangeish legs. The male phallus (reproductive claspers) has two large, broad 'plates' that almost resemble clam shells, distinctive from many of the other blue Cedusas (see image above). Recorded from the Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat near forest edge.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Otiocerus coquebertiiA boldly marked species with forked red bands on otherwise pale, whitish wings, running along the claval suture of the wings before forking towards the apices. There is an additional small red dash on the wings, below the main red band on the clavus. The red lines continue onto the sides of the thorax, extending as a broad red stripe across the sides of the head; the short antennae are also reddish. The head is large and rostrate, and the legs are pale. Adults are about 8.75 mm long. (Dozier 1922)

Some individuals of this species are almost entirely red, a very striking appearance. This form is infrequently encountered and is known as var. rubidus.

Scattered records across the state, primarily in the Piedmont and mountains, where it is uncommon to scarce; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Near mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found to associate with Fagus (Beach, Fagaceae), Quercus (Oak, Fagaceae), and Acer (maple, Aceraceae). (UDEL); also from Oxydendrum arboreum (Sourwood).
Bothriocera drakeiThis species has a dark wing pattern with a yellowish tint to the cells. Some of the wing cells, especially at the tip of the wing have dark venation. There is a clear window in between the two main dark bands that transverse the wings, and the window above this clear one is slightly tinted yellow; the transverse patches can vary in darkness, from pale to dark brown. The thorax, head and rest of the body are fulvousy orange to tawny in color, usually unmarked or vaguely darkened on the middle portions of the dorsal surface of the head and face; the mesonotum is tan to dark yellowish brown. The legs are also fulvous. The top of the head is flat and square-shaped, characteristic of this genus. Adult males are 4.1-4.8 mm long, females are 4.5-5.0 mm. (Kramer, 1983)Uncommon, recorded primarily from the Coastal Plain plus a few counties in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open mixed hardwood forest and open pine woodland.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: wild ferns, Pteridophyta (UDEL)
Micrutalis dorsalisThis species resembles Micrutalis calva in shape and color pattern, but is almost twice as large as M. calva, measuring ~ 4 mm long. In fact, this species closely resembles Acutalis tartarea in size and pattern (some individuals of A. tartarea), differing only by the fact that A. tartarea has black wing venation while M. dorsalis has light venation. Compared to M. calva, M. dorsalis has the black on the pronotum more restricted (it does not extend across most of the pronotum, as in M. calva); the rest of the pronotum is a light brown color. See here and here for a couple dorsalis specimens.Restricted to the mountains. Seasonal distribution: 11 July-21 August (CTNC)?
Melanoliarus humilisA distinctive species. The vertex and mesonotum are dark brown to black, and the face is entirely fuscous except for carinae that vary from brown to dull orange. The vertex is variably wide but usually appears broad and divergent basally. The wings lack spots and are hyaline except for the apical third (the tips), which are contrastingly dark; in some specimens, the basal two-thirds of the wing are almost concolorous with the tips. The wing venation is a uniform brown color. Small, with males 4.1 to 5.0 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

See here for images of live adults, and here for pinned specimens.

Recorded from across the state, but priamrily in the Piedmont; for some reason, this species seems to be quite locally abundant in North Carolina compared to other states.Has been reported from pasture, bogs, prairie, river edge, rye, etc.; seems to predominate in damp habitats in cooler climates. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Adults have been taken from Poa pratensis, Carya sp., Asimina sp., and Medicago sativa. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Polyamia apicataA small but distinctive species, with adult males 2.5-2.7 mm long and females 2.6-3.1 mm (Sinada 1994). It has a yellow head, yellowish pronotum, and dark brown wings with ivory-colored wing tips. The underside of the body is pale, and the wing venation is whitish. The male genital plates are broad at the bases, concavely rounding to narrow tips. (DeLong 1948) Nymphs resemble the adults (depending on the stage), having a yellowish head and pale wing pads (when developed). Nymphs also have a yellowish tip to the abdomen and show small, white dots on much of the abdomen. (BG)Recorded in a handful of counties across the state, probably more abundant and widespread in the right habitat.Grassy areas, fieldsPanicum villosissimum, probably other members in this genus (DeLong 1948)
Scaphytopius fulvusA tawny, fulvousy orange species with a bluntly pointed, short head. The wings are brownish fulvous, with the vertex paler; the vertex has three pale longitudinal lines. The black wing venation, black marks, and white areolar spots on the wings are restricted to the apical third and on the costa; the rest of the wings are a uniform fulvous. The scutellum is also pale, with the lateral angles brown; the pronotum can have a black posterior patch, not present in some individuals. The face is a dull yellowish color that lacks dark margins. The male plates are somewhat triangular, sharply pointed and strongly diverging from one another. The female pregenital sternite is around one and one-half times as wide as the length, and the posterior margin is rounded with a small median lobe. Adult males are 4.5 mm long, females are 5.0 mm. (DeLong 1948), (Hepner 1947)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser. For images of this species, see: BG, BOLD.

Recorded from several counties in the mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.MontaneReported from pine and huckleberry, as well as bayberry (Myrica carolinensis); hucklberry and maybe bayberry are the likely hosts for this species. (Hepner 1947)
Tortistilus inermisYellowish-green to green overall with scattered white spots across the pronotum. The pronotal crest is quite high, higher than the similiar S.
and S. lutea. The legs are dark. See here for images of adults: 1, 2.
A single record from the Piedmont, rare.
Stobaera tricarinataKramer (1973) notes that "the forewing varies from nearly immaculate to strongly marked with fuscus like concinna or rarely nearly entirely fuscus. The interocular portion of the frons is tan in females to fuscus in males, followed by a pale and then blackish transverse band; the central portion of the frons is pale and unmarked in both sexes, the basal portion of the frons on each side of the central carina is almost always darkened with fuscus or black. The clypeus is either unmarked or lightly marked with fuscus. The otherwise pale legs are ringed with fuscus to black." Note that all of the Stobaera species are similar in appearance, but the face pattern is a key characteristic for distinguishing species. Also note that in tricarinata (and concinna), the vertex is about as wide as it is long, contrasting with the noticeably wider vertex of pallida. Males are 2.8 - 4.6 mm long while females are 2.9 - 4.8 mm. (Kramer, 1973), (UDEL)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state.Probably near grassy areasAmbrosia spp. (ragweed), Helianthus argophyllus (silverleaf sunflower) (UDEL)
Reventazonia lawsoniA brownish species, somewhat variable among individuals. In well-marked individuals, the vertex has six dark spots on the margin, with the two largest spots slightly in from the margin, along the midline (i.e. not all of the spots are along the edge). The pronotum has six brownish longitudinal stripes, the central two of which extend down from the crown. The scutellum usually has a pair of pale brown to black narrow longitudinal strieps. The forewings are a pale brown, with the edges of the yellowish-white veins narrowly to broadly infuscated; in some individuals, the apical cells are darkened distally. There are three anteapical wing cells (which is shared by Amplicephalus osborni), with the middle one divided (the anteapical cells are the the row of cells preceding those on the edge of the wing; note the middle cell is divided in two). The female pregenital sternite narrows distally, exposing the underlying sclerites laterally. The posterior margin is trilobed with the central lobe the most clearly defined. The male genital plates are sharply triangular, laterally concave. Adult males are 4.0-4.4 mm long, while females are 4.3-5.0 mm. (Kramer 1971)Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont, uncommon to rare; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open woodlands, forest edge, and grassy areasEastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (Kramer 1971)
Idiocerus nervatusA yellowish-green species, sometimes with a brownish tint to the wing-tips. It has very prominent dark hind wing venation showing through otherwise hyaline fore wings (tegmina), characteristic of this species. Males have black antennal tips, characteristic of males of this genus, and white facial stripes, with a noticeable white midline on the pronotum. The scutellum on males also has a white mark, and there are two brown lateral triangles in the upper corners of the scutellum. Females lack the midline, have a greenish scutellum, and are more elongate and slender than the males (larger as well). The crown of the head for both sexes is unmarked. The male subgenital plates are short and thin, wider near the apex. The female pregenital sternite has a rounded posterior margin with a shallow median emargination. Adult males are 4.4-5.0 mm long, while females are 4.8-5.3 mm. (Freytag 1965)Uncommon with scattered records primarily from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open habitat near forest edge.Primarily from willows, including Salix lucida, S. amygdaloides, S. lutea, S. lasiandra, S. nigra (black willow), and from junipers (Juniperus virginiana, etc.). Also reported from poplar (Populus deltoides), and out West from redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens). (Freytag 1965)
Erythridula noevaThis species has typical coloration for the genus, with bold red lines on the wings, thorax, and head. However, the mesonotum is typically a dark brownish color. The scutellum in particular is dark, being a dark chestnut to reddish-brown color overall with blacker lateral angles; sometimes, the scutellum has a pale midline, resulting in a dark V-shape (var. parma). The dark mesonotum is visible through the pronotum, giving this species a dark looking thorax. Color variety 'parma' has a reddish "V" for the scutellum, with two small black marks confined to the upper angles of the lateral triangles. The face is pale, as is the thorax except for the mesosternum on the underside which is dark; the abdomen is pale dorsally. Adults are 2.9 to 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2009)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the state in the right habitat (has been recorded from the TN side of the Smoky Mountains.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Black Walnut (Juglans nigra), Juglans sp., Acer saccharum, Carpinus sp., Aesculus sp., Acer pictum, Quercus imbricaria, among others (3I)
Rhynchomitra recurvaA green species that resembles R. microrhina except for the head length and shape. In recurva, the head is not as long and as tapered as that of microrhina (which has a long, pointed and strongly tapered head), but not as short as that of lingula; recurva's head is stout and not sharply pointed. When viewed dorsally, the head has a rounded shape to it rather than elongated and pointed. Nymphs are supposedly darker than those of R. microrhina, being dark brown in color.

For a couple images of nice adults, see here and here.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat; very uncommon to rare.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Eragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass, Poaceae) (UDEL)
Delphacodes shermaniBrachypterous adults are generally buffy-yellow. Males have a polished black face and have black spots across parts of the body, including ones near the middle of the abdomen which form a broad crossband. The genital capsule is black except for the extreme dorsum and the penultimate segment. Females have a tan face and scattered black spots below the ocelli, above the middle and hind coxae, and on the lateral margin of each tergum of the abdomen. Brachypterous individuals resemble brachypters but have an almost exclusively white pronotum. Brachypterous males are around 2.3 mm long while females are 3.0 mm; macropterous males are between 2.4 and 3.3 mm. (DuBose 1960)Rare, recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Probably grassy areas.
Kyboasca splendidaA stunning species with a distinct, unique pattern. Greenish overall with two bold blue stripes on the wings along the claval suture that are connected with a lateral blue band across the pronotum; when viewed from above, these blue lines form an elongated triangle. Some boldly marked individuals have orange bands bordering either side of the blue stripes on the wings. There is an orange mark on the anterior border of the blue pronotal stripe. There is a blue mark across much of the vertex. The wing tips have a dusky tint. The underside of the body and legs are green. Males are more brightly colored than females.Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Alders (Alnus sp.), Alnus incana, Alnus rugosa (3I)
Paramysidia mississippiensisA distinctive pale species; no other species in the state resembles it. The wings are large and generally pale, with black venation, dark smudges on the hindwings, and dark marks on the forewings. The body is pale to light brown in color, sometimes reddish. This species can be mistaken for a moth. For images of a couple individuals, see: 1, 2. Several records in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; can be quite abundant where found.Has been found in swampy, marshy habitat. Sabal palmetto (cabbage palmetto, Arecaceae), Acer (Maple, Aceraceae) (UDEL)
Heliria gemmaThe dorsal margin of the pronotal crest slopes posteriorly. Males are densely pubescent, and the pronotum is mottled brown with traces of a creamy tooth and posterior stripe. Females are creamy with brown mottling, particularly emphasized on the crest, and there is an oblique stripe in the rear third of the pronotum; the posterior edge of the crest is a creamy yellowish-white. Adult males are 8-9 mm long, female are 11 mm with a width and height of 5.5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke 1974)Rare, recorded from a couple counties in the mountains.Possibly Populus grandidentata (Wallace 2014)
Scolops angustatusThis species has dark wings with a characteristic, distinctive white wing margin. Additionally, the head process/projection (the 'nose') is not as long as other members of this genus. See here for a nice image of a live adult, and here for images of a pinned specimen: (1), (2).Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant across the state.?
Neocoelidia tumidifronsA yellow-orange to green robust species with a rounded head the strongly projects outwards; the antennae are also quite long. Sometimes the tips of the wings are smoky, brown. Males are plainly colored green (fresh specimens) with no markings except for a black band near the tip of the abdomen. Females, green, have wings shorter than the length of the abdomen and have distinctive black marks around otherwise yellow eyes. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly excavated with a small median tooth. The males subgenital plates are triangular and pointed, gradually taper from bases to pointed apexes. Adults are around 3.0 to 4.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948, DeLong 1953)Uncommon to rare with only several scattered records across the state.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat; reportedly common in moist wooded areas where herbaceous growth is abundant (DeLong 1948)Goldenrod
Bandara curvataAdults are orange yellow with six black dashes above the margin of the vertex and an interrupted line beneath. The posterior margin of the vertex, three stripes on the pronotum, two spots on the scutellum and numerous oval spots on the wings are white. The female pregenital sternite is rounded on lateral angles; the posterior margin is slightly emarginate, with a pair of short teeth in the middle that have divergent apexes. The male plates are tapered to blunt rounded apexes, appearing triangular together. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open woodlands, near mixed hardwood forest, grassy areas
Texananus decorusA stubby looking member of this genus, short and robust. It is dark brownish overall, with dark brown and white mottling that gives it a checkered appearance. This species has white spots down the middle of the back. The posterior edge of the pronotum and the scutellum have more white than the rest of the body, providing a noticeable contrast from the dark marks on the wings that connect with the white dots on the back. There is also a small, pale transverse band on the head above the eyes. The legs are checkered as well. The female pregenital sternite has the lateral margins rounded; there is a broad and deep V-shaped notch in the middle, flanked with dark coloration. Male plates are short and narrow and triangular in shape. Adults are 6.0 mm long. The nymph is brownish overall with white and black marks and a very spiny abdomen. (Delong & Hershberger 1949)Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy areas, fields, pastures, etc. Grasses
Negosiana dualisA typically dark brownish or blackish species, though some individuals can be paler brown. Females are usually brownish, males blackish. The vertex is broadly rounded, more than half as long in the middle as the width across the eyes. The pronotal disc has prominent transverse markings. The female pregenital sternite has the lateral angles of the posterior margin broadly rounded, with a shallow, round excavation on either side of a median produced rounded lobe, which is notched in the middle and produced past the length of the lateral lobes. Females are 9 mm long, males are 7 mm (DeLong 1942

For more records of this species, see: Bugguide.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.
Aplos simplexA distinctive looking species in this genus. Adults are mostly unicolorous and brownish in color, with bold dark wing venation; young adults though may be uniformly greenish in color, with the body and wings darkening as the adults age. The head, legs, and part of thorax are typically greenish. The head is fairly round and flat, without any prominent lateral margins.

Nymphs are greenish overall with orange longitudinal stripes down the body. Like the adult, the head of the nymph is characteristically rounded, separating this from the similar nymphs of T. quinquata which have pointed heads. Young nymph instars are orange-green and have some black spots on either side of the midline of the abdomen. For more information about the nymphs and their various instar stages, see W & W 1988.

Uncommon, not encountered very often; scattered records across the state. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Polyphagous on dicots (UDEL); on various herbs, shrubs, and trees.
Graphocephala fennahi
Rhododendron Leafhopper
A large member of this genus, with males 7.3-8.6 mm long and females slightly larger at 8.2-9.0 mm (some individuals can be larger). Forewings are variable in coloration, being typically green with red to orange bands. Some individuals though can have the green replaced with pale blue; this blue form is uncommon to rare. Red wing bands are usually unequal in width, with the back band sometimes faint or incomplete, and there are typically only two bands; very uncommonly, there can be hints of third, outer stripe. The width of the red bands can vary and some individuals can have uncommonly have somewhat even bands that are a bold red color. In addition, there are prominent, clearly scalloped black markings around the wing tip; this is a key characteristic that can help differentiate among similar species, as the only other species that has scallopping this pronounced is the very differently patterned G. versuta. The top of the head is yellow, as are the legs and underside of the body (BG).

Nymphs are whitish to yellow in color but have the distinctive, pointed head shape of this genus.

This species has been recorded primarily from the Mountains, where it is common, and several counties in the Piedmont. Probably more abundant, especially in the mountains, in the right habitat and where Rhododendron occurs, but likely to turn up anywhere in the mountains and Piedmont, perhaps not as likely in most of the Coastal Plain.Has been recorded in the state in grassy, brushy habitat near forest edge, as well as in mixed hardwood forest itself; most likely present where rhododendron occurs.Rhododendrons and azaleas
Cyarda sordidaA characteristic genus with the wings distally narrowed and coming to a point, giving them an elongate appearance. Adults have grayish-brown wings with some scattered black mottling.Reported from several counties in the Coastal Plain and Sandhills; likely more widespread in the coastal regions.Weedy areasPolyphagous (UDEL)
Idiodonus kennicottiA dark reddish-brown species with a characteristic white stripe o the wings. The body color is a rusty brown, and when viewed from the front, there are 4 bold black dots: 2 on the eyes, and 2 on the face. The vertex is a dirty yellow, and there is an orange transverse band between the eyes. The face is dirty yellowish-brown with a noticeable yellow midline. The pronotum has the posterior margin and median transverse band yellow. The female pregenital sternite has a roundedly produced posterior margin that is slightly incised and keeled, with a brown spot in the middle. The male plates are long and broad at the bases, with concave lateral margins and pointed tips. Adults are 6.0-6.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the mountains; likely more abundant in the state in the right habitat, especially in the mountains. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest edge.Oak, shrubby plants, tall herbaceous plants in shrubby plants
Eratoneura aesculiA yellow-white to yellowish species with a bold, vibrant red color pattern on the wings. The vertex has yellowish-orange submedial lines, with lateral branches that form circular shapes. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped yellowish medial mark, and the scutellum is yellowish with slightly darker lateral triangles. About a third of the wings is red, at the bases; the reddish mark covers most of the clavus, typically with a small rectangular section extending outwards from the posterior part of the mark. There is a small, oval to circular-shaped white spot inside the red, in the posterior half of the pattern. The rest of the wings are yellow with white patches. There are two small black spots on the inner margin of the apical cells, but no black spot along the costal margin of the wings; there is a red spot at the base of the crossveins before the wing tips. Adults are 2.9- 3.1 mm long. (3I)A couple records in the state from the Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura calyculaA boldly marked species with a yellow to white body and a dark reddish-brownish to blackish color pattern. The wings have a prominent central band overlaying yellowish-orange stripes extending towards the wingtips, with a large black spot bordering the band on each wing along the costal margin. The head is pale with two parallel yellowish-orange submedial lines often with lateral branches and a pale midline. The thorax/pronotum has a very distinctive dark brown "U", characteristic of this species. The U extends from the eyes downwards and across the top of the mesonotum. There are three color variations of this species. The nominate, common form has a broad central transverse band across the wings and a bold and broad black band across the wing tips; the width of the median band can vary among individuals. Form 'erasa' resembles the nominate form, except that the central wing band is truncated and looks more like two triangles extending towards one another from the wing margins. Form 'noncincta' has the central wing band and thoracic U both broken with disconnected marks; the median band is relegated to small lateral triangles. The face and underside of the thorax are pale. Adults are 2.6-3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

See here for more images of this species: BG.

Recorded across the state, with a majority of records coming from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it is common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, forest edge, and adjacent habitats.Primarily Vitis spp., but also Aesculus sp., Ilex decidua, and Prunus virginiana (3I); has been found on Black Walnut as well.
Erythridula crevecoeuriA reddish-brown species that appears mostly bicolored. The wings are mostly a reddish to reddish-brown color, sometimes very bright and vibrant, with contrasting pale wing tips. The scutellum concolorous with the wings, being dark; in some individuals, the reddish-brown color extends onto the pronotum. The vertex is yellow, as is the pale outer margins of the pronotum. The face and underside of the thorax are pale/yellowish, except for the mesosternum which is dark. The abdomen is dark. Adults are 3.0- 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2009)Recorded from several counties in the mountains and Piedmont where it is very uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest. Aesculus glabra, Aesculus sp. (3I)
Colladonus furculatusThe head and thorax are black and yellow, with the wings blackish-brown and yellow. The black band on the anterior margin of the pronotum extends notably onto the posterior margin of the vertex, resulting in a thicker and more prominent band on the body. The head has the anterior margin rounded. The female pregenital sternite is about 3 times as wide as long, with the posterior margin somewhat concave on either side of a median spatulate process, with the median emargination broadly V-shaped and deep; the spatulate process is about 5 times as long as the basal width and is produced considerably beyond the posterior margin, with the sides parallel and the apex bifid. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (Beirne, 1956; Nielson, 1957)

For images of pinned specimens, see: BOLD. For more images of live individuals, see: BG.

Rare, recorded recently from a single county in the Piedmont. Likely over-looked and under-collected.Low vegetation bordering woods (Nielson, 1957)?
Jikradia melanotaA pretty distinctive robust, dark species. The wings, scutellum, and pronotum are a dark brown to black color, often times with a greenish tint; females lack a pale transverse band, present in males. The costal margin (outer margin) of the wings is pale, yellowish, contrasting with the much darker base color. The head, face, legs, and underside are also mostly yellow. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin bisinuate with three lobes, the middle one of which is larger and longer than the other two and with a slight notch. Adult males are 6.0 mm long while females are 7.5 mm. (DeLong 1948)Uncommon to rare, scattered records across the state; probably rare across much of the state, could be locally common in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat. Also reported from low marshy areas in willow-sedge habitat (DeLong 1948).?
Dikrella hamarA pale, yellowish to white species with a blunt head. The vertex is produced, tapered, and blunt at the apex. The vertex, pronotum, and scutellum are white tinted with yellow, while the elytra is lemon-yellow subhyaline and the wings are white subyaline. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced. Adults are 3.5 mm long. (DeLong & Ross, 1950).Rare, a few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont; likely more abundant and overlooked, especially where witch-hazel occurs.ForestAmerican/Common Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) (DeLong & Ross, 1950); has also been reported from White Oak in the state, perhaps Quercus can be another plant host or maybe these individuals are just resting on the oak.
Stictocephala diceros
Two-horned Treehopper
A very distinctive looking member of this genus with prominent pubescence (hair) on the front of the pronotum (characteristic of this species); the front of the pronotum is yellowish with numerous scattered brown markings. The pronotum is dark brown with transverse bands of yellowish white; sometimes the bands do not transverse all the way across the pronotum, with pale patches on the sides of the pronotum instead, and the brown pattern can vary among individuals. The humeral horns are stout and blunt, and the legs vary from light to dark brown; the underside of the body is a very dark brown. The wings are a smoky to dark brown hyaline. Adults are 8 to 9 mm long, with females larger than males; the width between the humeral horns is 5.5 mm. (FSCA), (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from the mountains and Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 8 June-6 October (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Primarily American Black Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) (CTNC); also reported elsewhere from Bidens sp., Carya, Helianthus, Quercus, Robinia (black locust), sycamore, American elm, Rubus, Solidago, Vitis, sweetclover, butternut, nettle, raspberry, Ambrosia sp., bull thistle, dogbane, hazel, wild hemp, sunflower (FSCA), (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)
Colladonus collarisA boldly marked, yellow and black species. The head is obtusely angled and the apex rounded. The pronotum has a distinct yellow transverse band. The large yellow "saddle" on the wings is elliptical and elongate, extending from the scutellum to about 2/3 of the way down the wings; this yellow spot covers most of the clavi. The yellow claval spot is bordered by thick black coloration on the wings and scutellum; the costal border on each wing consists of a yellowish streak that becomes larger towards the apical cells, which are blackish. Two small black dots are located on the edge of the head. The underside of the abdomen and thorax are yellow. The female pregenital sternite is about twice as wide as long, and the posterior margin is uniformly convex on either side of a median spatulate process; the median emargination is broadly V-shaped and deep, while the spatulate process is about twice as long as the basal width produced up to the posterior margin, with parallel sides. Adults are 5.5-6.0 mm long. (Beirne, 1956; Nielson, 1957)Rare, with a single recent record from the southern mountains. Likely under-collected and over-looked. Reported to be most abundant during July and August, but occurring from mid-June through mid-September (Nielson, 1957).Deep woods, boggy swamps, on underbrush; in cool, moist woods (Nielson, 1957)Has been collected on Impatiens sp. (Nielson, 1957)
Colladonus clitellarius
Saddled Leafhopper, Saddleback Leafhopper
A distinctive, boldly marked leafhopper. It has brown to black wings with a large yellow "saddle" on the middle of the back. Some individuals are a bit paler, with the dark pattern lighter or reddish. The scutellum is concolorous with the wings, and there is a broad yellow transverse band on the pronotum followed by a dark band on the base of the thorax and part of the head. Two small black dots are located on the edge of the head. The underside of the abdomen and thorax are yellow. Adults are 5.0-6.0 mm long.

Nymphs are a mottled brownish color, with pale blotches.

Uncommon to locally common, recorded widely across the state.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Often feeds on willows, though will forage on many other plants as well, such as Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust), Platanus sp., Triticum sp., Polygonum perfoliatum (mile a minute vine), and vitis sp. (DL).
Cyrtolobus rufulusA somewhat reddish to tan species that can be highly variable in coloration.Rare, recorded from a few counties in the southern Coastal Plain.Sabal palm??
Oncopsis variabilisA highly variable species. The male is boldly marked with black transverse bands between the eyes; the mesepisterna, thoracic sterna, and entire dorsum are black. The wings are also largely black, with the exceptions of yellow arcs behind the calli and the yellow commissure. The venter of the body is yellow, and the legs and face are tawny. The scutellum is sometimes spotted with yellow. Females vary greatly in color, ranging from: yellow with black stripes along the claval suture (phase A); semi-translucent yellow with black stripes (phase B); to entirely yellow (phase E) or entirely black; to variegated in yellow, ferruginous and black (phase H, phase I). Adult males are 4.2-4.8 mm long, while females are 4.5-5.3 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recorded from a couple counties in the mountains; likely more abundant in this region and just under-collected.Montane woodlands with birchPrimarily paper birch (Betula papyrifera); less frequently on wire birch (B. populifolia) and yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis) (Hamilton 1983)
Gyponana palmaA pale green species marked with orange longitudinal bands on the crown, pronotum, and scutellum; these bands are broad, well defined, and conspicuous on the pronotum. The crown is rather broadly, roundedly produced and is almost twice as wide between the eyes at the base as the median length. Adults are around 10 mm long. (Freytag, 1964)Recently recorded from the Coastal Plain; probably under-collected and more abundant in the state.
Telamona tristisA species that varies greatly in coloration, ranging from a mottled dark to largely yellowish bordered with dark. The key characteristic of this species is the square, block-shape of the crest, which readily differentiates this species from other similar members of the genus. The tegmina is hyaline and tipped with brown. The underside of the thorax is flavous, and the abdomen is brownish. The legs are ferruginous.
Adults are 8.0-8.5 mm long (up to 9.5 mm in some individuals), 5 mm wide. (Kopp and Yonke, 1974)

Nymphs are grayish-brown overall, typical for the genus.

A single recent record from the mountains, likely more abundant in the state and overlooked, as it is found in the surrounding states.Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Corylus americana (American hazelnut), Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel), Ostrya virginiana (hophornbeam), Quercus alba (white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. rubra (northern red oak), Q. velutina (black oak), Tilia americana (American basswood) (Wallace 2014).