Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cyrtolobus funkhouseriFemales are moderately hairy, with short hairs, and shallow punctures of the pronotum; the surfaces is smooth and somewhat shiny. The color is a dingy reddish brown, paler anteriorly. The face is a creamy white color, finely punctured with light reddish brown. The pronotum is pale brown mixed with cream, with darker reddish brown bands rising from above the eyes. There is an oblique diagonal whitish band extending backwards from the crest to the lateral margins of the pronotum, and a vertical thicker band near the apex. There is a mid-dorsal translucent spot, and the lateral margins of the pronotom are bordered with white (characteristic of this species). The forewings are hyaline, with a testaceous base. Males are similar to females, strongly shining and ranging in color from red to black. The pale markings are whiter and more clearly defined than in the females. The body beneath is black (whereas in females it is testaceous), and the legs are testaceous as well, differing from the females in having black femora. The forewings are hyaline and clearer than in females. Adult males are 5.0 mm long, while females are 5.5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)Uncommon, scattered records primarily across the Piedmont.

Seasonal distribution: 13 May-11 June (CTNC)

Forest, woodlandsPin oak (Quercus palustris) (CTNC); also reported from red oak, scarlet oak, Quercus bicolor, and Q. imbricaria (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)
Cyrtolobus fuscipennisA reddish-brown species that is highly variable in coloration. Males have a reddish face and a low pronotum with bold, pale transverse lines/vittae and a bold mid-dorsal whitish spot; the pronotum is reddish-brown with some black. The underside of the body is black, and the forewings, which far exceed past the pronotum, are smoky and broadly infuscated at the apices. The legs are pale with the femora black above. Females have large, prominent ocelli (light-sensing organ on head), which are red. The pronotum is reddish-brown, more so than on the male, and with fainter pale transverse bands; in some individuals the rear transverse line is absent, resulting in the pronotum being posteriorly uniform in color. The pronotal crest is low (but still higher than on the male, which mostly lacks a crest), and the head is a gray-green color, deeply punctate with black; the areas next to the eyes are black. The underside of the thorax is reddish-brown, while the abdomen is yellowish; legs are reddish. Adult males are 5.5 mm long, while females are 6 mm long and 2.4 mm wide. (Kopp, 1973)Uncommon, recorded across the state. Seasonal distribution: 24 April-22 July (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Quercus alba, Q. nigra (CTNC); also reported from bur oak, red oak, blackjack oak and post oak (Kopp, 1973).
Cyrtolobus flavolatusMales are brownish overall, with a brownish tinge to the wings and a brown smudge at the rear of the wing. The pronotum is not overly pronounced, with a minimal crest. There is a pale yellowish band on the outer edge of the pronotum, beginning from the eyes, and a small transverse band at the rear of the pronotum. The front of the pronotum and the face can also be yellowish. Females resemble the males but are a much duller brown overall, lacking the sharp contrast between the yellow lateral bands on the pronotum. Female pronotal crests are also slightly higher than in males.

Nymphs are yellowish-green overall, with brownish-orange spines and three brownish-orange stripes across the thorax: a diagonal one on the wing pad, and two other vertical ones above the head.

Very uncommon but can be locally abundant at sites- recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Mountains. Seasonal distribution: 18 May-18 June (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba (CTGSMNP)
Stictocephala bisonia
Buffalo Treehopper
This species is typically greenish overall, with densely scattered pale whitish dots across the pronotum and pronotal ridges that are outlined in a yellowish-cream color. The pronotum itself appears 'boxy,' being noticeably high and large and strongly arched; this species lacks pubescence across the pronotum. The leg color is greenish. Nymphs are a spotted brown color.Uncommon with scattered records across the state, seemingly more abundant in the West. Seasonal distribution: 16 July-30 September (CTNC)Forested areasGlycine max (CTNC)
Hadrophallus bubalusA greenish treehopper with prominent pale, whitish speckling across a mostly green pronotum with yellow edges and brown tips. There is a prominent curve to the pronotum, and the pronotum itself is covered with dense, noticeable white pubescence (hair); this is a key characteristic. The body itself is also green; note that the color can fade in old specimens, as in the pinned individual above. The legs are typically a dark brown color, though some individuals can have green legs.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Scattered records across the Piedmont and mountains, seems to be more of a montane species. Seasonal distribution: 3 June-29 August (CTNC)Forested areas
Tortistilus abnormaThe pronotum tends to be highly arched in this species, with the sides densely spotted with white. The pregenital sternite of the female has a broad V-shaped notch in the center of the posterior margin. Adult males are 7.2 mm long and 3.8 mm wide across the horns, while females are 7.5 mm and 4.2 mm across the horns (Caldwell, 1949). Additionally, the pronotum is not pubescent and anteriorly is somewhat tall; overall, it has a large appearance. The reddish to red-brown legs are also diagnostic for this species.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains; uncommon to rare, but likely underreported due to misidentifications with Hadrophallus bubalus.Forested areasQuercus sp. (CTGSMNP)
Telamona tardaThis species has a rather narrow, almost horn-like pronotum which is very atypical for Telamona. Females have narrower, higher pronotal crests than males, whose crest has a much wider, triangular shaped base. This species is greenish-brown, with the crest usually a slightly darker coloration, and there tends to be scattered white speckling across the pronotum.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from the mountains but likely more abundant, just undetected. Unknown
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Xantholobus nitidusThe smallest member of this genus. Adults are finely punctured and polished, with the pronotum very slightly carinate (having a keel-like ridge). The crest is barely distinguished from the rounded surface of the pronotum. The pronotum is brownish (dark brown to black in males), paler anteriorly with a pale tip; the central transverse band is indistinct, but more obvious in females. The head is large, convex, smooth, and finely and closely punctured. The forewing has a brown base; the underside of the body is pale while the legs are whitish. Adult males are 3.0 to 4.0 mm long, while females are 4.0 mm or less; some individuals may reach 5.0 mm. (Kopp)Scattered records across the state. Seasonal distribution: 17 May-19 June (CTNC)Unknown
Stictocephala palmeriRecorded from the mountains and Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 21 July-29 September (CTNC)Carya
Ophiderma flavicephalaFemales are brown to rufous overall with a pale yellow lateral stripe on each side of the pronotum. Females are densely pubescent with long hairs, and the pronotum gradually slopes downwards. The wings have a broad rufous/brown base and a dark tip. The head is much broader than long and sparingly pubescent with long hairs; there is a small black spot above the ocelli, which are prominent and a brilliant red. The undersurface of the thorax is fuscous, and the abdomen is yellowish. Legs are reddish-brown. Males are slightly smaller than females but much darker, with a black pronotum. The lateral stripes are a bright white on the males, and there is a white transverse band near the rear tip of the abdomen (sometimes this band is broken or incomplete). Males also have heavier pubescence, especially on the anterior part of the pronotum, compared to the female. Adults are between 5.5 and 6.0 mm long. (Kopp, 1973)Scattered records across the state, uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 23 April-18 June (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where oak is present.Quercus alba, Q. coccinea, Q. falcata, Q. nigra, Q. palustris, Q. phellos, Q. rubra var. ambigua, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Cyrtolobus rufulusA somewhat reddish to tan species that can be highly variable in coloration.Uncommon to rare, recorded from several counties in the southern Coastal Plain.Has been found in maritime forest.Sabal palm??
Bothriocera cognitaA dark, bold species with fairly dark wings with two main black transverse bands. There are three main clear wing windows: one between the two black bands, and two to the side of the abdomen. There is a diagonal dark line that extends on the outer edge of these last two wing windows, connecting to another dark wing mark that resembles a musical quarter note. This dark 'note' and the rest of the wing pattern, especially the completely embrowned/black clavus of each wing, can help differentiate this species from the similar B. maculata. The body is blackish, and the top of the square-shaped head is typically orange though ranges from light to dark tawny. The middle portion of the dorsal surface of the head is variably darkened, the face is strongly darkened except for the lateral margins. The pronotum is variably embrowned, while the mesonotum is a reddish brown to nearly black; the tegulae are usually dark. Adult males are 4.8-5.5 mm long, females are 5.0-5.8 mm. (Kramer, 1983)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Recorded throughout the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, with a single record from the mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat; uncommon to locally common.Has been found in open habitat, near mixed hardwood forest. Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: Spartina (Poaceae, cordgrass), Juncus (Juncaceae, Rush), Cephalanthus occidentalis (Rubiaceae, common buttonbush), and Quercus (Fagaceae, Oak). (UDEL)
Bothriocera datunaThe ground color of the head and pronotum is tawny, with the middle portion of the dorsal surface of the head varying from unmarked to slightly darkened. The face is darker with its lateral edges pale, and the pronotum and tegulae can be either slightly darkened or not; the mesonotum varies from dark yellowish brown to dark reddish brown. The forewings have a prominent dark transverse band, angled inwards towards the commissure. Adult males are 4.6-5.0 mm long, females are 4.5-5.2 mm. (Kramer, 1983)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Uncommon to locally common across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, with a single record currently from the mountains.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. (UDEL)
Bothriocera maculataA dark species in this genus with a central bold transverse band across the wings that is blackish. There is a network of black lined wing cells near the tip of the wings that gives this species a somewhat distinctive wing pattern. This pattern, in addition to the relatively clear base of the wings above the dark band, outside of a small black tear-shaped mark on the side of each wing, can help differentiate this species from the similar B. cognita whose wing markings are typically much more intense and darker; maculata also only has the clavus embrowned along the inner margin. The body is dark, blackish in color, contrasting with the typically fulvousy orange/tawny color of the square-shaped head. The face is also dark, and the pronotum and tegulae are embrowned or not; the mesonotum is a dark yellowish-brown to dark reddish-brown. The legs are also fulvousy orange. Adult males are 4.2-5.0 mm long, while females are 4.4-5.2 mm. (Kramer, 1983)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Uncommon, recorded primarily from the Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy habitat.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: saltmeadow cordgrass (Spartina patens), big cordgrass (Spartina cynosuroides), needlegrass rush/black rush (Juncus roemerianus), and dog-fennel (Eupatorium capillifolium) (Kramer, 1983)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Bothriocera drakeiThis species has a dark wing pattern with a yellowish tint to the cells. Some of the wing cells, especially at the tip of the wing have dark venation. There is a clear window in between the two main dark bands that transverse the wings, and the window above this clear one is slightly tinted yellow; the transverse patches can vary in darkness, from pale to dark brown. The thorax, head and rest of the body are fulvousy orange to tawny in color, usually unmarked or vaguely darkened on the middle portions of the dorsal surface of the head and face; the mesonotum is tan to dark yellowish brown. The legs are also fulvous. The top of the head is flat and square-shaped, characteristic of this genus. Adult males are 4.1-4.8 mm long, females are 4.5-5.0 mm. (Kramer, 1983)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Uncommon, recorded primarily from the Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open mixed hardwood forest and open pine woodland.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: wild ferns, Pteridophyta (UDEL)
Scaralina marmorataA very distinctive and recognizable species that is highly variable (but localized) in color, with the body and anterior portions of the wings usually mottled with lichen-green, brown, and black coloration. The wings are reticulated with darker veins surrounding translucent wing cells, with dark markings on the basal half of the first claval vein interrupted; there is also a continuous dark transverse patch from the costa to the clavus, with pale crossveins. The base of the wings can show the lichen green and black color pattern found on the thorax, and there can be tiny red flecks along veins; there are many costal crossveins. The head is not strongly produced, being rather flat with eyes narrower than the pronotum, and the eyes are narrower than the pronotum. The sides of the face are parallel, and the frons has a broad pale upper margin that is otherwise dark below this; the clypeus is variable but is typically palest in the center and apically. The dark spots of the vertex are posterior in position, with restricted black markings very well-defined. The pronotal spots are well-defined, and the mesonotum center is largely pale (though it can be variably dark-marked). The legs are relatively long, especially the hind legs. The ninth abdominal tergite of the female is elongate, usually hiding the tenth and eleventh tergite; sternites are typically pale tan or basally black. Adults are about one inch in length and resemble small flattened cicadas. (UDEL, Yanega et al., 2024)

UDEL of the species are pale greenish overall with darker mottling and dense pale pinkish nodules. These nymphs are fairly flat and have a white face with two bold, black transverse bands.

Uncommon to locally common, with records across the state (though primarily the Piedmont and mountains) but not encountered frequently.Found in deciduous forests.Probably oaks (Yanega et al., 2024) such as Quercus nigra (BG).
Macropsis dixiensisMales are a deep ferruginous color, with the pronotum having a greenish tint to it. The abdominal sterna is brown while the sides of the thorax, underside of the head, and lateral angles of the scutellum are black. The wings are white with subhyaline areas; the wing venation is bold and prominent. Females are colored similarly to the males but the lateral angles of the scutellum are fuscous rather than black, sometimes paler. The head and pronotum are yellow-brown, with fuscous markings on the side of the body. Adult males are around 4.0 mm long, while females are 4.4-4.6 mm. The nymph of this species is unknown. (Hamilton 1983)
Reported from three counties in the mountains, uncommon to rare; perhaps found elsewhere in this region.Forested areas with wild plum treesWild plums: Prunus angustifolia, P. umbellata (Hamilton 1983)
Aphrophora gelida
Boreal Spittlebug
A striking spittlebug, this species can have a variable color pattern consisting of a combination of red/rufous, black, and white; this pattern can help differentiate this species from the similar Pine_Spittlebug. In addition, the wings are narrower and the head shorter compared to Pine Spittlebug BG. Wings and rest of the body are heavily pitted, characteristic of members of this genus. Males have divergent, finger-like plates. Adult males are 8.5-10.0 mm long, females are 9.2-10.8 mm. (Hamilton, 1982)

Nymphs of this species have a bright red abdomen and dark, blackish head.

Uncommon to locally common in North Carolina. This species has been recorded from several counties in the mountains; likely more abundant in the mountains in the right habitat.High elevation, montane forestsNymphs have been found on grape vines (Vitis sp.), goldenrod (Solidago sp.), and Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium). Adults are general feeders on conifers, including: pines (Pinus sp.), spruces (Picea sp.), tamarack (Larix laricina), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). (Hamilton, 1982)
Stictolobus borealisA greenish species, with the pronotal horns and ridge typically reddish. This species is distinctive from other Stictocephala spp. in having the mottled white lined pattern on the pronotum: two white lines originate on the posterior side of each horn, with the ventral line following the ventral margin of the pronotum and the other line following the contour of the crest (forming somewhat of a white arch), before both lines converge and end at the ventral margin of the pronotum anterior to the posterior process. The wings are yellowish apically Adult males are 6.8 mm, females 7.5 mm. (Caldwell, 1949)Rare, reported from a single county in the Piedmont.Has been recorded from Ambrosia spp. (Caldwell, 1949)
Stictolobus minutusA hornless, brownish species with white speckling on the front of the pronotum. There are two pale lines following the ridge and edge on each side of the pronotum. Adults are 4.6 mm long. See FSCA for more.Rare, reported from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) (CTNC)
Erythridula complex 2
Erythridula aesculella or rubroscuta
A largely bicolored hopper, mostly yellowish-white with variable red patches across the body: in some individuals the scutellum/pronotum lacks any red coloration, whereas in others these areas are entirely red. In all individuals though, there is an incomplete red transverse crossband across the middle of the wings. Adults are around 3.1-3.4 mm long.

For more images of this group, see: BG.

Scattered records from the Piedmont and mountains, probably found throughout the state.Forested areasBoth species primarily feed on Aesculus glabra: E. aesculella, E. rubroscuta.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythridula fumidaThis species has a pale yellowish-white body with a red, orange, or brown color pattern. This species is banded, with two noticeable transverse bands across the wings, ranging from being somewhat opaque to uniformly dark and covering most of the wings in a somewhat 'fused' color pattern (the latter resembling some individuals of Erythroneura bistrata). The vertex midline is pale, and the face lacks black spots, with the anteclypeus pale and concolorous with the rest of the face. The pronotum is either dark with pale lateral margins or pale with dark longitudinal stripes (typical of the genus). The mesonotum is completely dark, and the apex is concolorous with the rest of the mesonotum. The underside of the thorax is entirely dark, and the abdomen is dark dorsally. The forewings lack a dark spot on the costal margin or in the apical cells. Adults are 2.7 to 2.9 mm long. (INHS)

For more pics of the species, see: BG.

Recorded recently from a single county in the mountains; likely more abundant in this region in the right habitat.Tilia americana (3I)
Enchenopa on-halesia
Undescribed Enchenopa on Silverbell
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem.

See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.

Recently recorded from the mountains, likely more abundant in this region.Has been found on roadsides near forest edge.Silverbell (Halesia spp.)
Enchenopa on-juglans
Undescribed Enchenopa on Juglans
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are a distinctive white and black color, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Scattered records across the state, but likely more abundant throughout the state where Black Walnut occurs. Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat and mixed hardwood, cypress forest.Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
Erythridula asperaA pale species with a yellow, orange, or red color pattern. The vertex has oblique lateral vittae with a pale midline. The pronotum is either dark with pale lateral margins or dark with two longitudinal orange stripes, concolorous with the wing stripes. The mesonotum varies from entirely pale, pale with dark lateral triangles on the scutellum, or entirely dark brown (note that the brown does not extend under the pronotum). In var. 'kanensis,' the scutellum is a dark brown and the upper apical cell of each wing is a hyaline brown. The anteclypeus is pale and concolorous with the rest of the face, the underside of the thorax is entirely pale; the abdomen is dark dorsally. Adults are 2.8-3.0 mm long. (3i)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, open habitat near forest; likely prefers areas near birch.Prunus virginiana, Prunus avium (3i)
Thionia ellipticaThis species varies in color from grayish to brown but is generally yellowish or greenish-tan with brown speckling. It has a characteristic vertex (top of the head) that is concave from the frontal view, with the lateral margins flared prominently, and from the dorsal view, the vertex is wider than long (BG). See here for a nice depiction of the noticeably wider than long vertex.

Nymphs exhibit a strong degree of variation in pattern and coloration, ranging from light brown to black in color and typically heavily marked with cream spots, though some individuals have a paler midline; individuals also tend to have red eyes. See W & W 1987 for more information and drawings of the nymphs of T. elliptica. (BG)

Uncommon to locally abundant, no records yet from the Coastal Plain.Mixed hardwood forest, where oaks are present. Quercus ilicifolia (bear oak, Fagaceae), Q. marilandica (blackjack oak) (UDEL); nymphs have also been found on red maple and Nyssa sylvatica (tupelo, black gum).
Xestocephalus similisA fairly small brownish leafhopper with patterns similar to other members of this genus. However, there is a distinct clear or pale spot at the base of the middle wing tip cell; the part of the cell near the tip is dark while the base of the cell (pointing towards the head) is clear. This cell pattern is characteristic of this species. In addition, the dark color of the wing tip cells fades to white towards the outer edges of these cells (BG). The head and pronotum are also typically a brownish color, lacking much of the pattern that other species like X. superbus have. Recent records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found so far in grassy areas with mixed hardwood forest edge near pine forest.
Erythroneura kanwakaeRed or orange color pattern on an otherwise yellowish-white background. The pattern on each wing is a somewhat continuous reddish-orange zig-zag, with the marks on each wing not really visually connecting with each other along the commissure; the zig-zag through the apical cells is dark gray to blackish. There is a dark spot on the costal margin of each wing, and two spots in the apical cells (this can be tough to see though within the dark band). The vertex has orange parallel submedial lines that are close to one another, with a thin white gap in between, and there is often a lateral branch. The anteclypeus is pale, concolorous with the rest of the face. The pronotum has a Y-shaped yellow to red mark in the middle and a concolorous line on the lateral margins. The mesonotum is entirely pale, with the apex concolorous with the rest of the mesonotum. The thoracic venter has a dark mesosternum, the rest is pale. Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from a single county in the mountains, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Swamp Gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum), less frequently on Red Bud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Doleranus longulusBrownish-yellow, marked with reddish-brown; the chestnut-colored wings have pale venation, outlined with darker infuscations inside each wing cell. The vertex is twice as wide as it is long, with a somewhat rounded, pointed tip. The ocelli are white, connected by a white transverse line along the margin. The pronotum is fulvous, with dark brown markigns on the anterior portion; the scutellum is the same color but has dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin depressed, slightly and angularly elevated. The male subgenital plates are rounded with almost parallel-margined tips. Adults are 5-6 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A couple records for the state from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Metcalf (1967) lists the species for North Carolina but it is unclear from where.Wooded floodplains, along stream banks, etc. (DeLong, 1948)Herbaceous plants
Colladonus brunneusA sexually dimorphic species. Males are rufousy-brown overall with yellow to white wings veins. The top of the scutellum is marked with a small black band, followed by a bold, distinctive yellowish transverse band across the pronotum. There is a transverse rufous "band" (not as defined as the other bands) across the base of the pronotum and part of the head, with a small black line bordering this band and the rest of the head. Finally, there are two small black marks on the edge of the head. Females resemble the males in color but lack the distinct wing venation and may only have a faint band on the pronotum. (RGC)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, likely more abundant and widespread across this region.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat surrounded by montane forest, and mixed pine hardwoods.?
Xestocephalus brunneus
Brown Xestocephalus
A generally dark species, varying in color from almost black to brown to bluish. It has pale spots at the wing tips and yellowish-brown legs. The face is a warm brown color, and the rest of the underside is dark brown. Adults are 3.0-3.5 mm long. This species is smaller than the very similar X. piceus, which is 4.0 mm long or more: 1.

For additional pics of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been recorded in mixed hardwood forest habitats.Willow, black Locust, honey-locust, walnut; also aspen (Populus spp.), birch and elm (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017)
Stictocephala taurinaA green species with many pale spots scattered all over the pronotum. The horns are prominent but not overly large and may have a dark edge to them. The legs are green. The nymph is typical for this genus, see above. Adults are 7.5 mm long (BG).Recorded from the mountains and Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 19 June-18 September (CTNC)Helianthus sp., Rubus sp., Sambucus canadensis, Smilax sp. (CTNC)
Telonaca altaA greenish-brown species with a prominent pronotal crest. The crest itself can vary among individuals, with some specimens having a 'step' or hump on the posterior side of the crest, while other individuals may lack this step completely. The wings are mostly hyaline, with a smoky tip. Adult males are 10 mm long, while females are 10.5 mm (FSCA).Rare, recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant along the coast.Coastal forest where oak is present.Quercus laurifolia, Q. nigra (FSCA); also on Q. laevis (turkey oak), Q. virginiana (live oak) (Wallace 2014).
Rhynchomitra recurvaA green species that resembles R. microrhina except for the head length and shape. In recurva, the head is not as long and as tapered as that of microrhina (which has a long, pointed and strongly tapered head), but not as short as that of lingula; recurva's head is stout and not sharply pointed. When viewed dorsally, the head has a rounded shape to it rather than elongated and pointed. Nymphs are supposedly darker than those of R. microrhina, being dark brown in color.

For a couple images of nice adults, see here and here.

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat; very uncommon to rare.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Eragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass, Poaceae) (UDEL)
Erythroneura carinataA banded species with a yellow or white dorsum and a red, orange, or brown color pattern. There are two parallel orange submedial lines on the head with a pale midline, though this can sometimes be fused into a single thicker mark. The body has three dark transverse bands- on the thorax, middle of the wings, and wing tips. The thoracic band, which extends across the upper part of the mesonotum/scutellum and most of the pronotum, is brownish-red; the apex of the scutellum is contrastingly pale. The anterior side of the band facing the vertex typically fades into the head. The band across the wings is a pale red, as if someone has erased the color of the band; this is key for the species. The wing tips are dark gray to blackish. There is a large blue to black spot on the costal margin of each wing, and a distal spot in the second apical wing cell. The face and underside of the thorax are completely pale. Adults are 3.0-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Recently recorded in the state, known from a few counties in the Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Vitis sp. (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura pontifexA fairly distinctive reddish-orange and yellow patterned species with two color forms that have smoky wingtips. In one form, the pattern on the thorax and scutellum, which is yellowish-orange in color, transitions and blends into reddish-orange markings on the wings. In the other color form, the body markings are yellow and the base of the wings are yellow, contrasting with a bright, bold 'saddle' in the middle of the wings. In both forms however, the top of the head has two bold black parallel lines with a pale midline. In some individuals, the black marks merge near the pronotum, forming a wide dark patch that encompasses much of the vertex. The face is pale, as is the underside of the thorax outside of the dark mesosternum. Adults are 2.8- 3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded recently from a couple counties in the mountains, likely more abundant in this region.Vitis sp., Rubus sp. (3I)
Hymetta kansasensisThe most boldly-marked member of this genus. The wings are milky-white with a bold, dark brown and red color pattern. The first two crossbands are brownish to reddish, with the first typically quite thick and strongly narrowed on the costal margin while the second is more of a broken oblique zig-zag line running from the plaque to the transverse apical red line; together they tend to form a large, characteristic dark saddle. The third band is a very dark inverted V. The costal plaque is [sometimes] dark. There is a black dot on the corium which touches the claval suture, and a small brownish spot on the clavus caudad of these; there are many small reddish flecks on the corium, clavus and [sometimes] costal plaque. The vertex is either unicolorous or with orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch. The disc of the pronotum is usually darkened, resulting in a diagnotistic yellowish-brown circular patch. The scutellum has a small black dot at the apex. The thoracic venter is entirely pale. Adults are 3.2-3.5 mm long. (3I; Fairbairn, 1928)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Young nymph instars are pale with blackish tarsi, with brownish-olive markings on the body. Young instars have darker markings, and the rest of the legs become olive-blackish.

Rare, only known from one county in the state, in the Piedmont; likely overlooked. Can be found in mixed hardwood forest. Cercis canadensis (red bud) (3I)
Dikrella hamarA pale, yellowish to white species with a blunt head. The vertex is produced, tapered, and blunt at the apex. The vertex, pronotum, and scutellum are white tinted with yellow, while the elytra is lemon-yellow subhyaline and the wings are white subyaline. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced. Adults are 3.5 mm long. (DeLong & Ross, 1950).Rare, a few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont; likely more abundant and overlooked, especially where witch-hazel occurs.ForestAmerican/Common Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) (DeLong & Ross, 1950); has also been reported from White Oak in the state, perhaps Quercus can be another plant host or maybe these individuals are just resting on the oak.
Omolicna uhleriA dark and distinctive species with a bold pattern. The forewing has a dark brown stripe along the costal margin, and the margin itself is pale. There is a small black dot at the bottom corner of the wings, and a white streak curving upward from the base of the thorax. The rear tips of the wings are pink. The pronotum is reddish-orange, while the head is pale yellowish; the legs are also yellowish. The abdomen is dark, as are the eyes. A somewhat common species in the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont and some from parts of the Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat; forest edge; open forest; and mixed hardwood forest.?
Driotura gammaroidesA species with a robust, short head and a shining black coloration. Adults are brachypterous, meaning they have short wings. The pronotum and abdomen are also short (abdomen is inflated in females), with the pronotum being three times as wide as long. Rarely does this species have macropterous, long-winged adults. The eyes are black with silver-speckles, and the legs are orange with dark feet. The female pregenital sternite is broadly and convexly rounded. The male subgenital plates have the outer margins convexly rounded to bluntly-tipped apices. Adults are 3 to 4 mm long. (Lawson, 1920), (DeLong, 1948)

There is a uniformly reddish-brown form with the last segment of the abdomen and ovipositor dark, and the eyes and ocelli dark too. This form is known as D. gammaroidea var. fulva and primarily occurs in the western and central U.S. (Lawson, 1920) It is known from Tennessee though and could therefore turn up in North Carolina (3i).

Another form, D. gammaroidea var. flava, has been collected in North Carolina. This form has a black vertex, pronotum and basal section of the abdomen, but the wings and final two or three segments of the abdomen are yellow (DeLong, 1948).

Infrequently encountered, rare- recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Recorded in field/forest edge habitat.Grindelia ssp. (Lawson, 1920)
Megamelus palaetusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish-brown in color, mottled with dark brown. There is a spot before the apex of the clavus and the veins of the elytra are dark brown, sometimes bold. There is a dark spot in the middle of the inner margins of the wings. The legs and underside of the head and thorax are banded with black, yellow, and tan/white. The face is also mottled with dark bands, characteristic of this species. Brachypters are similar to macropters but tend to be lighter in color. The largest member of this genus in our area, macropterous males are 5.0 mm long while females are 5.5 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the state. Probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Eichornia crassipes; Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae); broadleaf arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae), Paspalum sp. (Poaceae); Jatropha integerrima; Euphorbiaceae; Laurel (UDEL)
Telamona compactaThe pronotum is a shiny, glossy reddish-brown color in females (darkening to blackish/black in males), frequently irregularly mottled with white spots; these white markings are emphasized around the base and posterior face of the crest, and along the pale band transversing the pronotum posterior to the crest. The pronotum is low with a short, blunt apex as seen from above. The crest is low and quadrangular, longer than high and set well back, and it is thick and inflated on the anterior and posterior sides. Males have lower crests than the females. Adult females are 7.5 mm long with a width of 4 mm and a height of 4 mm. (Kopp & Yonke, 1974)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single recent record from the mountains.Woodlands, where oak occursWhite oak (Quercus alba), scrub oak (Q. ilicifolia), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa), pin oak (Q. palustris), northern red oak (Q. rubra), black oak (Q. velutina)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Pissonotus albovenosusA fairly distinctive member of this genus, with cream-colored wing venation. The abdomen and thorax are dark with cream tints in areas. Note that there is a bold white band across the base of the frons, above a black postclypeus (lower part of the face); the rest of the face is black with some pale spots. The first antennal segment is also black. While adults are typically brachypterous, they can be macropterous, lacking the characteristic wing venation and tending to have darker bodies. Adult brachypterous males are around 2.29 mm long, while females are around 2.75 mm; macropterous males are around 3.05 mm long while females are around 3.40 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)

See here and here for images of a macropterous adult female.

Nymphs are a mottled stramineous to dark brown, with a prominent whitish section on the abdominal segments. Older nymphs have the characteristic dark postclypeus. For a nice set of images showing the life cycle of P. albovenosus with the fourth and fifth nymphal instars and adult stages, see: BG.

Found in the Coastal Plain, and from a single county in the Piedmont. Has been found to be present in North Carolina in Distichlis communities from May 11 to November 13, and in Juncus communities in all months except March. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Most abundant in coastal tidal marshes, but also found inland. Iva frutescens (Jesuit's bark); Lygodesmia grandiflora (largeflower skeletonplant); Borrichia frutescens (bushy seaside tansy/ sea oxeye) (Asteraceae) (UDEL); from Juncus roemerianus and Distichlis spicata in NC salt marshes (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000). Also reported from Aster dumosus (BG).
Otiocerus stolliiThe darkest member of this genus, with dark purplish wings. The venation is red, and there is a pale yellowish patch on the wing tips and some yellow along the inner edges of the wings. The face and head are also dark, and the legs are pale yellowish. Here is a nice image of an adult, and here is a nice closeup of well-developed antennae, which can resemble a mouth when viewed from the side. Adults are roughly 7.0 mm long (BHL). Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat but a rare species, so certainly scarce.Probably mixed hardwood forests, where oak is found.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found on Quercus (Oak). (UDEL).
Scolops pungensA brownish species with mottled wings, similar to that of S. perdix but with more mottling. See here for images of a pinned specimen: (1), (2). Note: this species is very similar to S. perdix and may not be distinguishable from pictures.Scattered records across the state, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Ambrosia artemisiifolia (annual ragweed) (UDEL)
Graminella planaA pale yellowish-orange species with four small but prominent black dots on the anterior margin of the vertex; the ocelli are also black, giving the impression of two more dots. The vertex is bluntly angled, one-fourth wider between the eyes than the median length. The face is pale, concolorous with the vertex. The wings are yellowish-orange with pale venation. The female pregenital sternite has short lateral margins, with rounded lobes on either side of a broad, sunken, truncated or slightly produced portion in the middle of the segment that is embrowned. The male subgenital plates are short and broad, with broad apices that are bluntly rounded. Adults are around 3.5-4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr 1937)

Nymphs are pale with two bold longitudinal lines running from the tip of the vertex to the tip of the abdomen. They have spots along the margin of the characteristic, characteristic of the adults.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from several counties across the state, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy areas.
Phylloscelis atra
Black Leaf-leg
A variable species with several different color forms, ranging from completely black to brownish overall to boldly marked with pale lines. The length of the wings can also vary among individuals, from more rounded to longer, more rectangular (above pics). The head is not projected, being short and stout in profile, and the legs are enlarged and long. In the black form at least the insides of the legs are speckled with small white spots. Nymphs are brownish overall with pale abdominal segments, pale speckling over the body, and several groups of pale hairs extending from tip of the abdomen. Recorded recently from the western Piedmont, especially on top of Pilot Mountain; possibly more abundant in the state, especially in higher elevation areas like the mountains.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat near forest edge.Rhus copallina (winged sumac, Anacardiaceae) (UDEL)
Spangbergiella quadripunctataA greenish, distinctive leafhopper with a bluish tint to the green; it has a flat, somewhat pointed head. There are bold red lines across the wings, angling outwards, as well as on the pronotum and head. The wings have reddish-brown tips, and there are four small black dots towards the rear of each wing. A bold yellow-white line can be found around the sides of the body. Females have the abdomen extending past the wing tips, while males do not; females are also not as boldly colored as the males. Adult males are 4.6-4.9 mm long, while females are around 5.3 mm. Nymphs are completely green with two parallel lines down the middle of the abdomen. The bold yellow-white line found in the adults is present in the nymphs. A somewhat uncommon to rare species, with scattered records across the state; probably more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in open mixed hardwood forest. Likely preset in grassy areas.Grasses (such as Muhlenbergia schreberi) (BG)
Saccharosydne saccharivora
West Indian Canefly
A distinctive green species with orange eyes and black lines on the front of yellowish antennal segments. The head is narrow with respect to the thorax and projects forward past the eyes; likewise, the frons is also narrow. (UDEL)A locally common species where found, primarily in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Grassy, brushy areasAndropogon bicornis, Andropogon glomeratus (bushy bluestem), Saccharum officinarum (Sugarcane); Sorghum sudanense (Sudangrass) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cedusa obscuraAdults are bluish overall (dark bluish-black wings with lighter blue waxy coating, characteristic of the blue Cedusas) with dark, orangeish legs. The male phallus (reproductive claspers) has two large, broad 'plates' that almost resemble clam shells, distinctive from many of the other blue Cedusas (see image above). Recorded from the Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat near forest edge.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).