Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Doleranus vividusGreenish overall with a slight brownish tinge and lacking any definite markings. The wing venation is distinctive, differentiating it from similarly-colored green Chlorotettix. The head, thorax and scutellum are pale brownish, while the elytra is subhyaline and pale green, tinged with brown apically. The vertex is unmarked and almost twice as wide as it is long, with a noticeable pointed apex. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin broadly, triangularly excavated about halfway to the base of the segment; the lateral margins are somewhat roundedly lobate. The male subgenital plates are long and triangular, tapering about 3/4 the length to slightly divergent finger-like apexes. Adults are 5.5-6.0 mm long. (Crumb 1915, DeLong 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Collected from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains, with one recent record; a very uncommon species.Grassy areas in meadows along streams, valleys, and open woodland (DeLong 1948)
Doleranus longulusBrownish-yellow, marked with reddish-brown; the chestnut-colored wings have pale venation, outlined with darker infuscations inside each wing cell. The vertex is twice as wide as it is long, with a somewhat rounded, pointed tip. The ocelli are white, connected by a white transverse line along the margin. The pronotum is fulvous, with dark brown markigns on the anterior portion; the scutellum is the same color but has dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin depressed, slightly and angularly elevated. The male subgenital plates are rounded with almost parallel-margined tips. Adults are 5-6 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A single record for the state from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Metcalf (1967) lists the species for North Carolina but it is unclear from where.Wooded floodplains, along stream banks, etc. (DeLong, 1948)Herbaceous plants
Atanus perspicillatusA pale species with variable markings. The body and wings are cream to grayish in color, and the face has brown arcs and marks. The crown has a broken waved line above the margin, and there is a Y-shaped spot in the middle of the crown and a broken O-shaped mark next to each eye. The pronotum has brown spots, usually in pairs near the base with the most prominent ones behind the eyes. There is a distinct set of black dots on the wings, with four spots spaced out from the inner edge of the wings, in the shape of a square. Three pairs of black spots are located on the inner wing edge, though the pair of spots closest to the head may not be present at times. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin angularly produced about one-third the length of the segment. The male genital plates are triangular and elongated, with the apices narrow and attenuate. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (DeLong 1978)This species has been recently recorded from several counties across the state, where it is rare, but possibly more widespread in the right habitat.Has been recorded in the state in mixed to open forest habitat.
Balclutha incisaA slender species that ranges from yellow, yellowish-green, and green in color, sometimes pale. The wings are concolorous with the body color, and the cells of the forewings are sometimes fuscous (see images above). The head is as wide as or slightly wider than the pronotum; the vertex is the same length in the middle as next to the eye. The female pregenital sternite is is seemingly variable in shape, ranging from a straight posterior margin to one that is concavely bilobate. The male subgenital plates are triangular, with short finger-like projections that extend from the tapered apexes. Adult males are 2.9 to 3.6 mm long, females are 2.8 to 3.8 mm. Nymphs are a light brown color. (Knight, 1987)

For images of specimens of nymphs and adults, see: BOLD and EOL. For a couple diagrams of the genitalia, see: 3i.

Scattered records across the state, rare; likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest, forest edge; also in grassy areasProbably grasses; Knight (1987) reports the following host plants for this species from around the world, most from the Caribbean: Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus ferax, Daucus carota (carrot), Eriochloa subglabra, Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Oryza sativa (rice), Panicum barbinode, Saccharum sp. (sugar-cane)
Pendarus stipatusA brownish species, ranging from pale to dark brown, with a head that is slightly wider than the pronotum; the head is longer in most females. The crown is slightly produced with a noticeable point, and it is angled towards the face. The wings have a distinct banded appearance (perhaps not quite as evident in dark individuals). The male subgenital plates are triangular. The female pregenital sternite has a prominent median projection with a small notch in the middle. Adult males are 5.5-5.7 mm long, while females are 6.1-7.3 mm. (Hamilton 1975)Scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Pine forestP. s. stipatus: slash pine (Pinus elliottii)

P. s. tullahomi: Pinus rigida and P. virginiana, with a preference to seedlings

(Hamilton 1975)

Pendarus avicephalusA grayish-brown species with pale bands on the wings. The male crown is short, scarcely produced near the eye and bluntly rounded at the apex. The female crown is similar but sharply angled apically (has a point), causing the coronal margins to appear concave. The male subgenital plates are elongate with sharp apexes; triangular overall. The female pregenital sternite has a slight median projection, with a small notch in the middle. Adult males are 5.1-5.3 mm long, while females are 6.0-6.2 mm (Hamilton 1975)

For additional images of specimens, showing male and females, see: BOLD.

Several records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont; probably under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.
Menosoma stoneiA small, tawny species with a short rounded vertex that is essentially parallel margined. The wings are tawny overall, concolorous with the pronotum, scutellum and vertex, and there are scattered pale spots in the cells. The wing venation and nervures are a distinctive red color except for the reflexed nervures along the costa, which have fuscous ends; the venation near the apex of the clavi is also fuscous, and the wing tips are fuscous as well. The male subgenital plates are triangular. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (Ball, 1931)

For diagrams of this species, see: 3i. For additional images of specimens, see: BOLD.

Rare, a couple recent records from the Coastal Plain.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Chlorotettix suturalisPale green to yellowish overall, sometimes reddish, with a brown median line (this is sometimes barely visible). The vertex is bluntly angled and is a little longer in the middle than near the eye. The pronotum has the disc and posterior portion darker, and the basal angles of the scutellum are a dark brown. The wings are fuscous, with a dark fuscous stripe consisting of three distinct lobes. The female pregential sternite has the posterior margin broadly and deeply notched more than half way to the base; the sides of the notch are dark brown. The male genital plates are broad and long, narrowing cconvexly to rounded tips. Adults are around 7.5 mm long (but have been recorded as small as 6.6 mm, per below specimen). (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Only recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and coastal plain; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Most stream floodplains where cane occurs (DeLong 1948)Cane (Arundinaria tecta) (DeLong 1948)
Bandara curvataAdults are orange yellow with six black dashes above the margin of the vertex and an interrupted line beneath. The posterior margin of the vertex, three stripes on the pronotum, two spots on the scutellum and numerous oval spots on the wings are white. The female pregenital sternite is rounded on lateral angles; the posterior margin is slightly emarginate, with a pair of short teeth in the middle that have divergent apexes. The male plates are tapered to blunt rounded apexes, appearing triangular together. Adults are 4.5-5.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open woodlands, near mixed hardwood forest, grassy areas
Colladonus brunneusA sexually dimorphic species. Males are rufousy-brown overall with yellow to white wings veins. The top of the scutellum is marked with a small black band, followed by a bold, distinctive yellowish transverse band across the pronotum. There is a transverse rufous "band" (not as defined as the other bands) across the base of the pronotum and part of the head, with a small black line bordering this band and the rest of the head. Finally, there are two small black marks on the edge of the head. Females resemble the males in color but lack the distinct wing venation and may only have a faint band on the pronotum. (RGC)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, likely more abundant and widespread across this region.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat surrounded by montane forest, and mixed pine hardwoods.?
Draeculacephala bradleyiGreenish overall with pale wing venation. Females and males have a black face; however, some males (such as the specimen above) can have paler, brown faces. Females are distinctive in that they are the only females of a Draeculacephala in our region with a black face. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are brown. Females have a noticeably long and pointed head, triangular in shape with relatively straight margins (not concave). Males have much shorter, not as finely pointed heads. Males are less than 6.6 mm long, while females are less than 8.0 mm. (Young 1959) For images of live individuals, see: BG.Uncommon to rare in the state with only a handful of records from across the state; likely overlooked.On the coast, has been found in pocosin, dry oak and maritime shrub. ?
Agalliopsis ancistraTypically a greenish species, with the rear of the wings fading to a brownish tint; coloration does range to tawny and brownish. The face and eyes can be reddish in color, and there is a 'double-mark' on the top of the wings where the green color meets the brown. In addition, the scutellum is usually yellow with two small black triangles in each top corner (sometimes the scutellum is almost completely black in some individuals). Lastly, there are 8 dots on the body; 2 on the pronotum and 6 on the face (3 next to each eye). Some individuals can be brownish in color but still retain the small pronotal spots with a pronotum that is not excessively bulging. These males have the pronotum entirely fuscous except for pale posterior and lateral borders and pale areas directly adjacent to the midline; these individuals tend to have fuscous to smoky wings with contrasting broadly pale veins and the clavus and on the disc. Females have a pregenital sternite that is deeply concave, with a deep U-shaped emargination from the base; the sternite is often brown fuscous, either basally or entirely. Adult males are 3.5- 4.0 mm long, while females are 4.0- 4.3 mm. (Oman 1970)

For more images of this species showing variation, see: (BG).

This species has been recorded across the state, where it can be locally abundant; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Recorded in the state from grassy, shrubby habitat and near forest edge, as well as spruce forest in the mountains.
Stictocephala taurinaA green species with many pale spots scattered all over the pronotum. The horns are prominent but not overly large and may have a dark edge to them. The legs are green. The nymph is typical for this genus, see above. Adults are 7.5 mm long (BG).Recorded from the mountains and Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 19 June-18 September (CTNC)Helianthus sp., Rubus sp., Sambucus canadensis, Smilax sp. (CTNC)
Agalliopsis cervinaA very distinctively marked species in this genus. A brownish or greenish-brown species with a bold white crossband across the wings, varying in width and extent among individuals. The pronotum and head can also be pale as well. There are typically four bold black spots on the edge of the pronotum and the edge of the head, and the eyes also overlap/cover the edge of the pronotum. Adults are around 4.5 mm long (Oman, 1935).Seemingly uncommon to rare with only a handful of records for the state, but possibly more abundant in the right habitat and under collected.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy vegetation near montane forest habitat; also in maritime shrub.Quercus sp. (Oman, 1935)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Agalliopsis peneoculataThis species is almost entirely brown, sometimes with a darker smoky band transversing the middle of the wings. Unlike cervina, it lacks a pale band and the pronotum is brown rather than pale. The vertex is shorter in the middle than next to the eyes. There is usually a bold dark spot on either side of a dark pronotal midline, a smaller spot in the lateral corner, and an even smaller pair of spots near the apex of the pronotum. The scutellum also tends to have a dark apex and dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite is quite distinctive, being truncate rather than concave in shape; the sternite has the posterior margin broad and slightly convex, with a straight edge. Male subgenital plates are long, with the lateral margins concave on the basal two-thirds and the tips bluntly rounded. Adults are 4.0-4.5 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For images of a few specimens, see: BOLD. For images of live individuals, see: BG.

Rare, known from a single county in the Coastal Plain.Possibly feeds on elder (Sambucus sp.) (Beirne, 1956); American cranberry bush (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017)
Excultanus excultusA distinctive species with a yellowish body (head and pronotum) and dark wings that have 3 small white discs along the wing edges where the wings meet on the back (BG). The head is also narrower than the thorax (visible from above), with the vertex about 1/4 longer in the middle than next to the eyes. The wings have a dark checkered appearance to them; the outer rear edge of the wings has small white dots along a black border. The underside of the body and back is dark, contrasting with the pale body. The female pregenital sternite is broadly excavated about 2/3 of the way to the anterior margin; the sides of the sloping lateral margins are slightly produced and rounded. The male plates are broad and triangular, with the apexes bluntly pointed. Adults are 6.0-6.5 mm long. (DeLong & Hershberger 1949)

Nymphs are a brownish to grayish-brown color, with scattered white markings and some reddish coloration on the undersides of the abdominal segments. For a nice set of images of 4th and 5th instar nymphs of this species, see: BG.

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Uncommon, scattered records across the state. Has been recorded in grassy, field-type habitats, as well as in open, mixed hardwood, and pine forests.
Fitchana vitellinaA fairly distinctively patterned orange species, with yellowish head, face, and anterior base of the pronotum; the head is moderately pointed. The eyes are greenish-yellow, and the legs are yellowish with darker coloration at the joints. The posterior half of the pronotum is orange-brown, sometimes with three pale longitudinal markings. The scutellum is yellowish with orange-brown basal corners. There is a thin black line on an otherwise yellow face, below the vertex margin. The forewings are orange-brown with pale speckling; the base of each clavus is a darker brown, and there is an oblique transverse brown band closer to the tips that forms a V. The male subgenital plates are short, triangular and pointed. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite has a large rounded lobe on either side of a short median projection. Adult males are 5.0 mm long, females are 6.0-6.5 mm [though based on records collected in NC below, males can range to around 6.0 mm and females to 6.8 mm]. (Hepner, 1947)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For images of a pinned specimen and drawings of various aspects of the species, see: 3i.

Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, probably more abundant in this region; this species was not previously known from the state.Has been found in forest edge, fields, meadows and lawns.Has been reported from blackberry and dewberry, on which it can cause leaves to curl and redden; also collected from grasses, sedges and shrubs. (Hepner, 1947)
Erythroneura prosataA dark species, with reddish-brown to blackish wings (depending on the lighting, individual, and how the wings are being held) with no crossbands but instead large white spots: three prominent white spots along the costal margin (together with a blackish mark) and two spade-shaped spots (with smaller spots on either wing) along the commissural margins. The scutellum (specifically the lateral triangles and apex), pronotum and vertex are concolorous with the wings. The face is pale, and the thoracic venter has a dark mesosternum with the rest pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recorded recently from a few counties in the mountains, notable range expansions for this species; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Rubus sp. (3I)
Prosapia bicincta
Two-lined Spittlebug
A distinctive species, adults are black with two orange lines crossing the wings and have red eyes, reddish legs, and a reddish underside. However, some adults can be completely black on top, lacking any lines across the wings: Black Form. This seems to be a feature mostly among individuals of the Northeast and other parts of the country and has only been recorded recently (probable record) once in North Carolina; very uncommon to rare form in this state. Adults are 8-10 mm in length BG.

Nymphs are somewhat bicolored, with a brownish thorax and head contrasting with the yellow abdomen. The sides of the abdomen on the underside can have a reddish tint. While the first four instars are this coloration, the fifth instar is a much darker brown coloration. Spittle masses are found on plant stems, often times at the soil line. For a nice visualization of the life stage of this species, see: BIISC.

Common and widespread across the state, recorded from the mountains to the coastal plain.Found in a variety of habitats, ranging from mixed hardwood forests to grassy, field-type areas. A generalist species.Nymphs feed on centipedegrass, bermudagrass and other grasses, including occasionally corn. Adults feed on hollies, foraging on the underside of leaves- damage shows up as pale mottling not usually visible from above BG. This species has also been associated with Asimina, Ilex, Cucurbita, Glycine, Trifolium, and Eremochioa ophiuroides (DL). It is an important pest of turfgrass, particularly centipedegrass (UGA). This species injects toxins into turfgrass, causing the affected grass blades to turn yellow and then rown or purple; eventually, the grass can die (UGA). Adults do more damage than nymphs (UGA).
Xyphon flaviceps
Yellow-headed Leafhopper
A medium-sized greenish species with a prominent orange head (even though flaviceps means yellow-headed) with two large black ocelli. The head and pronotum lack dark markings (outside of the ocelli), and the face is yellowish with white mottling on the edge of the crown. The pronotum and scutellum are greenish. The wings are mostly green with contrasting pale wing venation; the wing tips are densely reticulated, giving the appearance of a meshwork of cells. Eyes are greenish to blue in color, and the underside of the abdomen is mostly yellow. A medium-sized species, with adult males 4.5-5.0 mm long and females 5.0-6.3 mm. (Catanach 2013)

Nymphs are bluish-gray with some pale areas. There is a large black spot on each eye.

Recorded across the state, with a majority of records coming from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont. Probably more abundant in grassy habitats.Recorded in grassy, field-type or prairie-grass habitat; also mixed forest edge.cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), alfalfa (Medicago sp.), beebalm (Monarda sp.), prickly Russian thistle (Salsola tragus), miscellaneous flowers/weeds, Digitaria sp., Fragaria sp. (Catanach 2013)
Microcentrus caryae
Hickory Stegaspidine Treehopper
A dark gray to blackish species, sometimes with rusty brown posterior tips of the wings and brown venation near the tips; some individuals can appear rusty brown or quite pale. The pronotum itself is small and noticeably rounded, with a bulging appearance. The key characteristic for this species is the lack of horns/projections that are found in M. perditus.

Nymphs are distinctively flat in appearance, with legs angled outwards on the sides. The abdomen and thorax of nymphs are broad, and color can range from rusty to gray.

Uncommon, scattered records across the state; uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 7 May-4 December (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Carya illinoinensis, Carya sp. (CTNC)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythroneura ziczac
Virginia Creeper Leafhopper
A somewhat distinctive yellowish to white species with an orange to reddish-brown zigzag pattern on each wing. The zigzag pattern is thick and bold, with the bands remaining separate from one another and not touching the band on the other wing; this gives the appearance of a degree of white separating the two zigzag bands. The vertex has orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch, and a pale midline in between. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped dark orange to reddish mark, and the mesonotum is pale with dark lateral triangles and a reddish apex to the scutellum. The face is pale, as is the thoracic venter outside of the dark mesosternum. Adults are 2.8-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

Nymphs are yellowish-white with reddish to reddish-brown markings on the pronotum and wing buds.

See 3I for images of specimens. For images of live individuals, see: BG.

Recorded from a single county in the mountains, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Shrubby, brushy areas where vines occurVitis riparia, other Vitis sp. and Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) (3I)
Shellenius schellenbergiiA pale orange-brown species with an orange face and white vertex. The base of the wings are a bronzy-orange, the the anterior half of the wings a darker brown with bold red wing venation. The commissure of the wings is white, forming a continuous white band that extends onto the middle of the pronotum to the white vertex. The legs are pale.

For a few more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont.Shrubby areas, forest edgeAcer, American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (UDEL); has also been found [at least resting] on Common Milkweed (Ascleipius syriaca).
Erythroneura festivaA boldly marked species with a strongly developed reddish-orange and bluish-gray color pattern on the wings and body. The top of the head has two reddish-orange parallel submedial lines on either side of a pale midline; the lines have prominent lateral branchesthat encapsulate pale spots. The pronotum has an "M" shaped reddish mark on an otherwise bluish-gray background. The mesonotum is pale with red lateral triangles. The underside of the thorax is dark, and the anteclypeus is a dark brown color, a key characteristic of this species which contrasts with the mostly yellowish frons. The wings have a dark orange to red color pattern that contrasts with a prominent pale bluish-gray base. The apical venation is bright red, and the wing tips are dark, with a brown basal spot in the inner apical cell. Adults are 2.6-2.7 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Rare but likely overlooked, recorded recently a couple times from the lower mountains and Piedmont. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis sp., Rubus sp., Cersis sp., Ilex decidua (3I)
Telamona collinaThis species is brownish overall, with a tall and prominent forward-facing pronotal crest. Rare, recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and mountains; possibly more abundant.Platanus occidentalis (CTNC); Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak) (Wallace 2014)
Sayiana sayiA pale, bicolored species: the head, thorax and base of the wings are whitish while the posterior 2/3 of the wings are a golden color [in fresh individuals]. The wings greatly extend past the abdomen, with large antennal clubs extending out from the head. Along the costal margin of each wing, there is a characteristic hook-like projection projection.

Check here for multiple angles of a pinned specimen: UDEL. And for additional images of this species, see: BG.

A couple records from the mountains; rare.
Orientus ishidae
Japanese Leafhopper
A very distinctively marked and colored leafhopper, 4.3-6.5 mm in length. This species has an orange checkered appearance, with orange markings on the body and back amid black and white marks; the amount of orange can vary among individuals, with some mostly orange and others only partially orange. On the head there is an orange band extending between the eyes, followed by a white band at the edge before the head slopes downwards. The eyes can also be orange, and the legs are mostly orange except for a black base near the body.

Nymphs are tan, yellow, or reddish in color, sometimes boldly marked, with a narrow head and elongate antennae and contrastingly white feet, characteristic of this species (BG).

Scattered records across the state with a majority in the Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Hardwood and mixed forests, forest edges/clearings, meadows and other grassy areas (BG).Various shrubs
Anotia uhleriA fairly distinctive member of this genus, it has yellowish wings with reddish-brown bases and two dark marks on each wing tip, consisting of a large reddish mark and a dark brown asymmetrical mark. The wing venation is reddish where the wings are dark and white where the wings are pale. Wing vein CuA is branched, with cells C5, C4, C3, and C3a similar in size. The thorax, abdomen, and head are reddish, and the antennal stubs are yellow.

For more images of this distinctive species, see here: BG.

Only recorded from a few counties across the state, rarely encountered.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found on Acer (maples). (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Hymetta balteataA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness, coloration, and pattern. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is at most slightly narrowed along the costal margin; its posterior margin projects toward the wing tips, extending outwards past the dark spot near the claval suture of each wing. Crossband 3, the oblique dark band, is typically distinct. There is a transverse band at the apex of the wings (between crossband 3) that is at most indistinct; usually it is not present. There are three forms in this species.

- In the first, nominate form, the oblique band (crossband #3) at the tip of the wing is either not present or indistinct. The first crossband is dusky to black in color, darker near the costal margins. Crossband 2 is not present at all. There are relatively few red dots and flecks scattered across the wings.

- In form 'mediana' crossband #1 is a dark, dull red color (though in a number of individuals it appears as a faded brown). Crossband #2 is somewhat defined but not necessarily bold; it is orange to red in color. Crossband #3 is dusky to black in color. There are many dots scattered across the wings, including before crossband one and across the rest of the wing between crossband 1 and 2; there are also dots over the white costal plague.

- Form 'albata' is pale. Crossband #1 appears as a pale brown color; it is faint. There is no crossband #2, and crossband #3 ranges from smoky to a faded dusky color (but probably darker than the first band). This form was initially described as a form of H. trifasciata, which is probably the reason why this form has a strongly narrowed crossband #1 at the costal margin.

Adults are 3.1-3.4 mm long. Nymphs are a dark gray overall. For more pics of this species, see: BG. (Fairbairn, 1928)

Recorded from across the state, with most records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it can be common; likely more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Vitis spp., Toxicodendron radicans, Cercis canadensis, Hamamelis sp. (3I)
Hymetta trifasciataA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is strongly narrowed along the costal margin; this band is quite dark and can have a reddish anterior border. The second crossband consists of a series of broken dark marks. The third crossband is the bold, dark diagonal lines across the apical cells of the wings. There are some scattered red dots across the wings, mostly between the first two crossbands; there are very few if any spots before the first crossband. The costal plaque is chalky white (the bright white rectangular mark between the two crossbands, on the costal margin. Adults are 3.0-3.4 mm long, with an average of 3.2 mm. (Fairbairn, 1928)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Rare but probably overlooked due to confusion with H. balteata. Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Vitis sp., Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
Hymetta kansasensisThe most boldly-marked member of this genus. The wings are milky-white with a bold, dark brown and red color pattern. The first two crossbands are brownish to reddish, with the first typically quite thick and strongly narrowed on the costal margin while the second is more of a broken oblique zig-zag line running from the plaque to the transverse apical red line; together they tend to form a large, characteristic dark saddle. The third band is a very dark inverted V. The costal plaque is [sometimes] dark. There is a black dot on the corium which touches the claval suture, and a small brownish spot on the clavus caudad of these; there are many small reddish flecks on the corium, clavus and [sometimes] costal plaque. The vertex is either unicolorous or with orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch. The disc of the pronotum is usually darkened, resulting in a diagnotistic yellowish-brown circular patch. The scutellum has a small black dot at the apex. The thoracic venter is entirely pale. Adults are 3.2-3.5 mm long. (3I; Fairbairn, 1928)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Rare, only known from one county in the state, in the Piedmont; likely overlooked. Can be found in mixed hardwood forest. Cercis canadensis (red bud) (3I)
Entylia carinataA highly variable species. Adults have a characteristic pronotal shape that distinguishes this species from other NC treehoppers. Mature females have the front pronotal projection curving backwards, whereas males have shorter projections. Adults have orange colored legs and typically a dark underside to the thorax and abdomen. Adult males are 4.5 mm long while females are 5.0 mm.

Nymphs have multiple spiny projections across the body, including a pair of spines down the abdomen. As they age, the develop a structure on the thorax that is reminiscent of the adults pronotal shape.

An abundant species, recorded in a majority of the counties in the state; locally common where present. Seasonal distribution: 13 March-19 December (CTNC)Has been recorded in a variety of habitats, including montane and mixed hardwood forest and pine-dominanted areas.Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia sp., Aster sp., Bidens bipinnata, B. coronata, Bidens sp., Conyza canadensis, Dahlia sp., Erechtites hieraciifolia, Erigeron sp., Eupatorium capillifolium, E. pilosum, Eupatorium sp., Glycine max, Helianthus anuus, H. tuberosus, Helianthus sp., Quercus palustris, Silphium sp., Solanum tuberosum, Solidago sp., Verbesina alternifolia, Vitis rotundifolia (CTNC)
Publilia concavaA highly variable species, with many color forms. Females are larger than males, and have a two-humped pronotum, with one above the head and the other midway on the pronotum. Males lack distinct peaks on their pronotum. There are prominent longitudinal ridges across the pronotum, which has a heavily punctate appearance. The legs are a yellowish-orange, and the lateral sides of the body and underside of the thorax and abdomen are black.

Nymphs are bicolored, with black over a green base; they have small spines extending from the abdomen in a single row.

Mostly restricted to the mountains, where it is common. Seasonal distribution: late May-7 October (CTNC)Has been found in brushy vegetation near mixed hardwood, high elevation forest.Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Ambrosia sp., Eupatorium sp., Helianthus sp., Solidago sp. (CTNC); also from Erigeron sp., Verbesina alternifolia (CTGSMNP)
Graminella planaA pale yellowish-orange species with four small but prominent black dots on the anterior margin of the vertex; the ocelli are also black, giving the impression of two more dots. The vertex is bluntly angled, one-fourth wider between the eyes than the median length. The face is pale, concolorous with the vertex. The wings are yellowish-orange with pale venation. The female pregenital sternite has short lateral margins, with rounded lobes on either side of a broad, sunken, truncated or slightly produced portion in the middle of the segment that is embrowned. The male subgenital plates are short and broad, with broad apices that are bluntly rounded. Adults are around 3.5-4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr 1937)

Nymphs are pale with two bold longitudinal lines running from the tip of the vertex to the tip of the abdomen. They have spots along the margin of the characteristic, characteristic of the adults.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest and in grassy areas.
Hymetta anthismaA boldly patterned species that can vary in darkness, coloration, and pattern. Adults have a pale yellowish-white body; the head and pronotum are largely a pale white color, sometimes with dull sanguineous spots present. The wings have a whitish base color, with three crossbands (see comments section below for crossband info). The first crossband is at most slightly narrowed along the costal margin. Crossband 3, the oblique dark band, is typically distinct. There is a transverse band at the apex of the wings (between crossband 3) that is at most indistinct; usually it is not present. There are two forms in this species.

- The first, nominate form is characterized by many red dots scattered across all of the wings, including on top of the brown crossband, leading up to the transverse band near the wingtip. These dots can be large and are a brighter red; there are typically numerous spots, in some individuals the speckling can be quite dense. Crossband #1 is a brilliant red and crossband #3 is more smoky than black; the second crossband is orange and quite distinct. The posterior margin of crossband 1 projects toward the wing tips, extending outwards past the dark spot near the claval suture of each wing.

- Form 'distincta' has the red dots restricted largely to the base of the wings, before and across crossband #1; the rest of the wing is mostly white with a small number of dots. Crossband #1 tends to be very broad, characteristic of this species (though there are exceptions). More importantly, the posterior margin of the crossband extends essentially straight across the wing from the costal margin to the black dot; it does not project past the black spot. Crossband #2 is obsolete; it is not present. Crossband #3 is typically absent, but if present it is indistinct. There is also a dusky transverse band between crossband 3, across the apex of the wing.

Adults are 3.3-3.6 mm long. (Fairbairn, 1928) For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Scattered records across the Piedmont and mountains where it can be locally common; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Cercis canadensis, Vitis spp. (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Penestragania robustaA green species (fading to yellow with age and/or in collected specimens), with many short black hairs (setae) scattered across the surface of the wings; sometimes these hairs can be pale, and there may be dark rings at the base of them. The vertex is short and broadly rounded, less wide than the pronotum. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is barely excavated and is slightly bisinuate, with a small median projection. Adult males are 3.2-4.3 mm long, females are 3.6-4.7 mm. (Beamer & Lawson, 1945), (Blocker, 1970)

Nymphs have a green body, densely covered with white pubescence which grows thicker and longer as the nymph ages.

See here for more images of this species: BG.

Rare in the state (but possibly overlooked or undercollected), with records from only a single county in the Piedmont (though Blocker 1970 indicates there are other records for the state).Blocker (1970) notes multiple host plants for this species; those reported from the southeastern United States are: Axonopus compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Iva sp., Larrea tridentata glutinosa, Medicago sativa, Paspalum notatum, & Prunus augustifolia
Thelia bimaculata
Locust Treehopper
This species has a pronounced horn that is angled upward. Adult males are a deep chocolate-brown to black with a broad yellow blotch on both sides of the pronotum; the head is also yellowish. Females resemble the males, but have a faded or aged look to them: the yellow patch is still present, contrasting with the rest of the grayish pronotum, but it appears dirty rather than the clean, sharp colors present on the male. In both sexes, the tegmina is hyaline with smoky apices; the undersurface of the of the body is gray-brown and pubescent, darker in males. Adult females are 11 mm long, not counting the horn, while males are slightly smaller and less robust. (Kopp & Yonke, 1974)

Nymphs are dark and have a row of small spines down the back of the abdomen, and a small but noticeable forward-facing horn on the top of the thorax.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Primarily found in the mountains, with several records from the Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 10 June-19 October (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where Black Locusts are present. It tends to prefer younger Black Locust, especially trees in more direct sunlight, typically avoiding trees in dense forest (BG).Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) (CTNC); typically only found on this plant, but can sometimes be found resting on other plant species such as Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), Sambucus (elderberry), Salix nigra (black willow) (Wallace 2014).
Telonaca altaA greenish-brown species with a prominent pronotal crest. The crest itself can vary among individuals, with some specimens having a 'step' or hump on the posterior side of the crest, while other individuals may lack this step completely. The wings are mostly hyaline, with a smoky tip. Adult males are 10 mm long, while females are 10.5 mm (FSCA).Rare, recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant along the coast.Coastal forest where oak is present.Quercus laurifolia, Q. nigra (FSCA); also on Q. laevis (turkey oak), Q. virginiana (live oak) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona excelsaThe pronotal color of this species is sexually dimorphic. Females are a uniform yellow-green, while males are yellow-brown with prominent lateral dark stripes on the posterior edge of the pronotoum, continuing to form a transverse band; the anterior part of the crest may also be a dark brown color. The posterior part of the pronotum is a reddish-brown, and in both sexes the wings have a dark brown tip. The pronotal crest is quadrate, prominent, highly elevated, and smoothly textured; the crest is much more broad in females than males. Males are 11 mm long while females are 12 mm (FSCA). (Wallace 2015)Scattered records across the state, uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 29 April- 27 October (CTNC)Castanea dentata (American chestnut), Carya (hickory), Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory), Carya illinoinensis (pecan), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Carya glabra (pignut hickory), Carya pallida (sand hickory), Carya tomentosa (mockernut hickory), Juglans (walnut) [nymph on this host], J. cinerea (butternut), J. nigra (black walnut), Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper), Quercus alba (white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. phellos (willow oak), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust), Tilia americana (American basswood), Vitis (grape) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona westcottiA somewhat distinctive species with a detailed color pattern across the pronotum, consisting of white, green, and black. Some individuals are more mottled green than others. The wings have a black base and tip, and the underside is dark. This species has a short pronotal crest compared to other members of this genus.A few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 25 June-5 September (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba (white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak), Tilia (basswood), Ulmus (elm) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona reclivataFemales are reddish-brown, with a dark brown posterior tip to the pronotum and a dark brown pronotal band that continues onto the crest. The crest itself is sort of broad and tall in the female. Males are smaller than the female, with a noticeably less pronounced pronotum. Males have a greenish-brown pronotum. Both sexes have a smoky dark tip to the wings.Uncommon, scattered records across the state. Seasonal distribution: 2 June-31 August (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where White Oak is present.Quercus alba (CTNC); also Q. rubra (CTGSMNP) and Castanea dentata (American chestnut), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Populus tremuloides Michx. (quaking aspen), Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. coccinea (scarlet oak), Quercus ilicifolia (bear or scrub oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak), Q. velutina (black oak) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona projectaAn unmistakable species with a distinctive pronotal crest that strongly angles forward, almost resembling a reversed fish fin. The pronotal color is grayish-brown to dark brown with some pale mottling. (Wallace, 2015)Recorded a couple times in the Piedmont, representing a first state record for this species.Mixed hardwood forest where Quercus (oak) is present.Nymphs have been found on Quercus alba (white oak) and Q. velutina (black oak), and adults have been found on Q. laurifolia (laurel oak), Q. palustris (pin oak), Q. stellata (post oak), and Vitis vinifera (wine or wild grape) (Wallace 2014).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Telamona monticolaThis species usually has a greenish to brown pronotum with scattered with pale yellowish spots. The pronotal crest is [typically] tall and somewhat block-shaped, edged on the top in red; the posterior edge to the crest may be yellow. The pronotal crest may slope downwards more in males than females, and some individuals can have a small crest. The wing tip is a smoky brown, and the wing venation is brown; the rest of the wing is hyaline. The legs are green to brown. Males tend to be smaller than females, being 10 to 11 mm long compared to 11 mm for females (FSCA).Recorded across the state, uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 20 April-18 October (CTNC)Mixed hardwood forestQuercus falcata, Q. margarettae, Q. nigra, Q. rubra, Q. stellata, Vitis rotundifolia (CTNC); also on Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) (CTGSMNP)

Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory), C. ovata (shagbark hickory), C. pallida (sand hickory), Crataegus (hawthorn), Juglans cinerea (butternut), Nyssa sylvatica (blackgum), Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper), Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen), Prunus serotina (black cherry), Quercus alba (white oak) [nymphs on this host], Q. bicolor (swamp white oak) [nymphs], Q. coccinea (scarlet oak) [nymphs], Q. ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak), Q. ilicifolia (bear or scrub oak) [nymphs], Q. imbricaria (shingle oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak) [nymphs], Q. marilandica (blackjack oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak) [nymphs], Q. muehlenbergii (chinkapin oak), Q. palustris (pin oak), Q. phellos (willow oak), Q. velutina (black oak) [nymphs], Salix (willow), Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (American black elderberry), Smilax (greenbrier), Tilia (basswood) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona maculataA reddish-brown species with a broad, tall pronotal crest (almost a plateau shape). The posterior tip of the pronotum is red, followed by a pale brown and then a dark brown, almost black band. The pronotal horns may be reddish as well and extend well to the sides of the rest of the pronotum. The front of the head is pale. Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains. Seasonal distribution: 10 May- October (CTNC)Forest with oakCarya (hickory), Quercus alba (white oak) [nymphs on this plant], Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona extremaA large species with a broad, tall, rounded pronotal crest that slightly angles forward. The top of the pronotal crest is edged in red, and the posterior edge is yellow. The pronotum itself is usually a light brown color, but some individuals can have a greenish tint; there may be some light maculations across the pronotum in some specimens as well. The wings have a smoky tip, and the legs are concolorous with the pronotum. Males are 8-9 mm long while females are 9-10 mm (FSCA). A somewhat rare species, with scattered records from several counties across the state.Forest with oakQuercus alba (white oak), Q. ilicifolia [nymphs on this plant], Q. marilandica (blackjack oak), Q. phellos (willow oak), Q. rubra (northern red oak), Q. velutina (black oak) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona dubiosaA reddish-brown species with a prominent, raised pronotal crest with a sharp angle to the rear. It can have a "dotted" pattern across the pronotum.Recorded from the Coastal Plain, rare in the state. Seasonal distribution: 21 September-11 October (CTNC)Quercus alba (CTNC), Q. montana (chestnut oak) (Wallace 2014)
Telamona decorataA sexually dimorphic species. This species is grayish-green to reddish-brown overall, with a varied mottled color pattern of light and dark. This pattern is much more pronounced in females, whose crest is a vibrant dark brown to reddish-brown and is block-shaped; the crest coloration contrasts with the paler front and sides of the pronotum, with a curved dark band arching downwards from the crest towards the lateral edge of the pronotum. The tip of the female pronotum is a reddish to reddish-brown color. The male pronotal crest is smaller and not as high compared to other members of this genus and is more of a rounded triangular shape but, like the females, is dark. In both sexes, the trailing edge of the crest is pale. There is frequently some light pale speckling across the front of the pronotum. The tips of the wings are dark with a smoky smudge while the wing venation is pale, lined with dark; the rest of the wings are hyaline.Recorded from the mountains, with a single record from the Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 19 June-13 September (CTNC)MontaneCastanea dentata (American chestnut), but largely oaks: Quercus alba, Q. rubra (CTNC); also Q. stellata (CTGSMNP), Populus (cottonwood) [nymphs on this plant], Tilia americana (American basswood), Acer (maple), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Q. bicolor (swamp white oak) [nymphs on this plant], Q. coccinea (scarlet oak), Q. ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak), Q. falcata (southern red
oak), Q. ilicifolia (bear or scrub oak) [nymphs], Q. macrocarpa (bur oak) [nymphs], Q. montana (chestnut oak), Q. phellos (willow oak), Q. velutina (black oak) [nymphs], and Robinia (locust) (Wallace 2014).
Telamona concavaA striking member of this genus, with a color pattern that varies among specimens. Typically, the body is a combination of a dark brown to black color with green to bluish blotches across the pronotum and on the legs. The pronotum has a prominent and tall crest, with a rounded top and a small posterior 'step'; the exact shape of the pronotal crest can vary between individuals (BG).Recorded recently from the Piedmont and mountains, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba (white oak), Q. velutina (black oak) (Wallace 2014)
Heliria scalarisRecorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Carya (hickory), Crataegus (hawthorn), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Malus (apple), Prunus americana (American plum), Salix (willow) (Wallace 2014).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Heliria molarisRecorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and mountains.Nymphs have been found on Q. bicolor (swamp white oak) and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak); adults have been found on Populus (cottonwood), Quercus alba (white oak), and Q. velutina (black oak) (Wallace 2014).