Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Erythridula amabilisA vibrant, boldly marked species. About 2/3 of the wings are a bright reddish color, contrasting with pale wings tips. The pronotum and vertex have a white base color, with two prominent yellow longitudinal stripes transversing from the scutellum across the pronotum and vertex, merging at the margin. The face and underside of the thorax are entirely pale. Adults are 2.8-3.0 mm long. (3I)

See here for an image of this species: BG.

Rare, a single record from the mountains.Carya sp., Fagus sp. (3I)
Enchenopa on-cercis
Undescribed Enchenopa on Redbud
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are a grayish, reddish-brown color, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Locally common in the Piedmont where Redbud occurs, likely more abundant throughout the state.Eastern Redbud (Cercis canadensis)
Enchenopa on-juglans
Undescribed Enchenopa on Juglans
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are a distinctive white and black color, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

A couple records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, but likely more abundant throughout the state where Black Walnut occurs. Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat and mixed hardwood, cypress forest.Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
Enchenopa on-viburnum
Undescribed Enchenopa on Viburnum
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are reddish-brown, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

So far only recorded from the Piedmont, likely found throughout much of the state where Viburnum is present.Blackhaw (Viburnum prunifolium)
Alebra eburneaMales are a bright yellow color overall without any markings. Females are yellow to ivory colored with a pale tegmina. The wings are slender and proportionately long, but are less than 4 times as long as wide. The head is distinctly narrower than the pronotum and is slightly pointed, a key characteristic of this species. The lateral margins of the pronotum are slightly diverging at about a 40 degree angle. Adult males are around 3.5 mm long, while females are 3.2-3.9 mm. (Hamilton, 1995)Recorded from a single county in the mountains; possibly more abundant in the right habitat. Probably mixed hardwood forest habitat.Oaks (Quercus sp.) (Hamilton, 1995)
Kyboasca maligna
Apple Leafhopper
A bright green species without any black spots in the wing cells, a key characteristic. The head is blunt, with the vertex parallel margined and broadly rounded anteriorly, only slightly produced beyond the anterior margins of the eyes. The width between the eyes is a little more than twice the length at the middle. The pronotum has prominent lateral angles and appears wider than the head. There is usually a pale median longitudinal stripe on the vertex that extends on to the anterior portion of the pronotum, and a round pale spot on either side of this stripe on the vertex; the posterior margin of the pronotum is pale. The scutellum is a greenish yellow-orange with a bold pale median stripe, widening near the apex. The face, vertex, and pronotum are frequently tinted with orange. The apical fourth of the wings are smoky, contrasting with the bright green coloration of the rest of each wing. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin roundedly produced to a central broad, blunt, sunken tooth that is formed by an oblique notch on either side; the shape of the posterior margin may vary slightly among individuals. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow with almost parallel margins to near the base. Adults are 3.5 mm long. (DeLong, 1931)Previously noted to occur in the state, with a map in DeLong (1931) showing a distribution throughout the mountains and Piedmont, but there is a lack of collection records. Recorded recently from the Piedmont.Malus domestica, Malus sp. (3I)
Oncopsis nigrinasiA typically dark species. Males have a black venter, dark brown to blackish face, paler yellowish-brown pronotum speckled with dark coloration, reddish brown scutellum, and contrasting yellow legs. The wings are ferruginous to dark brown with a pale spot along the apex of the commissure (inner edge of the wings). Females are quite variable, typical of members of Oncopsis. Color ranges from being completely dark with mostly black wings and a slightly paler clavus and thorax (phase A, 2%); black with hyaline, clear "windows" in the wings (phase B, 4%), entirely ferruginous or grey (phase H, 24%); yellowish wings with a contrasting black scutellum and face (phase G, 20%); yellowish, ferruginous with dark markings on the scutellum and a dark face (phase F, 41%); and mottled with ferruginous, brown, and black with a bright yellow venter (variations: phase C, 2%; phase D, 2%; phase E, 5%). Females have a very short, truncated pregenital sternite that is broadly excavated; this sternite shape is characteristic of this species. Adult males are 4.1-4.6 mm long, while females are 4.3-4.9 mm. The nymph of this species is entirely ferruginous. (Hamilton 1983)Uncommon to rare in the state with scattered records, only one of which is recent; probably more abundant in the mountains, but has also been found in multiple locations in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain (which is perhaps a result of the widespread distribution of the host plant), differing from the distributions of other Oncopsis that occur in the state.Forest, open woodlands, shrubby areasThe only macrospine species known to feed on blue-beech/American hornbean (Carpinus caroliniana) (Hamilton 1983)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Eupteryx decemnotata
Ligurian Leafhopper
A fairly distinctively marked species. Wings are yellowish green with characteristic darker polygon-shaped marks scaattered; the apical wing veins are yellow, bordered with dark brown. The scutellum is yellowish, sometimes with two black spots in the middle. The head has a characteristic even number of bold black spots. Usually there are 5 pairs of dots, with four dots along the midline of the vertex, two black marks along the margin of the vertex, and 4 dots in a row across the face; however, spots are sometimes fused together. Adults are between 2 and 3 mm long. (Rung, 2009)

For more images of this species, see: 1, 2, 3.

Scattered records across the state; unclear what the status of this species is in the state and whether there are any well established populations. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, but likely found anywhere herbs and ornamentals occur in high number. A variety of herbs and ornamentals in the Lamiaceae family: rosemary, sage, majoram, catnip, oregano, lemon balm, peppermint, basil, thyme, etc. (Rung, 2009)
Chlorotettix viridiusA vibrant green color, with the wings tinged with fulvous in males or greenish in females. The vertex is rounded on the anterior margin, slightly longer in the middle than near the eyes. The female pregenital sternite is broadly excavated almost to the base, with the sides of the excavation interrupted in the middle by a small tooth; the lateral margins are almost sickle-shaped, pointed and curving inwards slightly. The male plates are almost recangular, being very short and squat; the apexes of the plates are slightly produced and divergent. Adults are somewhat small, being 5.7- 7.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

Nymphs are green, with pairs of black spots and hairs down the dorsal surface of the abdominal segments; some individuals also show black spots on the thorax.

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

One of the most common members of this genus in the state; recorded from mountains to sea; particularly abundant in the Coastal Plain.Grassy areas, open woodland, forest edge, meadows
Macropsis viridisAdults have a face that in profile is bowed (flat to bowed in females), and the head is wider than the pronotum. Males are green (yellow when dry) and unmarked, with hyaline-greenish wings that sometimes have a smoky commissure (inner edge of the wings) and tips. Females have a longer pronotum (which causes the head to project further than in males), and when viewed from the side the pronotum is relatively flat; the pronotum is not rounded as in other species and is instead "in line" with the scutellum and commissure (a helpful distinguishing characteristic from the other Macropsis species which have a more pronounced pronotum). Females are also green (yellow when dry) and unmarked. The female pregenital sternite is elongate and trapezoidal in shape. Adult males are around 4.2-4.6 mm long, while females are 4.7-5.2 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are densely covered with white hairs and are green overall without any markings. (Hamilton 1983)

Recorded from several counties in the mountains; possibly more abundant in the state in the right habitat, especially in the mountains.Montane forestsMeadow willow (Salix petiolaris), silky willow (S. sericea), other Salix spp. (Hamilton 1983)
Macropsis tristisMales are tawny, with a yellow face that has fuscous coloration. The wings have the margins of the veins brown. Females are colored similarly to the males. Adult males are around 4.6-4.9 mm long, while females are 5.4-5.6 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are ferruginous with two pale abdominal stripes. The face is pale with some contrasting fuscous coloration. (Hamilton 1983)

Recorded from two counties from the mountains; uncommon to rare.Wild plums, including: Prunus americana, P. angustifolia, P. hortulana, P. munsoniana, P. domestica (garden plum) (Hamilton 1983)
Macropsis reversalisA greenish species with the head moderately projected and as wide as the pronotum, and the face bowed in profile [when viewed from the side] (slightly bowed in males, strongly bowed in females which means the head juts out further in females). Males are green (yellow when dry, as in a collection specimen) with a fuscous to black spot on the apex of the head/top of the face, and usually a fuscous to black band between the antennae on the face. The proepimeron (behind the eye) typically has a bold black spot, and the tarsi and apexes of the tarsi are black. Females are completely green (yellow when dry) and are usually unmarked. Adult males are around 4.0-4.3 mm long, while females are 4.4-4.7 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are densely covered with white hairs and are pale green overall. (Hamilton 1983)

A single record from the Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Narrow-leafed willows (Salix sp.) (Hamilton 1983)
Macropsis fumipennis
Honeylocust Leafhopper
Adults have the head narrower than the pronotum, and the pronotum is finely textured. Males are either an unmarked green (yellow when dry) or dark with wings that are smoky to dark brown except for a contrasting green to yellow costal margin. The scutellum and posterior half of the pronotum can also be smoky to brown, and the face in profile is distinctly bowed. Females have a face in profile that is weakly bowed. Females are colored similar to the male but are usually not dark; dark females are rare. Adult males are around 4.2-4.8 mm long, while females are 4.6-5.2 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are nearly hairless and are pale green to yellowish-green with a fuscous or golden-orange wash above. (Hamilton 1983)

Several scattered records from the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Forested areasMonophagous on Honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), a popular ornamental tree that is widely planted outside its native range in eastern-central United States. The only macropsine that feeds on Honey-locust. (Hamilton 1983)
Macropsis dixiensisMales are a deep ferruginous color, with the pronotum having a greenish tint to it. The abdominal sterna is brown while the sides of the thorax, underside of the head, and lateral angles of the scutellum are black. The wings are white with subhyaline areas; the wing venation is bold and prominent. Females are colored similarly to the males but the lateral angles of the scutellum are fuscous rather than black, sometimes paler. The head and pronotum are yellow-brown, with fuscous markings on the side of the body. Adult males are around 4.0 mm long, while females are 4.4-4.6 mm. The nymph of this species is unknown. (Hamilton 1983)
Reported from three counties in the mountains, uncommon to rare; perhaps found elsewhere in this region.Forested areas with wild plum treesWild plums: Prunus angustifolia, P. umbellata (Hamilton 1983)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Macropsis decisaThis species has the head wider than the pronotum. In males, the face in profile is flat to weakly bowed. Males are green (yellow when dry), with a prominent black proepimeral spot (on the side of the thorax behind the eye) and with the tarsi and apexes of the tibiae black. The wings are hyaline, infumose near the tips. Females have a face in profile that is weakly bowed. Females are an unmarked green (yellow when dry) or have a tiny black proepimeral spot. Adult males are around 4.6-5.0 mm long, while females are 5.2-6.0 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are densely covered with white hairs and are pale green overall. (Hamilton 1983)

Very uncommon with scattered records across the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy area, forest edge, where willows may be presentProbably monophagous on black willow (Salix nigra) (Hamilton 1983)
Pediopsoides distinctusA distinctively colored species. Males are yellowish, with the face, head, legs, and pronotum yellow; there is fuscous speckled across the pronotum and scutellum. In some dark individuals, almost the entire body is blackish brown. The wings are dark brown with a large pale spot near the apex of the wings, along the costa, and a smaller pale spot on the inner margin of the wings, in the middle. Females are greenish-yellow, with some fuscous spotting on the pronotum and scutellum. The hind leg can be bluish-green, contrasting with the yellowish front legs. The wings are not as dark as those of the male but have a similar pattern. Adult males are 3.8-4.4 mm long, while females are 4.2-4.7 mm. (Hamilton 1983) For more images of this species, see: BG.

Nymphs are greenish, flecked with fuscous spots all over the body, with a short head that sometimes has a transverse row of four black spots across the face. (Hamilton 1983)

Uncommon with several scattered records across the state, possibly more abundant in the state in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood, cypress forest.Black walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut (Juglans cinerea); this is the only New-World member of Macropsini that is known to feed on walnut (Hamilton 1983).
Oncopsis sobriaMales are dark, with wings ranging in color from a dark brown to jet black; these black winged individuals have a vivid violet sheen. The venter is tawny, sometimes with pale yellow on the face; the legs are yellowish. In brown-winged individuals, the pronotum and scutellum are a similarly colored dark brown speckled with fuscous markings. In black-winged inidividuals, the pronotum, scutellum, and head are reddish. Females typically are a rusty brown to orange color overall, with the wings the same color as the body. Some females though can have darker wings and resemble the males; these females have a yellowish pronotum and head that contrasts with a dark reddish scutellum. The venter is a bright yellow, and the face is either yellow or ferruginous. The female pregenital sternite has a shallow to truncate notch on the posterior margin. Adult males are around 4.5-5.5 mm long, while females are 4.8-5.8 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs tend to be completely ferruginous or brown. Some are occasionally maculate with yellow and/or fuscous coloration. (Hamilton 1983)

Primarily found in the mountains where it is uncommon, probably more abundant in that region in the right habitat. Also recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, which seems quite out of range for this species.Has been found in brushy, shrubby vegetation near fields and roadsides.Paper birch (Betula papyrifera), yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis), wire birch (B. populiforlia), water birch (B. occidentalis) (Hamilton 1983)
Oncopsis minorMales are dark, with a pale yellow face that has a prominent transverse arched black band between the eyes. The pronotum and scutellum are dark brown, speckled with fuscous coloration. The wings are either dark brown, smoky in color with paler cells. Or the wings are hyaline with dark, blackish veins and infuscated coloration along the crossveins, at the apex of the wing, and at the center of the commissure (inner edge of the wings); these males are similar to some females in the 3% category but have pale rather than dark faces, though some males can be extremely dark. Females come in 6 color phases/forms, typical of females of Oncopsis. In the most common form, phase D (73%), females are pale with grayish wings that have restricted fuscous markings, a yellow underside to the body and face, and a yellowish pronotum and scutellum that is speckled with dark marks. In phase E (3%), the darkest color form, females have a dark pronotum and scutellum, pale head that contrasts with a blackish face, and grayish wings with dark venation and dark coloration along the crossveins, commissure, and apex of the wings. In phases A and B (1% and 6%, respectively), females are largely ferruginous to reddish-brown overall, with a reddish pronotum, head, and face, tawny legs, and largely ferruginous wings that have a contrasting white V-shaped collar at the base of the wings and two somewhat clear windows towards the apex of the wings. These two ferruginous phases differ slightly in terms of how dark the ferruginous markings are on the wings and thorax and the size of wing windows; however, since they are quite similar to one another and some females show characteristics of both phases, these reddish-brown individuals will be treated as a single phase, phase AB (7%). Phase C (3%) is almost completely yellow; see pics below. Finally, in the 6th color form (lets call it phase F representing 14% of females), females are strongly maculated with wing markings nearly circular. The female pregenital sternite is triangular. Adult males are 3.9-4.5 mm long, while females are 3.8-4.9 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are a pale buffy to brown color overall, or maculate with fuscous with two sinuate longitudinal fuscous bands extending behind the eyes onto the abdomen. (Hamilton 1983)

Recorded from several counties in the mountains where it is uncommon, probably more abundant in that region. Has been found in grassy, shrubby habitat near montane forest.Birches, primarily on wire birch (Betula populifolia) and paper birch (B. papyrifera), but adults can accept other hosts (Hamilton 1983); also recorded from Betula lutea
Oncopsis infumataMales are somewhat dark, with the wings evenly smoky brown with 2 pale spots along the commissure (the inner edge of the wings). The face is yellowish with a bold black curved band that extends from one eye to the other. Females are colored similar to the males though are not quite as dark, with paler wings. The face has a circular brown to black mark, and the vertex is sometimes brown. The wings vary from being smokey to mottled with ferruginous and hyaline coloration. Adult males are 4.4-4.8 mm long, while females are 4.4-5.0 mm. The nymph of this species is pale ferruginous to black, variegated with yellow, or completely ferruginous to brown. (Hamilton 1983)Near endemic to the mountains of North CarolinaMontane forestBirch (Betula spp.), probably yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis) and black birch (B. nigra) (Hamilton 1983)
Oncopsis flavidorsumMales are dark, with brown to blackish-brown wings that have a pale spot along the commissure (inner edge of the wings). The venter is yellow, with the legs ferruginous and the face yellow with a bold black circular shaped mark in the center and a black band along the margin of the head. The pronotum and scutellum or yellow to ferruginous, sometimes approaching black, with fuscous speckling. and a reddish thorax and face. Females are extremely varied in color, with at least 24 (!!) distinct color forms/phases. Three forms account for about 60% of those found in females examined in collections: all yellow except for the outer third of the wings (30% of specimens); yellow along the clavi (appearing as a bold "V") and on the pronotum, scutellum, and head with brown wing bases (10%); and similar wing coloration but with an orange scutellum, pronotum, and head (21%). The other color forms are much less common: some have a dark, almost black body with varying degrees of dark markings on the wings and a yellow "V" (6%); dark with yellow clavi and blackish wings and body (3%); yellow clavi with a brown border along the claval sutures (6%); yellow clavi and thorax with a brown outer edge to the wings near the costal margins (0.5%); reddish-brown thorax and dark reddish-brown wings, darker along the claval structure bordering the yellow "V" on the clavi, with clear wing tips (2%); and reddish-brown thorax with red-brown on wings restricted primarily to the claval structures, contrasting with the yellow clavi (3%). Even though there is extreme variation in coloration of females, they almost all have yellow clavi. Adult males are 4.0-4.6 mm long, while females are 3.9-4.9 mm. Nymphs are entirely ferruginous or brown. (Hamilton 1983)Recorded from several counties in the northern mountains in the state, likely more abundant in this region in the right habitat. Uncommon to locally common.Has been found in grassy, shrubby habitat near montane forest.Alder, including speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) and Alnus serrulata (Hamilton 1983)
Oncopsis deludaMales are yellowish overall, with the legs and scutellum ferruginous. The lateral sides of the face are black, and there is a bold black mark on each side of the face near the upper margin. The pronotum is yellowish, marked with small fuscous spots. The wings are hyaline with dark, contrastingly infuscated venation (and resemble females of the most common color form). Females come in at least 5 color forms/phases, typical of members of Oncopsis. 52% of females are colored like the male, yellowish overall with clear wings that have infuscated veins; this is the most common color form, phase B. In the next common phase C, 22% of females are largely ferruginous with a predominantly yellow clavus (inner region of the wings). 18% of females, phae E, are quite pale, yellow overall with the only noticeable markings the 4 black spots on the face (the lower pair are comma-shaped). In phase A, 4% of females are blackish with black wings that have two pale "windows" (except for infuscated veins) near the tips and a pale window at the end of the commissure (inner edge of the wings) near the apex; the scutellum and pronotum are dark as well with black speckling. In phase D, 4% of females have a broad yellow longitudinal stripe extending from the head, down the pronotum and onto the scutellum (the whole stripe looks like a yellow arrow), with ferruginous coloration on either side of the stripe; the wings are partially ferruginous, partially yellowish. The female pregenital sternite is variable, either conical with a small, shallow notch on the posterior margin, or subquarate, or semicircular in shape lacking any notch. Adult males are 4.3-4.4 mm long, while females are 4.6-4.9 mm. The nymph of this species is unknown. (Hamilton 1983)Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, likely found elsewhere in this region.Has been found in grassy and vegetated, shrubby habitat surrounded by forest.Yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis), black birch (B. nigra) (Hamilton 1983)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Oncopsis citraMales are very dark overall in coloration. They have a yellow venter, tawny to ferruginous legs, and a pale yellowish face that contrasts with a bold but narrow fuscous to black transverse band between the eyes and another on the margin of the head. The pronotum is yellowish with dark speckling, the scutellum is dark. The wings are a deep brown to black with a pale spot along the commissure (inner edge of the wings) near the apex. Females come in several color forms/phases, typical of members of Oncopsis. In Phase D (52% of females), the head, pronotum, and scutellum are yellow, contrasting with ferruginous tinted wings. Phase C(0.5%) is similarly colored but has darker ferruginous markings on the wings. In the second most common form, phase B (41%), the scutellum and pronotum are a bold ferruginous color that contrasts with a yellow head; the wings are largely ferruginous with a whitish V-shaped mark in the middle [of the back] and two clear "windows" closer to the apex. In phase A (7%), the females are colored similar to brown males but have a face that is more or less ferruginous. The female pregenital sternite has a prominent to very small notch on the posterior margin. Adult males are 4.9-5.9 mm long, while females are 5.1-5.9 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are ferruginous with a white, pale tip to the abdomen that contrasts with the darker rusty base of the abdomen.

Primarily found in the mountains where it is uncommon; a single record from the Piedmont, which seems quite out of range for this species.Forest edge, brushy areas, places where birch trees can be foundYellow birch (B. alleghaniensis), paper birch (B. papyrifera), wire birch (B. populiforlia), water birch (B. occidentalis), other birches (Hamilton 1983)
Oncopsis abietisA dark leafhopper with a distinctive color pattern in both sexes. Males are very dark, with almost completely black wings with a small white spot down the middle of the commissure (inner edge of the wings). The pronotum is a tawny color with lots of black speckling, the scutellum is a dark red. The face is quite distinctive, yellowish overall with black on the lower third and two black bands across the upper part between the eyes; this forms somewhat of a pale circular area surrounded by black on the face. The lateral sides of the lower part of the face are also black. Females come in several color forms, typical of members of this genus. The most common color form (about 68% of individuals) has mostly black wings with two white "windows" on each wing; the clavus (inner segment of the wings) is a contrasting ferruginous color. The scutellum, pronotum, and face are also largely reddish-brown or ferruginous while the legs are mottled with black (there is some black on the face as well) in this common form; the clypeus (lower part of the face) is contrastingly black. In 25% of females, the wings are marked with brown rather than black while the rest of the color pattern on the body remains the same as the more common form. In the least common color form, 7% of females, the entire face, pronotum, scutellum, legs, and dark areas of the wings are ferruginous. The female pregenital sternite is tapered, with a posterior margin that is slightly produced on either side of a shallow median notch. Adult males are 4.6-5.1 mm long, while females are 4.4-5.1 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are stramineous in color, with fuscous coloration on the head, pronotum, base of the wing pads, and on the anterior and lateral margins of the abdominal segments. (Hamilton 1983)

Recorded from the mountains where it is locally common; should be found throughout the mountains.

There are several records, 1 from Mt. Mitchell and 2 from Highlands, Macon Co., that have been excluded as they may have been mislabeled/misidentified.

Has been found in grassy, brushy vegetation surrounded by montane forest; forest edge.Many birches (Betula sp.), including: yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis), paper birch (B. papyrifera), water birch (B. occidentalis), sweet birch (B. lenta), and black birch (B. nigra). (Hamilton 1983)
Stictocephala brevitylusA greenish species with prominent horns and light speckling across the pronotum. The tips of the horns and the ridge of the pronotum are reddish. The key characteristics of this species are the dark, reddish-brown legs and the black ventral sides of the thorax; this helps separate it from most other species in this genus that look similar. Females are 8-9 mm long, while males are 7-8 mm. For more, see FSCA.Seasonal distribution: 5 April-2 July (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Aster sp., Ceanothus sp., Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Helianthus sp., Morus sp., Quercus falcata, Robinia pseudoacacia, Rubus argutus, Sarracenia flava, Smilax sp., Solanum tuberosum, Vaccinium sp., Vitis sp. (CTNC); also on Eupatorium capillifolium, Gleditsia triacanthos, Ostrya virginiana, Sambucus canadensis (CTGSMNP)
Synecdoche impunctataA distinctive dark brown species, with dark wings and a reddish thorax with several pale vertical lines. There is a large black spot on the outer margins of the thorax. The legs are pale, contrasting with the blackish dark-brown wings; there several pale spots on the wings. The face has four large black spots, separated by a thin midline down the center; the spots give the appearance of two black transverse facial bands, characteristic of this species. Uncommon, recorded primarily from the mountains but also in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Found in open woodlands, near mixed hardwood forest.?
Cyrtolobus flavolatusMales are brownish overall, with a brownish tinge to the wings and a brown smudge at the rear of the wing. The pronotum is not overly pronounced, with a minimal crest. There is a pale yellowish band on the outer edge of the pronotum, beginning from the eyes, and a small transverse band at the rear of the pronotum. The front of the pronotum and the face can also be yellowish. Females resemble the males but are a much duller brown overall, lacking the sharp contrast between the yellow lateral bands on the pronotum. Female pronotal crests are also slightly higher than in males.Very uncommon to rare, several records from the Piedmont and Mountains. Seasonal distribution: 18 May-18 June (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba (CTGSMNP)
Flatormenis proxima
Northern Flatid Planthopper
This species is often greenish in color, though color can vary slightly. The key characteristic for this species is the 90 degree angle to the rear corner of the wings, separating this from the similar Ormenoides venusta. There are two rows of broad, ordered wing (apical) cells at the rear of the wing that are noticeable, also helpful in distinguishing this species. Additionally, F. proxima lacks the orange edge to the wings that is characteristic of O. venusta. The legs are brownish, and the bottom edge of the wings is yellowish.

Young nymphal instars are fairly pale in color with contrasting orange sections on the abdomen and thorax, but older instars can show the greenish color typical of adults as they age. As in the adult, the head of the nymphs is broad and flat, a useful characteristic in distinguishing from the very similar nymphs of Metcalfa pruinosa.

Eggs are deposited in long, narrow whitish rows on the side of vegetation.

Common and locally abundant, this species has been primarily recorded across the state.Found in grassy, brushy habitat, forest edge, and within mixed hardwood forest.Polyphagous: Juglans nigra (Juglandaceae, black walnut), Ostrya virginiana (Betulaceae, hophornbeam), Quercus velutina (Fagaceae, black oak), Ulmus rubra (Ulmaceae, slippery elm), Maclura pomifera (Moraceae, osage orange), Morus rubra (Moraceae, red mulberry), Rumex obtusifolius (bitter dock, Polygonaceae), Phytolacca americana (American pokeweed, Phytolaccaceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree, Magnoliaceae), Asimina triloba (Annonaceae, pawpaw), Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae, sassafras), Liquidambar styraciflua (Hamamelidaceae, sweetgum), Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae, American sycamore), and 30 more in Wilson & McPhearson (1981). (UDEL)
Shellenius balliiA distinctly colored species with characteristic red and dark markings. The head, which is proportionately longer than in other similar Derbids, has a broad red band that extends across the entire length. This band narrows on the sides of the thorax, continuing onto the wings where it considerably widens up and darkens toward the wing tips; the wing venation in this widened band is the same bright red color as the beginning of the band while the wing cells in between the veins are a dark blackish-brown color, sometimes appearing spotted. The rest of the wings, thorax and head are a pale yellow color.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a few records from the mountains and Piedmont.Acer (maple), Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (ash) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cyrtolobus funkhouseriFemales are moderately hairy, with short hairs, and shallow punctures of the pronotum; the surfaces is smooth and somewhat shiny. The color is a dingy reddish brown, paler anteriorly. The face is a creamy white color, finely punctured with light reddish brown. The pronotum is pale brown mixed with cream, with darker reddish brown bands rising from above the eyes. There is an oblique diagonal whitish band extending backwards from the crest to the lateral margins of the pronotum, and a vertical thicker band near the apex. There is a mid-dorsal translucent spot, and the lateral margins of the pronotom are bordered with white (characteristic of this species). The forewings are hyaline, with a testaceous base. Males are similar to females, strongly shining and ranging in color from red to black. The pale markings are whiter and more clearly defined than in the females. The body beneath is black (whereas in females it is testaceous), and the legs are testaceous as well, differing from the females in having black femora. The forewings are hyaline and clearer than in females. Adult males are 5.0 mm long, while females are 5.5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)Uncommon, scattered records primarily across the Piedmont.

Seasonal distribution: 13 May-11 June (CTNC)

Pin oak (Quercus palustris) (CTNC); also reported from red oak, scarlet oak, Quercus bicolor, and Q. imbricaria (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)
Erythridula penenoevaThis species has typical coloration for the genus, with bold yellow to red lines on the wings, thorax, and head. The pronotum is either entirely pale with two longitudinal lines or dark with pale lateral margins. The mesonotum is either entirely pale or entirely dark, with the apex concolorous with the rest of the mesonotum. This typically gives the scutellum a dark chestnut to reddish-brown color overall with blacker lateral angles. The face is pale, as is the thorax except for the mesosternum on the underside which is dark; the abdomen is dark dorsally and visisble through the wings. Adults are 2.8 to 3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2009)One recent record from the Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat.Carya tomentosa, Carya illinoiensis, Querus imbricaria, Quercus shumardii, Acer saccharum, Aesculus sp., Carpinus sp. (3I)
Eratoneura aesculiA yellow-white to yellowish species with a bold, vibrant red color pattern on the wings. The vertex has yellowish-orange submedial lines, with lateral branches that form circular shapes. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped yellowish medial mark, and the scutellum is yellowish with slightly darker lateral triangles. About a third of the wings is red, at the bases; the reddish mark covers most of the clavus, typically with a small rectangular section extending outwards from the posterior part of the mark. There is a small, oval to circular-shaped white spot inside the red, in the posterior half of the pattern. The rest of the wings are yellow with white patches. There are two small black spots on the inner margin of the apical cells, but no black spot along the costal margin of the wings; there is a red spot at the base of the crossveins before the wing tips. Adults are 2.9- 3.1 mm long. (3I)A couple records in the state from the Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Aesculus sp. (3I)
Eratoneura bellaA yellow-white to yellowish species with a bold, vibrant red color pattern on the wings. The vertex has yellowish-orange submedial lines, with lateral branches that form circular shapes. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped yellowish medial mark, and the scutellum is yellowish with slightly darker lateral triangles. About a third of the wings is red, at the bases; the reddish mark covers most of the clavus, typically with a small rectangular section extending outwards from the posterior part of the mark. The rest of the wings are yellow with white patches. There are two small black spots on the inner margin of the apical cells, a black spot along the costal margin of each wing, and a red spot at the base of the crossveins before the wing tips. Adults are 2.8- 3.1 mm long. (3I)

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a couple records from the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the state, especially in the mountains.Platanus occidentalis, Platanus sp., Quercus pagoda (3I)
Erythroneura fraxaThis species has a bold, broad reddish-orange color pattern on its wings and body, forming somewhat of a zigzag shape. When viewed from above, the reddish zigzags surround two prominent white spots down the middle of the wings. The white patch closest to the head is circular, almost oval-shaped, whereas the white patch near the tip of the wings is diamond-shaped; in some individuals, there is a small orange spot in the middle of this diamond. The shape of these two white patches can vary among individuals. There is a noticeable diagonal black mark on the costal margin of each wing, and four dark spots near the rear of the wing (forming an upside down V when viewed from above): a distal spot in the second apical cells and a brown spot basally in the inner apical cells. The scutellum has bold orange lateral triangles, with a paler apex; the rest of the scutellum is white. The pronotum has three prominent vertical bars, with the center one forming a skinny "Y" and extending onto the top of the head. These head lines are parallel and run very close to one another; there is either a small white midline between the orange lines or no midline at all, resulting in a central thick bold line. The face is pale, and the thoracic venter is pale outside of the dark mesosternum. Adults are 2.9-3.2 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)Recorded from several counties in the upper Piedmont where it is rather uncommon. Possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Redbud (Cercis canadensis) (3I)
Hymetta kansasensisThe most boldly-marked member of this genus. The wings are milky-white with a bold, dark brown and red color pattern. The first two crossbands are brownish to reddish, with the first typically quite thick and strongly narrowed on the costal margin while the second is more of a broken oblique zig-zag line running from the plaque to the transverse apical red line; together they tend to form a large, characteristic dark saddle. The third band is a very dark inverted V. The costal plaque is [sometimes] dark. There is a black dot on the corium which touches the claval suture, and a small brownish spot on the clavus caudad of these; there are many small reddish flecks on the corium, clavus and [sometimes] costal plaque. The vertex is either unicolorous or with orange parallel submedial lines, often with a lateral branch. The disc of the pronotum is usually darkened, resulting in a diagnotistic yellowish-brown circular patch. The scutellum has a small black dot at the apex. The thoracic venter is entirely pale. Adults are 3.2-3.5 mm long. (3I; Fairbairn, 1928)

For more images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Rare, only known from one county in the state, in the Piedmont; likely overlooked. Can be found in mixed hardwood forest. Cercis canadensis (red bud) (3I)
Eratoneura hymettanaA species with a distinctive color pattern. The wings and body are mostly a pale, yellow to white color, but there are four dark faded marks (almost rectangular in shape) on the middle of the wings, forming an upside down U when viewed from above; these dark marks can be quite bold in some individuals, appearing black. There is an incomplete brownish band across the base of the wings and scutellum, and a broken band towards the rear of the wings, past the black marks; this rear band consists of red markings in some individuals, a smudgy band in others. The wingtips are also brown, giving the appearance of a third band in some individuals. The vertex is largely pale, with a distinct midline; the pronotum is almost entirely pale. Adults are 2.9- 3.2 mm long. (3I)Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; likely a very uncommon to rare species in the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat. Platanus occidentalis (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Doleranus longulusBrownish-yellow, marked with reddish-brown; the chestnut-colored wings have pale venation, outlined with darker infuscations inside each wing cell. The vertex is twice as wide as it is long, with a somewhat rounded, pointed tip. The ocelli are white, connected by a white transverse line along the margin. The pronotum is fulvous, with dark brown markigns on the anterior portion; the scutellum is the same color but has dark lateral triangles. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin depressed, slightly and angularly elevated. The male subgenital plates are rounded with almost parallel-margined tips. Adults are 5-6 mm long. (DeLong, 1948)

For some diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev.

A couple records for the state from the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Metcalf (1967) lists the species for North Carolina but it is unclear from where.Wooded floodplains, along stream banks, etc. (DeLong, 1948)Herbaceous plants
Metcalfa pruinosa
Citrus Flatid Planthopper
The color of adult Metcalfa pruinosa varies considerably from brown to gray to partially dark blue, due chiefly to the presence or absence of a bluish white waxy powder coating the wings. A characteristic pair of dark spots is located in the basal half of each forewing, and there can be small pale spots across the rest of the wings. The eyes and legs are orange colored. Adults are usually 5.5 to 8 mm in length. Nymphs are less than twice as long as wide, and vary in size depending upon the growth stage . A mature nymph is approximately 4 mm long, not counting waxy filaments which break easily, and are white. Nymphs have a flat shape and can produce an extremely large amount of waxy filaments. Nymphs are pale in coloration, often appearing whitish, and have noticeable patches with pits, close to the head and on the thorax. In some individuals, there are dark spots present on the wing pads, reminiscent of the dark spots on the wings of adults; some individuals can completely lack these dark spots. Note that the head is very slightly rounded rather than completely flat across, a key characteristic when distinguishing from the very similar nymphs of F. proxima. (UFL)A fairly common species, recorded across the state with a majority of records coming from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Found in a variety of habitats, from grassy brushy areas to mixed hardwood forest.Extremely polyphagous, found on a variety of trees including: maples, dogwoods, hawthorns, willows, elms, privet, black locust, and alder. It can also be found on crop plants such as grape, citrus, apricot, peach, blackberry, and raspberry. (Wiki)
Chionomus puellusA brown to dark brown species with a couple key characteristics: the white ring around the thorax and the black spots down the middle of the wings. However, there is variation with the white ring; some individuals can have a faint ring or not have it at all. Otherwise, the pronotum is black as is the mesonotum (which appears shiny), abdomen, underside of the body, and frons; the carinae of the frons are stramineous to cream in color, and the antennal segments and legs are pale. The wings have a dark mark at the apex of the clavus. Brachypterous males resemble the coloration of macropters but have a bit of variation in body color, ranging from brown to black. Female macropters are much paler than males, being light brown overall but still showing the characteristic black spot on the wings. Note that in the brachypters for this species, the wings typically reach the tip of the abdomen. Macropterous males are around 3.0 mm with a body that is 1.5-1.8 mm long, while females are 3.1 mm with a body that is 1.8-2.2 mm; brachypterous males are 1.4-1.6 mm long while females are 1.6-2.0 mm. (Weglarz & Bartlett, 2020)Very common, probably the most common Delphacid in the state. Grassy, brushy areas and forest edge or open forest; also mesic to wet areas Gramineous plants, including Galinsoga parviflora and witchgrass (Panicum capillare); probably polyphagous and also reported [association may be unclear for some] from Abelia sp., European alder (Alnus glutinosa), redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus), common milkweed (Asclepiaas syriaca), wavy hairgrass (Deschampsia flexuosa), alfalfa (Medicago sp.), swamp smartweed (Persicaria hydropiperoides), post oak (Quercus stellata), black willow (Salix nigra), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), grape (Vitis spp.) (Weglarz & Bartlett, 2020)
Chionomus pacificusA brown to light brown species, with distinct median vitta and ivory to cream markings. The frons is dark with carinae stramineous to cream in color, distinct and contrasting with the rest of the frons. The antennae are light cream colored to yellow, with segment I dark brown in some specimens. The pronotum is white to cream-colored, with fuscate markings posterior to the eyes and between the median and lateral carinae; the mesonotum is brown with median white vitta. The hyaline wings have a dark mark at the apex of the clavus. The legs are white to light brown, with the apex of the tarsi brown. The abdomen is brown, with a fine white line on the caudal edge of each segment; the lateral projections of the sternites are white. The pygofer is also white. Adults can be both macropterous and brachypterous, with brachypters similarly colored as macropters. Brachypters have infuscate wings, a white stripe along the apex, and a darkened spot near the apex of the clavus. Adult male macropters have a body that is 1.8-2.1 mm long, female macropters are 2.1-2.3 mm; male brachypter bodies are 1.8-1.9 mm. (Weglarz & Bartlett, 2020)

There is a lot of variation in color for this species, with some specimens dark with the vitta faint and marking stramineous and other specimens light with white markings and distinct vittas. (Weglarz & Bartlett, 2020)

Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains.Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum), common beet (Beta vulgaris), creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), Thurber's pepperweed (Lepidium thurberi) (Weglarz & Bartlett, 2020)
Enchenopa binotata complex
Two-marked Treehopper
A dark, blackish-brown species with two distinctive yellowish marks down the back. The wings are mostly concolorous with the rest of the body, with rufous-tinted tips. Sexes can be distinguished from one another by the length of the horn- in females, the horn is noticeably long and prominent, while in males the horn is much smaller, sometimes nothing more than a little nub. Egg masses are whitish in color, resembling raised shells on a stem. Nymphs are blackish-brown, with a small forward-facing horn and spines down the middle of the abdomen. See here for a nice depiction of the life cycle of nymphs of this genus.Recorded throughout the state, with scattered records: uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 15 May-3 October (CTNC)Has been found in a variety of habitats, including grassy, brushy areas and mixed hardwood forest; where host plants are present.Carya sp., Cercis canadensis, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Robinia pseudoacacia, Viburnum prunifolium (CTNC)
Telamona tardaThis species has a rather narrow, almost horn-like pronotum which is very atypical for Telamona. Females have narrower, higher pronotal crests than males, whose crest has a much wider, triangular shaped base. This species is greenish-brown, with the crest usually a slightly darker coloration, and there tends to be scattered white speckling across the pronotum.

For more pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single record from the mountains but likely more abundant, just undetected. Unknown
Telamona decorataA sexually dimorphic species. This species is grayish-green to reddish-brown overall, with a varied mottled color pattern of light and dark. This pattern is much more pronounced in females, whose crest is a vibrant dark brown to reddish-brown and is block-shaped; the crest coloration contrasts with the paler front and sides of the pronotum, with a curved dark band arching downwards from the crest towards the lateral edge of the pronotum. The tip of the female pronotum is a reddish to reddish-brown color. The male pronotal crest is smaller and not as high compared to other members of this genus and is more of a rounded triangular shape but, like the females, is dark. In both sexes, the trailing edge of the crest is pale. There is frequently some light pale speckling across the front of the pronotum. The tips of the wings are dark with a smoky smudge while the wing venation is pale, lined with dark; the rest of the wings are hyaline.Recorded from the mountains, with a single record from the Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 19 June-13 September (CTNC)MontaneCastanea dentata (American chestnut), but largely oaks: Quercus alba, Q. rubra (CTNC); also Q. stellata (CTGSMNP), Populus (cottonwood) [nymphs on this plant], Tilia americana (American basswood), Acer (maple), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Q. bicolor (swamp white oak) [nymphs on this plant], Q. coccinea (scarlet oak), Q. ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak), Q. falcata (southern red
oak), Q. ilicifolia (bear or scrub oak) [nymphs], Q. macrocarpa (bur oak) [nymphs], Q. montana (chestnut oak), Q. phellos (willow oak), Q. velutina (black oak) [nymphs], and Robinia (locust) (Wallace 2014).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Telamona dubiosaA reddish-brown species with a prominent, raised pronotal crest with a sharp angle to the rear. It can have a "dotted" pattern across the pronotum.Recorded from the Coastal Plain, rare in the state. Seasonal distribution: 21 September-11 October (CTNC)Quercus alba (CTNC), Q. montana (chestnut oak) (Wallace 2014)
Heliria scalarisA uniform rich brown color; rarely slightly speckled with pale on the face, metapodium, knob, and in a transverse band behind the crest. There is a short white line/mark on the margin below the posterior lobe of the crest. The anterior lobe of the pronotum distinctly overhangs the base of the crest, and the posterior angle of the posterior lobe forms a right or acute angle. Adult females are 9 mm long, with a height of 5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke, 1974)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Carya (hickory), Crataegus (hawthorn), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Malus (apple), Prunus americana (American plum), Salix (willow) (Wallace 2014).
Heliria molarisRare, recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and mountains.Nymphs have been found on Q. bicolor (swamp white oak) and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak); adults have been found on Populus (cottonwood), Quercus alba (white oak), and Q. velutina (black oak) (Wallace 2014).
Heliria cristataA very distinctive, stunning species with a double-lobed pronotal crest, characteristic of this species; the anterior lobe of the pronotal crest is distinct, the frontal lobe is higher than the back one and is long, projecting forward at a posterior angle. Adults range in color from grayish-brown to brownish to a light green color and can have a mottled crest pattern. This species has a very broad front of the pronotum, extending well to the side of the eyes. Adult females are 11 mm long and 7 mm wide with a height of 6 mm, males are 10 mm long. (Kopp & Yonke, 1974)

For additional pics of this species, see: (BG).

Previously reported from Eastern NC, though not clear where in particular (CTNC). Likely uncommon to rare with two recent sightings from the Piedmont and mountains.Where oak is present.Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak) (CTNC); adults have also been found on Celtis occidentalis (common hackberry), Corylus (hazelnut), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Quercus alba (white oak), Q. palustris (pin oak), Q. stellata (post oak), and Q. velutina (black oak) (Wallace 2014).
Heliria gibberataA pale creamy to brownish, mottled species with a prominent pronotal crest that is peaked in the front and, in most specimens, protrudes forward slightly. Adults have a very broad front of the pronotum, extending well to the side of the eyes. Males are 8 to 10.5 mm long while females are 10 to 11.0 mm long, 7 mm wide, and have a height of 5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke 1974)Rare, only recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and mountains. Seasonal distribution: 23 May-late June (CTNC)Celtis occidentalis (common hackberry) (CTNC); adults have been found on Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam) and Quercus alba (white oak) (Wallace 2014).
Heliria gemmaThe dorsal margin of the pronotal crest slopes posteriorly. Males are densely pubescent, and the pronotum is mottled brown with traces of a creamy tooth and posterior stripe. Females are creamy with brown mottling, particularly emphasized on the crest, and there is an oblique stripe in the rear third of the pronotum; the posterior edge of the crest is a creamy yellowish-white. Adult males are 8-9 mm long, female are 11 mm with a width and height of 5.5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke 1974)Rare, recorded from a couple counties in the mountains.Possibly Populus grandidentata (Wallace 2014)
Heliria fitchiA greenish-brown species with a double-lobed pronotal crest, but not as strongly lobed as in H. cristata. The wings have dark venation and a smoky, brown mark at the tips. Rare with a single recent record from the western Piedmont.Has been found in higher elevation mixed hardwood forest.Quercus alba (white oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak) (Wallace 2014)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Heliria cornutulaA brownish to light green colored species with a broad pronotal crest that is peaked in the front. Adults have a very broad front of the pronotum, extending well to the side of the eyes.

For additional pics of this species, see: BG.

Scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; uncommon to rare. Seasonal distribution: June-15 November (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) (Wallace 2014)