Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Chlorotettix necopinusThe only member of Chlorotettix that looks like this; it is 6.5-7.5 mm long. This species has a dark brown elytra (wings) with distinctive pale veins that contrast with the much darker wings. The head and pronotum are paler than the rest of the body, and there is a bold dark brown to black transverse band on the head between the eyes that is characteristic of this species. The scutellum has two dark triangles in the upper corners, and there is a small dark midline [on the scutellum] with brown spots on either side, near the center. The female pregenital sternite is deeply and broadly incised nearly to about 2/3 of the way to the anterior base; the lateral sides are triangular and pointed, relatively convex on either side. The male genital plates are broad at their base, constricting to divergent tips. (DeLong 1918)

Nymphs are green with a row of several black spots along the length of the body.

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain were it is uncommon; likely more widespread in the state in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy, field-type habitats and adjacent mixed hardwood forestsGrasses
Cixius coloepeumAdult males are 4.8-5.7 mm long, while females are 5.0-6.0 mm. The base color of the head and thorax are tawny with the face and pronotum darkened with shades of brown to black. Coloration on the wings can be quite variable. (Kramer 1981)

This species superficially resembles Cixius pini in wing pattern. The face tends to be darker in C. pini though compared with C. coloepeum, but an identification may not be possible for some individuals without dissection.

Primarily recorded from the mountains, with an old record from the Sandhills. Probably more abundant in the right habitat, especially the mountains."Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." Adults have been recorded from Gaylussacia (huckleberry, Ericaceae). (UDEL)
Anotia bonnetiiThis species has brownish wings, with the veins outlined in brown. The lower outer margins of the wings have some red-lined veins, and there are small black spots on the apical edges. Most importantly, vein CuA is forked, dividing the wing cell into small cell C5 and larger cell C4; in some other Anotia species, the forked vein and therefore C5 are absent. Two bold dark spots, one on each wing, can be found on the inner edge near the middle. The thorax and abdomen are reddish-brown, and there are no dark markings on top of the head (separating this species from westwoodi); the side of the head also lacks markings and is whitish. (UDEL)Uncommon to scarce, recorded in several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Has been found in open areas near mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Sikaiana hartiAn unusual yet distinctive species, it has pale white wings with many dark, black spots across them. The wings greatly exceed the length of the abdomen. The frons/face is very compressed, and the antennae lack additional appendages. The head only slightly projects in front of the eyes. Small and very fragile. For images of this species, see BG.Recorded from a few counties across the state; scarce and rare.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Flexamia sandersiLight brownish overall. The face varies from dark above and shading to paler apically to brown or black throughout, but often brown or tan; the interocular area is never black (no defined band present). The crown is produced, with the median length 1.48 x the interoculate width and 0.69 x the full head width. The female pregenital sternite has a sinusoidal posterior margin, with concave notches on the sides of a convex, relatively flat median projection with a small notch in the middle; the lateral margins of the sternite are roundly convex. The male genital plates are elongate, apically notched; in some specimens, they are bidentate. Together, the plates appear triangular. Adult males are 2.9-3.5 mm long, females are 3.2-3.9 mm. (Whitcomb & Hicks 1988)

For diagrams of this species, see: Zahniser; not sure the genitalia are correct on here.

Scattered records across the state; likely under collected and therefore more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy areas where host occursBroomsedge (Andropogon virginicus), Andropogon spp. (Whitcomb & Hicks 1988)
Penestragania robustaA green species (fading to yellow with age and/or in collected specimens), with many short black hairs (setae) scattered across the surface of the wings; sometimes these hairs can be pale, and there may be dark rings at the base of them. The vertex is short and broadly rounded, less wide than the pronotum. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is barely excavated and is slightly bisinuate, with a small median projection. Adult males are 3.2-4.3 mm long, females are 3.6-4.7 mm. (Beamer & Lawson, 1945), (Blocker, 1970)

Nymphs have a green body, densely covered with white pubescence which grows thicker and longer as the nymph ages.

See here for more images of this species: BG.

Rare in the state (but possibly overlooked or undercollected), with a couple records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain (though Blocker 1970 indicates there are other records for the state).Blocker (1970) notes multiple host plants for this species; those reported from the southeastern United States are: Axonopus compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Iva sp., Larrea tridentata glutinosa, Medicago sativa, Paspalum notatum, & Prunus augustifolia
Cixius apicalisA very distinctive species, with about 2/3 of the wings completely dark, leaving mostly the third closest to the wings relatively clear. The thorax and head are concolorous with the wings, though in some individuals the thorax and head can be clear. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are dark, as is the face. Adult males are 6.0 mm long, while females are 6.0-6.5 mm (Kramer 1981). Uncommon to rare in the state, recorded from a few counties in the mountains. Likely found elsewhere in the mountains."Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Penestragania alabamensisA greenish to tan species, with many short whitish hairs (setae) scattered across the surface of the wings; sometimes there is a fuscous spot at the apex of the clavi (inner part of the wings) and the outer ends of the apical cells. The vertex is rounded and distinctly narrower than the pronotum. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is produced on the median two thirds, sometimes with a small median notch. Fuscous spots are common in the posterior third of the anteapical cells. The posterior margin of the female pregenital sternite is produced on the median, occasionally with a small notch. Adults males are 4.0-4.7 mm long, females are 4.5-4.8 mm. (Beamer & Lawson, 1945), (Blocker, 1970)

See here for more images of this species: BG.

A single record from the mountains, likely overlooked and undercollected and could turn up anywhere in the state.Honey locust (Gleditsia triancanthos) (Blocker, 1970)
Cixius angustatusAdult males are 5.2-5.9 mm long, while females are 5.9-7.0 mm. The base color of the head and thorax are dark tawny. Portions of the face and pronotum are darkened with shades of brownt o black. The wings are hyaline with variable brown tinting. In some specimens that are well-marked, there is a transverse median band across the wings. (Kramer 1981)Recorded from the mountains and Piedmont, probably under collected."Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." Adults have been found on Prunus (Rosaceae, cherry, plum). (UDEL)
Haplaxius enotatusThe head and thorax are stramineous to yellowish brown in color; the basal half of the frons and clypeus are sometimes orange or orange-brown. The crown and thoracic dorsum lack definite darker markings. The wings and veins are transparent pale to yellowish brown, with each costal margin ivory or whitish through the stigma. Adult males are 3.8 to 4.3 mm long, females are 4.1 to 5.0 mm. (Kramer, 1979)

For images of a specimen of this species, see: UDEL.

Has been recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Grassy areas, especially marshes and similar habitatGrass, Juncus (Rush, Juncaceae), ‘marsh grasses’ (UDEL)
Haplaxius radicisA brownish species that can be highly variable in coloration among individuals. The head and thorax range from pale yellowish green to dark tawny, and vary from unmarked to heavily marked with various shades of brown. The frons has highly variable markings, ranging from: lemon or pale orange upper and lower transverse bands, a pair of dark spots at the upper margin with a pale band at the lower margin, a dark upper transverse band and a faint/weak lower band, a single dark upper transverse band, or a dark brown to black transverse band at the upper and lower margins. The wings are typically hyaline with veins and stigma uncolored to brownish, though some specimens may show a distinct dark streak extending down the wings, enlargening near the apices. Adult males are 4.4-5.6 mm long, females are 4.9-5.9 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Recorded from a single county in both the mountains and Piedmont.Grassy areasImpatiens (touch-me-not, Balsaminaceae), grasses, nettles, American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) (UDEL)
Haplaxius pusillusA reddish-brown species. The head and thorax are a pale sordid stramineous to pale yellowish-brown color, often times tinged with green. The vertex is yellowish-green, and the face itself is greenish-orange to orange-brown. The pronotum can be a boldly contrasting orange color. The abdomen is pale, ranging from greenish to orange on the underside; dorsally the abdominal segments are dark, outlined in orange. The wings are very hyaline without any dark marks; the veins and each stigma are pale to clear, sometimes darkened at the apex in some specimens. Adult males are 3.5-4.0 mm long, females are 3.7-4.3 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Uncommon, with several records from the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat surrounded by mostly pine and some hardwoods; also swept from a marsh.Has been swept from black needlerush and spartina; unclear if these are host plants.
Haplaxius pictifronsA variable species with a key characteristic: the face has two dark-brown to black transverse bands, at the base and apex (these bands can vary in thickness and shape among individuals). The head and thorax are pale yellowish brown with the venter lighter than the dorsum; the pronotum is darkened behind the eyes. The wings are hyaline with yellowish-brown veins and stigma, with the stigma darker in some specimens; there may or may note be an elongate brownish patch on each wing near the claval apex. Some individuals are fairly dark in coloration while others are a paler fulvous. Adult males are 4.2-5.4 mm long, females are 5.0-6.2 mm. (Kramer, 1979)

For nice images of two pinned specimens, a dark and light individual, see: UDEL.

Recorded mainly from the mountains where it is uncommon; a few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Likely more abundant in the right habitat, especially the mountains.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass, Poaceae), grasses (streamside), willow (Salix), cottonwood (UDEL)
Clastoptera octonotataThis colorful species has 8 brown spots, 4 on the head and 4 on the anterior border of the pronotum (BG). This species typically has a reddish body with black markings, though sometimes individuals have wings that lack much of the red color and are instead blackish. There is a bold, jagged white line across the middle of the back that forms an "M" when viewed from above. The scutellum is tan to reddish in color, and the head is whitish with a pale, concolorous face. There is also a bold, dark red line across the white pronotum. Legs are a dark red color.

This species creates elongated, dense spittle masses on the host plant. Young nymphs are pale, with a whitish abdomen and thorax and a yellowish head. There is some yellowish and reddish-pink tinting to the abdomen. Older instars have blackish sides to the thorax and head and blackish wing buds, contrasting with the whitish body.

This species has been recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, though possibly more abundant in the right habitat.This species has been recorded in the state from open, mixed hardwood forest.Muscadine grapevine - Vitis rotundifolia (BG)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Anotia robertsoniiA mostly pale species with some brown markings on the wing; there is a bold, dark brown "7"-shaped mark on the wings, and several small red marks on the outer edges. Notably, wing vein CuA is forked, dividing the wing cell into small cell C5 and larger cell C4 (besides C4, C3a is also large); in some other Anotia species, the forked vein and therefore C5 are absent. The abdomen has several dark brown segments, though in some individuals the abdomen is entirely pale, and the wing markings are less bold as well. In dark individuals, the thorax has a broad brown band across the base (with a white tip), and a broad brown median line. The antennal stubs are a light brown. Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, a scarce species; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Shellenius schellenbergiiA pale orange-brown species with an orange face and white vertex. The base of the wings are a bronzy-orange, the the anterior half of the wings a darker brown with bold red wing venation. The commissure of the wings is white, forming a continuous white band that extends onto the middle of the pronotum to the white vertex. The legs are pale.

For a few more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont.Shrubby areas, forest edgeAcer, American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), Sabal palmetto, Fraxinus (UDEL); has also been found [at least resting] on Common Milkweed (Ascleipius syriaca).
Phylloscelis pallescensPale to brownish overall, sometimes even blackish, with white speckling all over the body and wings. There is a white band near the tip of each leg as well. Adults are around 5 mm long. See here for an image of a live adult, and here for several images of pinned specimens: (1), (2), (3).Pycnanthemum tenuifolium (narrowleaf mountainmint; Lamiaceae) (UDEL)
Polana celataA dark brown species with the crown and anterior portion of the pronotum a paler brown. The crown is short and broadly rounded. The ocelli are widely separated . The wing venation is dark brown, particularly on the corium, apical and anteapical veins; the tips of the claval veins are brown. The male subgenital plates are elongate and more than four times long as broad. The female pregenital sternite is trilobate and has the lateral angles rounded, with a shallowly excavated posterior margin on either side of broadly rounded lobes; the median lobe has a broad shallow notch. Adult males and females are 8.0 mm long (though DeLong 1942 states 6-7 mm long). (DeLong & Freytag 1972)Rare, a couple collection records from the state.
Erythroneura reflectaA fairly distinctive reddish-orange and yellow patterned species with two color forms. In the most common form, the pattern on the head and thorax, which is yellow in color (sometimes with hints of orange), transitions and blends into reddish-orange markings near the base of the wings. The extent of red versus orange color can vary among individuals but there is usually a clear and noticeable transition in color. The top of the head has two bold yellow or orange parallel lines with a pale midline; these lines extend onto the pronotum before connecting, forming a long "Y" or "V" shape when viewed from above. The scutellum is concolorous with the pronotal markings, and the tips of the wings are dark. In the darker color form, the yellow markings have been replaced by red, resulting in all markings being a dark reddish color that contrasts with the bold white spots on the wings and body. The face in all forms is pale, and the thoracic venter is pale except for the dark mesosternum. Adults are 3.0- 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Scattered records across the Piedmont and mountains, uncommon; possibly more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest habitat.Vitis riparia, other Vitis sp.; also Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura rubraA boldly marked species with a strongly developed red-blue color pattern on the wings and body. The top of the head has two reddish orange parallel submedial lines, with a pale midline between (characteristic of this species); the submedial lines are typically broad and bold, somewhat "L" shaped. The pronotum has a "Y" or "V" shaped reddish mark in the middle and a red bar on the lateral margins; the rest of the pronotum is pale blue. The mesonotum is mostly dark red. The underside of the thorax is dark, and the anteclypeus is typically pale, concolorous with the face. The wings have a dark orange to red color pattern that contrasts with a pale blue base. There are three blue marks near the middle of the wings whose outline resembles that of an arrow; the wing tips are dark. Adults are 2.9-3.1 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)
Recorded across the state, primarily in the Piedmont where it can be locally common; probably more abundant across the state in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.Vitis spp., Rubus sp., Ilex decidua, among others (3I)
Eratoneura micheneriA pale yellow to yellowish-orange species with a small red mark restricted to the middle of the wings. These red marks are cube-shaped, often times with a lateral branch in the form of a small red dot on the side. The rest of the wings have yellowish markings, with a pair of bold black spots near the wing tips. There can be some variation in the color pattern. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The pronotum has a yellowish-orange Y, V, or M-shaped mark; the scutellum is yellowish-orange. The face and underside of the thorax are entirely pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (3I)

For more diagrams of this species, see: 3I.

Uncommon to rare, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain where it can be locally abundant; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Alnus rugosa, Castanea sp., Juglans nigra, Quercus alba, and Quercus marilandica (3I)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Ponana aeneaReported from the state, but unclear from where.
Colladonus clitellarius
Saddled Leafhopper, Saddleback Leafhopper
A distinctive, boldly marked leafhopper. It has brown to black wings with a large yellow "saddle" on the middle of the back. Some individuals are a bit paler, with the dark pattern lighter or reddish. The scutellum is concolorous with the wings, and there is a broad yellow transverse band on the pronotum followed by a dark band on the base of the thorax and part of the head. Two small black dots are located on the edge of the head. The underside of the abdomen and thorax are yellow. Adults are 5.0-6.0 mm long.

Nymphs are a mottled brownish color, with pale blotches.

Uncommon to locally common, scattered records across the state.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Often feeds on willows, though will forage on many other plants as well, such as Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust), Platanus sp., Triticum sp., Polygonum perfoliatum (mile a minute vine), and vitis sp. (DL).
Otiocerus kirbyiiA very pale species, the wings have a faint, broken conspicuous band but the head lacks the reddish stripe found on O. coquebertii; the head is relatively unmarked. The wings are milky and the legs are pale, and the abdomen is unspotted. Adults are 8 mm long. For images of a pinned specimen, see this page: UDEL. (BHL)Rare, a few records in the Piedmont and mountains.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Otiocerus coquebertiiA boldly marked species with forked red bands on otherwise pale, whitish wings, running along the claval suture of the wings before forking towards the apices. There is an additional small red dash on the wings, below the main red band on the clavus. The red lines continue onto the sides of the thorax, extending as a broad red stripe across the sides of the head; the short antennae are also reddish. The head is large and rostrate, and the legs are pale. Adults are about 8.75 mm long. (Dozier 1922)

Some individuals of this species are almost entirely red, a very striking appearance. This form is infrequently encountered and is known as var. rubidus.

Scattered records across the state, primarily in the Piedmont and mountains, where it is uncommon to scarce; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Near mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found to associate with Fagus (Beach, Fagaceae), Quercus (Oak, Fagaceae), and Acer (maple, Aceraceae). (UDEL); also from Oxydendrum arboreum (Sourwood).
Eratoneura paraesculiA boldly marked leafhopper with a yellowish body and [typically] a red or orange color pattern on the wings. There are two red crossbands on the wings that do not reach the lateral margin: the crossband at the base of the wings looks like two triangles radiating outwards towards the margin of the wings (almost like a red bowtie), while the lower crossband resembles a wide "U". However, in some individuals these crossbands may be very faint or not present at all. There is a small black dot on the lateral margin of each wing, and two black dots near the wing tip in the middle (when the wings are close, these two dots become one). The thorax and head are both pale, concolorous with much of the wing color. Adults are 3.5-3.7 mm long. (3I)Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains; specimens have been collected just across the border in Tennessee, so probably more abundant in the mountains in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, open areas near forest edge.Collected on Aesculus sp. and Carya carolinae-septentrionalis (3I)
Telamona tristisA species that varies greatly in coloration, ranging from a mottled dark to largely yellowish bordered with dark. The key characteristic of this species is the square, block-shape of the crest, which readily differentiates this species from other similar members of the genus. The tegmina is hyaline and tipped with brown. The underside of the thorax is flavous, and the abdomen is brownish. The legs are ferruginous.
Adults are 8.0-8.5 mm long (up to 9.5 mm in some individuals), 5 mm wide. (Kopp and Yonke, 1974)

Nymphs are grayish-brown overall, typical for the genus.

A single recent record from the mountains, likely more abundant in the state and overlooked, as it is found in the surrounding states.Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Corylus americana (American hazelnut), Hamamelis virginiana (American witchhazel), Ostrya virginiana (hophornbeam), Quercus alba (white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. rubra (northern red oak), Q. velutina (black oak), Tilia americana (American basswood) (Wallace 2014).
Paramysidia mississippiensisA distinctive pale species; no other species in the state resembles it. The wings are large and generally pale, with black venation, dark smudges on the hindwings, and dark marks on the forewings. The body is pale to light brown in color, sometimes reddish. This species can be mistaken for a moth. For images of a couple individuals, see: 1, 2. Several records in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; can be quite abundant where found.Has been found in swampy, marshy habitat. Sabal palmetto (cabbage palmetto, Arecaceae), Acer (Maple, Aceraceae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Micrutalis calva
Honeylocust Treehopper
A small species with color and pattern variability, with two distinct forms. The dark form has a mostly black pronotum with a pale tip. The light form has a reddish-brown pronotum. Both forms have a pale yellowish face and indistinct wing venation, as well as pale legs with a black base. Adults are 2.6 to 3.3 mm long. (FSCA)Seasonal distribution: late April-2 November (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Gleditsia triacanthos, Glycine max, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix nigra, Solidago sp., Vitis rotundifolia, Vitis sp. (CTNC); also from Quercus alba (CTGSMNP)
Glossonotus acuminatusA grayish-brown species with a long, slender pronotal horn with a rounded tip. The horn can be mottled, with black lining the edge and white spots present on the surface. Nymphs are brownish overall, a similar color to that of the adults. There is a row of pairs of spines going down the abdomen, as well as a pair of spines in the middle of the thorax. A small forward-facing horn projects from the pronotum.Seasonal distribution: 6 May-14 June (CTNC)Southern red oak (Quercus falcata) (CTNC); has also been associated with American Chestnut (Castanea dentata) and black oak (Q. velutina) . Adults have additionally been found on Pyrus (pear), Quercus alba (white oak), Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. coccinea (scarlet oak), Q. ilicifolia (bear or scrub oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak), Q. palustris (pin oak), Q. phellos (willow oak), Q. rubra (northern red oak), Q. stellata (post oak), and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) (Wallace 2014).
Chlorotettix unicolorA green or yellowish species with a broad head. The disc of the pronotum, plus basal angles and median notch on the scutellum can, in some individuals, be darker. The vertex is two and a half times as broad as it is long, barely longer in the middle than near the eyes; the anterior margin is rounded, with only a slight indication of an apex. The female pregenital sternite has a broad, shallowly notched posterior margin, which is narrowed and sharp at the apex and has a brownish mark; additionally, the sternite itself is quite long when compared to other species. The male plates are broad at the base, with the outer margins concave slightly and the apexes produced and slightly divergent; this gives the plates together an overall triangular appearance. Adults are between 6.5 and 7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species and photos of a specimen, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from several counties across the state; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Grassy areas, forest edge, open woodlands, meadows, freshwater marshesGrasses
Reventazonia lawsoniA brownish species, somewhat variable among individuals. In well-marked individuals, the vertex has six dark spots on the margin, with the two largest spots slightly in from the margin, along the midline (i.e. not all of the spots are along the edge). The pronotum has six brownish longitudinal stripes, the central two of which extend down from the crown. The scutellum usually has a pair of pale brown to black narrow longitudinal strieps. The forewings are a pale brown, with the edges of the yellowish-white veins narrowly to broadly infuscated; in some individuals, the apical cells are darkened distally. There are three anteapical wing cells (which is shared by Amplicephalus osborni), with the middle one divided (the anteapical cells are the the row of cells preceding those on the edge of the wing; note the middle cell is divided in two). The female pregenital sternite narrows distally, exposing the underlying sclerites laterally. The posterior margin is trilobed with the central lobe the most clearly defined. The male genital plates are sharply triangular, laterally concave. Adult males are 4.0-4.4 mm long, while females are 4.3-5.0 mm. (Kramer 1971)Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont, uncommon to rare; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open woodlands, forest edge, and grassy areasEastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) (Kramer 1971)
Aligia meridianaAn orange, brownish species with two pale bands and a darker brown central band on the wings, a key characteristic. The rest of the body is largely concolorous with the wings, and the eyes and abdomen (especially the genital area) are reddish. Uncommon to rare. Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest edge.
Eratoneura stoveriA yellowish species with a pair of small red dots restricted to the middle of the wings; these red marks are circular in shape. The rest of the wings have yellowish markings, with a pair of bold black spots near the wing tips. Some individuals though lack the red markings and just have a yellow wing pattern. The top of the head has two parallel orange submedial lines, often with a lateral branch; the midline is pale. The pronotum has a yellowish-orange Y or V-shaped mark, with lateral bars; the scutellum is yellowish-orange. The face and underside of the thorax are entirely pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (3I)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Carya tomentosa, Quercus macrocarpa, Ulmus rubra, Ulmus americana, Carya sp., Quercus pagoda, Ulmus alata, among others (3I)
Scaphoideus intricatusThis whitish species has a very distinctive color pattern compared to other members of this genus, with the head, pronotum, scutellum, and basal cells of the wings largely pale and contrasting with the rest of the dark brown wings. In males, the crown is short with a cadmium orange bar between each ocellus, extending obliquely towards the pronotum; in females, the crown is white, with the anterior margin with a narrow apically interrupted brown line and a transverse brown wavy line between the ocelli. The face is white, and in females can have one to three transverse brown lines; the eyes can be brown. The pronotum is either entirely white or with one to seven brownish spots; the scutellum is white or yellowish-white with two anterior lateral brown spots. The wings are opalescent-translucent with brown veins. The legs are white to yellowish-white with black spots at the base of each lateral setae and brown at the base of the first tarsal segment; the coxae are white to yellowish-white. The abdomen is largely whitish ventrally. Male subgenital plates are white while the female pregenital sternite is white with a brown posterior area; the sternite is quadrate with a slight medial notch on the posterior margin. Adult males are 4.7-5.9 mm long, females are 5.7-6.1 mm. (Barnett 1976)

Nymphs are almost entirely white.

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded recently from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Crataegus, Robinia, Amelanchier, Vitis, Cornus, osage orange, apple, dogwood, Ulmus americana, and Common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) (Barnett, 1976)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Scolops sulcipes
The Partridge Bug
This species is dark brown overall, with light brown legs and head. There is a dense meshwork of veins on the wings with white speckling, characteristic of this species. Adults are 5 to 7 mm long. The head process/projection extends well away from the rest of the body, giving the impression of a long 'nose' on this species. Nymphs are green.

For more images of pinned specimens of this species, see this page: UDEL.

Scattered records across the state, primarily in the western Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat.Convolvulus (bindweed), Solidago, Fleabane (UDEL)
Scolops stoneiStillingia sylvatica, ssp. sylvatica (UDEL)
Scolops pungensA brownish species with mottled wings, similar to that of S. perdix but with more mottling. See here for images of a pinned specimen: (1), (2). Note: this species is very similar to S. perdix and may not be distinguishable from pictures.Scattered records across the state, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Ambrosia artemisiifolia (annual ragweed) (UDEL)
Scolops perdixA brownish species with mottled brown and white wing venation. See here for images of a pinned specimen: (1), (2). Note: this species is very similar to S. pungens and may not be distinguishable from pictures.Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Helianthus angustifolius (swamp sunflower) (UDEL)
Scolops angustatusThis species has dark wings with a characteristic, distinctive white wing margin. Additionally, the head process/projection (the 'nose') is not as long as other members of this genus. See here for a nice image of a live adult, and here for images of a pinned specimen: (1), (2).Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant across the state.?
Scaphoideus atlantusTypically an amber yellow color with a white to cream colored crown (top of the head) and an orange transverse band between the eyes. The eyes themselves have a white longitudinal line flanked with black through them. The face is pale overall, being cream to light brown with several somewhat faint brown lines near the crown margin. The pronotum is largely a uniform amber yellow to orange and the scutellum is yellowish-orange overall. The forewings, in coparison to other Scaphoideus, appear as a mostly uniform color with few pale or dark wing cell. The wings have the anterior three-fourths an amber yellow color while the latter fourth has some white translucent cells. Wing venation is brown, darker near the tips. The legs are yellowish-white and the underside of the body is a pale yellowish-brown color. The female pre-genital sternite is pale yellowish-brown with a posterior dark medial area on the outer margin; there is a deep notch in the middle, with concave margins on either side of the notch and the lateral margins straight. Male plates are yellow to orange. Adult males are 5.0-6.0 mm long while females are 5.1-5.7 mm. (Barnett 1976)

For more images of several spinned specimens, see: BOLD.

Rare, recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont; possibly under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Probably mixed hardwood forest and similar habitats.Cottonwood, ragweed, mustard, marvel pea, Dipsacus, Ulmus americana, Fagus, European elm, ash, Ulmus alata, Tillia americana, etc. (Barnett 1976)
Pelitropis rotulataA highly distinctive looking species, with a characteristic broad, flat head and bold wing venation that defines an oval area near the wing tips. This species is typically brownish in color, sometimes with rufous tints; the body itself has a very flattened appearance.

of this species are also distinctive, also having a characteristic flat head. They can range in color from yellow to green, and have two bright red dots at the tip of the abdomen. Like many planthopper nymphs, there may be hairs extending from the tip of the abdomen: see here and here. For more information about nymphs of this species, see: Pelitropis.

Uncommon, with scattered records across the state but most encountered in the Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Has been found near mixed hardwood forest habitat.Recorded from: Ilex (Aquifoliaceae), Baccharis halimifolia L. (Asteraceae), Elaeagnus multiflora Thunb. (Elaeagnaceae, cherry silverberry), Lyonia sp. (staggerbush), Rhododendron sp., Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium sp. (Ericaceae), Quercus phellos L. (Fagaceae), Liquidambar styraciflua L. (Hamamelidaceae), Hypericum edisonianum (Small) P. Adams & N. Robson (Arcadian St. Johnswort, Clusiaceae [was Hypericaceae]), Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. (redbay; Lauraceae), Myrica cerifera L. (wax myrtle, Myricaceae), Ligustrum amurense Carrière (Amur privet; Oleaceae), Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape, Polygonaceae), Prunus serotina Ehrh. (black cherr), Pyrus communis L. (common pear, Rosaceae), Ulmus alata Michx. (winged elm; Ulmaceae), Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. (Virginia creeper), Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine, Vitaceae) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Sanctanus sanctusAdults are 4.0-5.0 mm long. Whitish overall with a brownish band across the wings. The vertex is whitish with a couple small fuscous spots near the apex. The wings are whitish, with a cruciform-shaped brownish band that is bordered with black. The female pregenital sternite is slightly notched in the middle of the posterior margin. Male genital plates are long and slender; the apexes are blunt. (DeLong 1948)

For images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a few counties in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont; rare.Brushy areasHerbaceous plants
Erythridula crevecoeuriA reddish-brown species that appears mostly bicolored. The wings are mostly a reddish to reddish-brown color, sometimes very bright and vibrant, with contrasting pale wing tips. The scutellum concolorous with the wings, being dark; in some individuals, the reddish-brown color extends onto the pronotum. The vertex is yellow, as is the pale outer margins of the pronotum. The face and underside of the thorax are pale/yellowish, except for the mesosternum which is dark. The abdomen is dark. Adults are 3.0- 3.3 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2009)Recorded from several counties in the mountains and Piedmont where it is very uncommon; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest. Aesculus glabra, Aesculus sp. (3I)
Erythroneura octonotataA yellowish to orange species with two prominent small black spots on the middle of the wings along the commissure. There are two yellow or orange parallel submedial lines on the top of the head, with a broad white midline in between. The pronotum has a Y to M-shaped mark, sometimes with the anterior margin colored as well. Much of the scutellum is black except for the lateral triangles; this bold black scutellum is diagnostic for this species, though in some specimens the scutellum is pale. The black mesonotum sometimes is visible through the pronotum. The costal margin of the wings has a small black mark in the middle, and the wing tips are smudged with brown; there is a bold pair of black spots along the inner margin of the wings near the tips. In var. rufomaculata, the clavi of the wings is a bold, bright red. In all forms, the face and thoracic venter are pale. Adults are 2.6-2.9 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

A few recent records from the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in mixed hardwood forest. Rubus sp., Vitis sp., Cercis canadensis, Ilex decidua, Ulmus alata, Aesculus sp. (3I)
Eratoneura aesculiA yellow-white to yellowish species with a bold, vibrant red color pattern on the wings. The vertex has yellowish-orange submedial lines, with lateral branches that form circular shapes. The pronotum has a Y or V-shaped yellowish medial mark, and the scutellum is yellowish with slightly darker lateral triangles. About a third of the wings is red, at the bases; the reddish mark covers most of the clavus, typically with a small rectangular section extending outwards from the posterior part of the mark. There is a small, oval to circular-shaped white spot inside the red, in the posterior half of the pattern. The rest of the wings are yellow with white patches. There are two small black spots on the inner margin of the apical cells, but no black spot along the costal margin of the wings; there is a red spot at the base of the crossveins before the wing tips. Adults are 2.9- 3.1 mm long. (3I)A couple records in the state from the Piedmont, likely more abundant in the right habitat. Aesculus sp. (3I)
Ponana quadralabaA yellowish-brown species, sometimes with a green tint, with black markings across the wings. There are typically 6 (consisting of 3 symmetric pairs) noticeable black spots on the anterior margin of the pronotum, characteristic of this species; sometimes there are only 4 spots (Beirne 1956). The vertex is broadly rounded and with two prominent ocelli, often appearing white (sometimes they can also be reddish). The scutellum has a pale, almost white posterior half, and the two anterior corners are rufous. The wings are brownish with bold, irregular black marks that are symmetric on each wing. Male subgenital plates are quite distinctive, appearing elongate and rectangular. The female pregenital sternite is concavely rounded on the posterior margin, with broad but shallow median notch on either side of lobes. Adults are 7.0-8.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

Nymphs are brownish overall with scattered pubescence across the entire body.

Recorded recently from a couple counties in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Recorded from mixed hardwood forest and forest edge.Has been found on Black Walnut
Lycorma delicatula
Spotted Lanternfly
A distinctive, large species, unlike anything else in our area. Adults have forewings that are pinkish-gray with bold black spots across the basal 2/3; the apical 1/3 of the wings are blackish with contrasting white wing venation, forming small black blocks. The forewings are a bold mixture of red and black with a diagonal white band. The antennal bases are orange. The legs and underside of the body are blackish-gray, with yellowish margins to the abdominal segments and [sometimes] a red tip to the abdomen. Adults are approximately 1 inch (~25 mm) long and 0.5 inches (~13 mm) wide. (NCDA&CS)

The first three nymphal instars are black with scattered white spots. The fourth instar is largely red with black and white markings. Here is an image showing the full life cycle.

Egg masses are brownish and can sometimes be covered with a grayish waxy layer, giving a mud-like appearance.

Two recent adult records from the mountains from two different counties, and a nymph from the coast, plus a few other counties noted as having sightings of lone individuals so far- this species is not yet established in North Carolina. Orchards, vineyards, residential areas, etc.Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) is the primary host plant; also likes grape. When numbers are higher, individuals move to red and silver maple. However, this species is known to feed on 103 plant species, of which 56 are present in North America. (ET, UDEL)

For lists of various host plant species, see the information at the bottom of this page: UDEL.

Otiocerus wolfiiA pale species with a forked, dusky mark on each of the wings that extends from the corner of the eyes along the thorax. Small dark spots cover parts of the wings. The tip of the head has a black line, followed by a broad red line leading to the top corner of each eye; for a close-up image of the characteristic head pattern, see here. Sometimes the orange antennal appendages can be quite developed and intricate, as with this individual; these well-developed appendages can produce a "mouth" along the face when viewed from the side. Adults are roughly 10.25 mm long. (UDEL)

For more images of well-marked adults, see here: 1 and 2.

Uncommon, recorded across the state; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Probably mixed hardwood forest.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been found on Acer and Fagus. (UDEL).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Stictocephala luteaA hornless member of this genus with a mostly green body. The pronotal ridge can have a red tint to it, and there may be white speckling across the pronotum. The wings have a smoky tinge to the tip. This species is similar in appearance to Spissistilus festinus, but can be differentiated a couple ways. First, the pronotum of lutea is not as high as that of S. festinus, and the lateral carina (the lateral ridges on the front of the pronotum) are not as distinct as in festinus (pers. comm. M. S. Wallace). Additionally, the legs of S. lutea are a rusty brown color, while those of S. festinus are greenish. Males are 6 to 7 mm long, while females are 7 mm (FSCA).Uncommon, recorded across the state. Seasonal distribution: 24 February-16 September (CTNC)Mixed forest habitat, where its plant associates are.Quercus falcata (CTNC); also, Melilotus and Solidago; and from Q. velutina (CTGSMNP). Recently reported from Salix species.