Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Menosoma cinctumA distinctively marked leafhopper. Typically the wings have a pale base and a dark, almost black apical half: some have described this as looking as if the hopper was dipped in paint. These two-toned wings are characteristic of M. cinctum. However, some individuals can be paler and less bold overall, with a less distinct, smaller pale transverse band across the wings; the presence of the band though signals that it is M. cinctum. The wing venation is reddish-brown. The underside of the body is dark. (BG)Scattered records across the state; surprisingly not encountered more, as it is typically locally common where it has been found.Mixed hardwood forest and forest edgeQuercus rubra, Salix sp. (DL)
Destria bisignataA plain, dull yellowish-brown species that is uniformly colored except for two bold, black broken marks across the edge of the vertex. The vertex is bluntly angled. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin largely straight, slightly produced in the middle. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow, tapering to to form pointed tips. Adults are 4.0 mm long. (DeLong & Mohr, 1937)

For more images of specimens, see: BOLD. For images of a live individual, see: BG.

Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat, particularly salt marshes.Salt marshes
Alconeura macraA pale, creamy-white species with an orange-yellow color pattern. The vertex has an orange-yellow V-mark that is inverted from the margin; this mark touches the eyes and largely does not widen much as it extends towards the pronotum. The pronotum has four orange-yellow lines (two pairs), parallel to one another and extending across the pronotum towards the scutellum; the lateral pairs of lines are slightly connected at the anterior end and sometimes connected posteriorly. The scutellum is orange-yellow except for a small but bold anteromedian white square. There are two orange-yellow oval-shaped claval spots on each wing, one elongated mark on the side of the scutellum and the other in the middle along the commissure; when the wings are closed, the middle spots on each wing form an oval dorsal spot. There is an orange-yellow stripe that curves inward from each costal margin along the claval suture to the apical crossveins, meeting a smoky brown mark that extends from a yellowish-orange spot on the midcostal margin. The apical crossveins are yellow, bordered with dark brown; there is a bold black apical dot on the third crossvein. The wing tips are yellowish with some smoky brown tints. The underside of the body is yellowish. (Griffith, 1938)

For more images of this species, see: 3I.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain; probably found elsewhere in the right habitat, but likely uncommon to rare.Has been found in open forest habitat near a cypress swamp.Hypericum sp. (3I)
Tinobregmus vittatusA pretty distinctive species, with a couple different color forms (previously recognized as separate species). The head is narrow and elongate between two prominent, large eyes, and ranges in color from tan to black. The wings are typically tan; in paler individuals, the wings are semi-translucent with yellowish-tan wing venation, while in bolder individuals the wings are completely yellowish-tan without prominent wing venation and black tips to the wings. Nymphs are pale overall and show the head shape characteristic of adults. Adult males are around 4.0 mm long while females are around 6.5 mm (DeLong 1948).

For more images of this species showing the color and pattern variation, see: BG.

Very uncommon with scattered records across the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat. Rank herbaceous growth, open woodlands, forest edge (DeLong 1948)
Cuerna costalis
Lateral-lined Sharpshooter
A large, dark, black and red species; the wings are reddish with black venation. There is a conspicuous white stripe running along the sides of the abdomen to the head, wrapping around the crown. Both the blackish head and thorax are sprinkled with orangish marks, particularly along the anterior margin of the pronotum; the scutellum is a mixture of orange and black. The final two segments of the abdomen are largely red, and the legs are a bright, bold red.

Nymphs are pretty distinctive, having repetitive black and yellowish-white stripes over their bodies and dark eyes. However, the nymphs do show the red-black legs (the red on the inner part of the leg) that are characteristic of the adults.

Click here for more images of the adults and nymphs.

Locally common, with scattered records across the entire state.Found in fields, meadows, and other habitats with tall grass such as open forest.This species has dozens of host plants, including Rudbeckia and Monarda. Click here for a list of host plants: Host Plants.
Helochara communis
Bog Leafhopper
A small, dark green leafhopper. The body and wings are covered with pits, and males have thickened tips to the antennae, forming a black diamond-shaped "club" (BG); both of these are traits characteristic of this genus. The underside of the abdomen, thorax, and head is mostly black, particularly in males. Males have shorter, blunter heads than females. Some individuals can appear very dark, and worn individuals can lose their green color. Males are 4.2-5.0 mm long, females are 4.9-6.0 mm. (Hamilton 1986) Nymphs are yellow overall with pointed heads.

This species could be most easily confused with Draeculacephala, but H. communis has a blunter head. In addition, H. communis is smaller than many Draeculacephala: click here for a good size comparison between H. communis and a Draeculacephala. H. communis also differs from Draeculacephala in being a [typically] uniform shade of green (Draeculacephala can have blue lines on the wings and thorax, and their wings have contrasting venation).

Found in the mountains where it is locally abundant; probably found throughout this region.Grassy, wet areas (such as river edges); also fields and brushy habitatCommon on rushes, especially toad rush (Juncus bufonarius), as well as other Juncus, Carex and Sparganium spp. (Hamilton 1986)
Extrusanus extrususA brownish leafhopper with a plump appearance and an abdomen that extends past the wings. Wing cells may be light to dark brown in color, and the face is dark brown. Females have a deeply excavated pregenital sternite, visible on the underside before the tip of the abdomen. The abdomen extends well past the end of the wings. Males have a sword-shaped pygofer processes, almost resembling a pair of blades, sticking out of the rear end of the abdomen (an abdomen that does not extend as far past the wings as in the female) (BG).This species has only been recorded from a few counties in the mountains, though probably more abundant in the right habitat in this region.Found in the grassy understory of forests (BG), as well as bushy, vegetated montane meadows and roadsides.Various grasses
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Ossiannilssonola tunicarubraAn unmistakable species with the basal 2/3 of the wings bright red, contrasting with a yellowish thorax, head, and legs; the wing tips are pale with a yellowish tint. The dorsum of the abdomen is black with the outer margin of the segments yellow; the underside of the body is yellow. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded recently from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat but likely uncommon to rare in the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.White Oak (Quercus alba) (Christian, 1953)
Joruma piscaA small species that appears long and slender. This species looks dark, almost black overall, but in reality only the pronotum and head are dark; the wings are actually amber colored, but due to the dark abdomen, when the wings are down on the body, they appear blackish. When viewed from above, the eyes are darker than the head, and the face is a reddish color. The underside of the body is yellowish, ad the legs are a pale yellow color. The body is red near the wing bases (visible when the wings are raised), the abdomen has an orange tint on the top, and some specimens are reported to have red on the back as well. Males have characteristic genitalia with long, straight male subgenital plates covered with a comb of long setae. Females have a somewhat triangular pregenital sternite with a thin slit in the middle. (BG)Recorded recently from several counties in the mountains and Piedmont; could possibly show up anywhere in the state, but not much is known about this species.Has been found in grassy habitat amid montane forest, as well as in mixed hardwood forest.
Pendarus palustrisA somewhat large, bulky member of this genus. Adults are a dark orange-brownish color with faint, pale gray patches on the wings; some adults can appear purplish. The crown is slightly produced with a blunt point, and is angled towards the face at an almost perpendicular angle. The head and thorax tend to be an orange to brown color, whereas the wings are mottled with white and orange-brown. The male subgenital plates are somewhat short but triangular. The female pregenital sternite has broadly produced truncate median lobes and smaller lateral lobes on the posterior margin; the sternite is half as long as it is wide, and there is a small median notch with darker coloration on the sides. Adult males are 6.4-7.0 mm long, while females are 7.0-7.7 mm (Hamilton 1975)

Nymphs are a dark brown color, with a wide head and tapered abdomen.

Uncommon to rare, this species is infrequently encountered across its entire distribution. Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, likely more abundant in the right habitat (should be found in the Coastal Plain).Has been found in grassy areas and forest edge.Pinus palustris (Hamilton 1975)
Smilia fasciataA dark brown to blackish species. In this species, the pronotal crest is fairly rounded and peaks centrally above the body rather than more directly above the head/eyes. The pronotum is higher in females rather than in males. Females have a brownish pronotum with a broad diagonal stripe that is either green or yellowish, followed by a white spot; however, females can vary considerably in color, with some having rather broad stripes and others lacking the colored stripe all together. Males, smaller than females, have a dark brown to blackish (usually blackish) pronotum with the same colored stripe (ranging from white to yellowish-green) as in the female, which can also vary in width or be absent. The forewings are hyaline with brown bases and apices. The undersurface of the body is dark and the legs are yellowish. Males are 7 to 8 mm long, while females are 9 mm. (FSCA)

This species can be differentiated from S. camelus by the differences in shape and size of the pronotum. In S. camelus, the crest peaks above the eyes and [typically] is both much larger and taller. In fasciata, the crest is more rounded and peaks more centrally above the body. The pronotal stripe is also usually broader in S. camelus, but this is not always true.

Uncommon in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Seasonal distribution: 2 April-5 September (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where oak is present.Carya illinoinensis, Quercus coccinea, Q. falcata, Q. nigra, Q. palustris, Q. phellos, Q. stellata, Q. velutina (CTNC)
Smilia camelusThis species has a high pronotum, extending forward and peaking over the head rather than in the middle of the pronotum; this gives the pronotum a sharp downcurving angle from the peak when viewed from the side. In females, the pronotum is higher than in males. Females have a brownish pronotum with a broad diagonal stripe that is either green or yellowish, followed by a parallel translucent band and a white spot; however, females can vary considerably in color, with some lacking the colored stripe all together. Males, smaller than females, have a dark brown to black pronotum with the same colored and translucent stripes as in the female. Sometimes, individuals lack the pronotal stripes. The head in this species is yellowish with some hair; the eyes are brown to red, and the ocelli are pearly. The forewings are hyaline with brown bases and apices. The undersurface of the body is brownish yellow and the legs are yellowish. Males are 7 to 8 mm long, while females are 9 mm. (Kopp)

This species can be differentiated from S. fasciata by the differences in shape and size of the pronotum. In S. camelus, the crest peaks above the eyes and [typically] is both much larger and taller. In S. fasciata, the crest is more rounded and peaks more centrally above the body.

Seasonal distribution: 24 April-25 September (CTNC)Has been found near mixed hardwood forest; where oaks are present.Quercus falcata, Q. laevis, Q. nigra, Q. stellata (CTNC)
Bandara johnsoniAdults are orange yellow with six black dashes above the margin of the vertex and an interrupted line beneath. The posterior margin of the vertex, three stripes on the pronotum, two spots on the scutellum and numerous oval spots on the wings are white. The female pregenital sternite is "narrowed at half its length and produced to a roundedly emargninate posterior margin, which is rather deeply, narrowly incised at the middle to a slightly produced tooth on either side of the incision on the posterior margin" (DeLong 1948). The male plates are convexly narrowed to pointed apexes, together appearing triangular overall. Adults are 4.8-5.2 mm long. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from several counties across the state; the collection records in the mountains are tentative since they were identified before the 1946 revision of this genus. Likely more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in open habitat near mixed hardwood forest edge.
Draeculacephala bradleyiGreenish overall with pale wing venation. Females and males have a black face; however, some males (such as the specimen above) can have paler, brown faces. Females are distinctive in that they are the only females of a Draeculacephala in our region with a black face. The underside of the thorax and abdomen are brown. Females have a noticeably long and pointed head, triangular in shape with relatively straight margins (not concave). Males have much shorter, not as finely pointed heads. Males are less than 6.6 mm long, while females are less than 8.0 mm. (Young 1959) For images of live individuals, see: BG.Uncommon to rare in the state with only a handful of records from across the state; likely overlooked.?
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Negosiana miliarisThe vertex is shorter and less angled in this species compared to other members of the genus. Males are typically heavily irrorate with dense, fine brown speckling across the vertex and pronotum; the elytra are brownish with distinctive pale venation and milky spots scattered irregularly across the wing cells, characteristic of this species. Supposedly this is the darkest, most coarsely spotted member of this genus in our area. Females are typically much longer and lighter-colored than males, being grayish to cinereous in color with small fuscous speckling across the wings and body. (Ball 1920)

See here for a pinned specimen: BOLD. See here for images likely pertaining to N. miliaris: BG.

Collection records from a couple counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant and overlooked.
Negosiana unidentified speciesThis page serves as a placeholder for individuals that are possibly members of the genus Negosiana (which has improperly been treated as part of Prairiana for some time by certain sources). Until specimens are collected and identified, individuals that look like this (brown with dark brown to black mottling on the wings) will be placed here.Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.
Negosiana negotiosaOchreous-brown, the head and pronotum have numerous small, dark brown spots speckled across. Oman (1949) depicted this species with two spots on the scutellum, along the margin with the pronotum; 2 pairs of spots flanking the upper lateral margins of the pronotum; and two smaller spots on the crown close to the pronotum. There is dense, pigmented speckling across the surface of the head and pronotum. The head is moderately projected but with a rounded apex. The female pregenital sternite is speckled and has a wavy, sinusoidal posterior margin with a hint trace of a notch on the median lobe. Adults are 7.5 mm long. (Beirne, 1956)

See here for images of several pinned specimens that supposedly represent N. negotiosa: BOLD.

Unclear where in the state this species has been recorded.
Graphocephala hieroglyphicaA variable species, ranging in color from grayish-green or light blue to reddish-pink. The body and wings tend to be concolorous, and the wing venation is typically blackish though it can be reddish and appear as if the red color is bleeding into the wing cells. There are bold black lines on the wings, and black markings on the corners of an otherwise yellowish scutellum. The head and pronotum are concolorous with the base wing color but have black markings. The head has complex, bold, black and symmetrical markings on either side of a pale, unmarked midline; these markings are characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 6.0-7.0 mm long. (Delong 1960)

A distinctive color form, var. dolobrata, is a very dark blue to blackish color with scattered pale markings. The extent of dark coloration can vary among individuals, with the head pattern characteristic of this species easy to discern in some specimens, while in others the head can appear more or less a solid bluish-black color with a pale midline. The clavus of the wings tends to appear as a bold, thick pale yellowish to white line that contrasts with the rest of the wing color; the costal margin can also be pale. The scutellum is similarly colored to other color forms of this species. Adult males are 5.5-5.7 mm long, while females are 6.0-6.4 mm. (Nielson, 1968)

Another distinctive form, var. atra is even darker than dolobrata individuals. It is an almost entirely uniform bluish-black color. This form could be confused with very dark forms of Tylozygus geometricus, if both were to occur in North Carolina [right now at least the dark form of T. geometricus is likely relegated to Florida]. However, note the difference in the shape of the body, particularly the head.

The nymphs of this species are fairly similar to those of G. gothica; location can probably distinguish species for now, and it appears that the nymphs of gothica have darker-brown sides of the body.

Uncommon to rare; only recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont.Has been found in grassy, field-like habitat as well as wet depressions.G. hieroglyphica: Willow (Salix sp.) (DeLong 1948)

Var. dolobrata: Willow (Salix longifolia, S. amygdaloides) and poplar (Populus monilfera); has also been found on broadleaf milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) (Nielson, 1968)

Tylozygus geometricusA very distinctive, brightly colored species that is slightly smaller, at 4.2- 4.5 mm, compared to its cousin T. bifidus. This species is mostly green, with green wings, a partly green-colored scutellum, and a green pronotum. There are bold yellow transverse bands bordered by black bands on the top of the head and thorax, and the abdomen is dark with a tinge of yellow. Lastly, the face is dark, characteristic of this species (AI).

There is a very dark form of this species where the green is replaced with a dark blue to black. It can range from partially bluish-black, showing some of the yellow and green lines found on normally colored adults, to an almost uniform bluish-black. This form though might only be found in Florida, per observations on Bugguide and iNaturalist.

Has been recorded across the state, primarily in the Piedmont; locally common where found, probably more common in the state in the right habitats.Recorded in a variety of grassy and brushy habitats, including microstygium. Has also been found in mixed hardwood forests.
Tylozygus bifidusA distinctively colored species with several color forms: blue, green, and dark. In all color forms, there are bold black lines on the wings, and bold black and white transverse lines around part of the head and pronotum. This species has reddish-orange colored eyes with a black spot. In some dark individuals, much of the body and wings may be so dark that the typical bifidus color pattern is not visible; however, the lines on the head and pronotum typically are still at least somewhat evident. Adults are usually 4.6 to 5.6 mm in length (BG).Recorded across the state, with a majority of records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Locally common where it has been found so far.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitats as well as mixed hardwood forest. Probably abundant in similar habitats.Salix sp.
Peregrinus maidis
Corn Delphacid
A fairly distinctive species, being larger than many delphacids with slightly patterned wings and a very thin, pale stripe along the midline of the body. The middle carina (ridge) of the face is distinctively forked well below the top of of the head. Also note that the face is yellowish near the top of the head and darker on the rest of the face. The antennae are yellowish with a dark brown ring between the two segments and dark tips to the second segment. The underside of the body is dark brown. Brachypterous (short-winged) adults are light to dark brown in color, with a pale stripe down the sides of the abdomen. Adventive, scattered records across the Coastal Plain and Piedmont (mostly the CP), likely occurs in agricultural areas.Near agricultural areas likelyCorn (the primary host), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), and Kola (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Megamelus davisiBeamer notes that this species is dark brown in color, with the lobes of the ninth abdomenal segment black. Both brachypterous males and females are dark brown, sometimes blackish, though there are two interrupted lines of pale spots spanning the abdomen. Adult brachypters though can be fairly light in color, with dark abdominal and lateral bands. The crown is more than twice as long as the apical width and project about a third its length in front of the eyes. The frons is brown to dark brown in both males and females, and the antennal segments are dark. Brachypterous males are 3.2 mm long while females are 3.8 mm. (Beamer, 1955) Macropterous individuals are black, sometimes showing a thin pale middorsal stripe down the head and thorax. There is a small black spot on the middle of the inner margin of the wings; the base of the wings are also black. The antennal segments are light brown though. See here for a couple images of a pinned macropterous male: 1, 2. Nymphs are yellow with dark brown markings, though individuals that overwinter are dark brown to grayish with light brown and pale yellow markings (W & M, 1981). Can be locally abundant, recorded from three counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood forest. Areas where water lilies occur. Water lily (Nymphaea spp.), American white water lily (Nymphaea odorata Aiton as Castalia odorata); pond lily (Nuphar advena; Nymphaeaceae); Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae); alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides: Amaranthaceae) (UDEL)
Megamelus distinctusBeamer notes that this species is whitish to dark brown in color; some specimens are almost dark brown overall, while others are very pale. Males tend to have the apical half of the wings black, with this color extending onto the side of the abdomen. Females are brownish overall. The vertex is more than twice as long as the apical width, projecting about a third of its length in front of the eyes. The tip of the antennae are dark. Brachypterous males are 3 mm long while females are around 3.12 mm. (Beamer, 1955)

See here for images of a pinned male and female, and here for an image of a live adult male.

Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Species of this genus are associated with aquatic and semiaquatic plants in various families. (UDEL)
Megamelus lobatusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish in color with a dark brown to blackish longitudinal stripe on either side of the dorsum in males; the lobes of the ninth abdominal segment are yellow. Females are brownish overall with darker lateral margins. Macropterous individuals have a milky elytra except for a fuscous spot near the apex of the clavus. The vertex is about twice as long as the apical width. The frons and antennal segments are brown to dark brown. Brachypterous males are 3.0 mm long while females are 3.5 mm; macropterous males are 3.5 mm long while females are 4.0 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Recorded from a couple counties in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat; rare.Wet, wetland-like vegetated areasSpartina patens (Poaceae Eragrostideae Chloridoideae) (UDEL)
Megamelus metzariaBeamer notes that this species is yellowish in color with the scutellum and parts of the abdomen much darker. The crown is distinctly less than twice as long as the apical width. The wings are semihyaline with a brown spot before the apex of the clavus in macropters. A large species, macropterous males are 4.8 mm long while females are 5.0 mm. Brachypterous males are brown with darker lateral margins of the thorax and abdomen; the frons is brown with a dark brown band across the clypeus. Brachypterous females are colored similarly to the males. (Beamer, 1955)Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Spartina pectinata (Poaceae) (UDEL)
Megamelus palaetusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish-brown in color, mottled with dark brown. There is a spot before the apex of the clavus and the veins of the elytra are dark brown, sometimes bold. There is a dark spot in the middle of the inner margins of the wings. The legs and underside of the head and thorax are banded with black, yellow, and tan/white. The face is also mottled with dark bands, characteristic of this species. Brachypters are similar to macropters but tend to be lighter in color. The largest member of this genus in our area, macropterous males are 5.0 mm long while females are 5.5 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Uncommon to locally common, recorded across the Piedmont and in the mountains. Probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Eichornia crassipes; Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae); broadleaf arrowhead - Sagittaria latifolia (Alismataceae), Paspalum sp. (Poaceae); Jatropha integerrima; Euphorbiaceae; Laurel (UDEL)
Megamelus ungulatusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish-brown in color with a broad, light longitudinal stripe and a broad dark lateral stripe on each side of the dorsum and most of the elytra. The outer lobs of the ninth abdominal segment are golden yellow. The vertex is a little more than twice as long as the apical width and extends about a third of its length past the eyes. Brachypterous males are 3.0 mm long while females are 3.5 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Species of this genus are associated with aquatic and semiaquatic plants in various families. (UDEL)
Megamelus aestusBeamer notes that this species is yellowish in color with a paler median stripe. There is a broad lateral stripe on each side of the dorsum and two more or less longitudinal stripes on the elytra. The ventral lobs of the ninth abdominal segment are also brown. The vertex projects in front of the eyes about one-third of its length. Brachypterous males are 3 mm long while females are 4 mm. (Beamer, 1955)Species of this genus are associated with aquatic and semiaquatic plants in various families. (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Monorachis sordulentusA dark species that is typically brackypterous (shortened, reduced wings); macropterous individuals are less common. The wings are mottled and there are three prominent ridges (carinae) on the thorax. The frons is very wide.

See here for images of a pinned specimen.

Has been found in wet, grassy depressions at the edge of a woodlands (UDEL)Has been recorded from Andropogon sp. (Poaceae) (UDEL)
Polana quadrinotataA brownish to reddish-green leafhopper with a wide range in coloration. This species has a short broadly rounded head (compared to the similar genus Ponana) with large ocelli, which are typically quite visible as a white spot in front of the eye on the margin of the head (the ocelli are highly reflective with flash). There are four small, distinctive black spots on the head, two behind each eye; sometimes though there might be a fainter "third" dot present as well. The scutellum has the basal angles brown. The wings can vary in markings among individuals, with some having few markings while others have bold black marks scattered. The wing venation is somewhat simple but bold and conspicuous, a helpful distinguishing characteristic. Male subgenital plates are more than twice as long as the median width. The female pregenital sternite has the lateral angles produced and rounded, with the posterior margin deeply excavated with a broad v-shaped notch on either side of a central median lobe that extends almost halfway to the base; the median lobe is slightly notched at the apex. Adult males are 8 mm long, females are 8.25 mm. (DeLong & Freytag 1972)

Nymphs have a short, stout appearance with long antennae; the body color is a mixture of red, green, and brown. (BG)

Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and coastal plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy, field-type habitat and forest edge.?
Polana celataA dark brown species with the crown and anterior portion of the pronotum a paler brown. The crown is short and broadly rounded. The ocelli are widely separated . The wing venation is dark brown, particularly on the corium, apical and anteapical veins; the tips of the claval veins are brown. The male subgenital plates are elongate and more than four times long as broad. The female pregenital sternite has the lateral angles rounded, with a shallowly excavated posterior margin on either side of broadly rounded lobes. Adult males and females are 8.0 mm long. (DeLong & Freytag 1962)Rare, a single collection record from the state.
Chlorotettix fallaxAdults are around 7.5-8.0 mm long. A dull greenish-yellow, ochraceous color overall with a broadly rounded vertex, twice as wide as long. The wings have a smoky appearance with indistinct wing venation. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin strongly and concavely excavated about half way towards the anterior margin; this gives a flared appearance to the lateral margins of the sternite. There is a triangular V-shaped notch in the middle of the much larger excavation; much if not all of the posterior margin of the sternite and the notch have a bold, broad dark brown border. The male plates are convexly rounded, giving a semicircular appearance; the width of the plates at their base is twice their length. (DeLong 1948)

For diagrams of the genital structures of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, though more likely to be found in the Coastal Plain; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Mixed hardwood forest, open woodlands, grassy areas; reported from marshes, both salt and freshwater
Acinopterus acuminatusA species with distinctive pointed wing tips and a dark overall color, with wings darker than the head and body (BG). Length is roughly 5.0-7.0 mm. When viewed from above, the head is distinctly narrower than the pronotum and the body bulges out near the pronotum before tapering at the wingtips, shaped almost like an upside down slender tear drop. The vertex (head) and pronotum are brownish to olive-green in color while the wings are typically dark brown in color, sometimes with a blue hue. Some cells, typically closer to the wing edge, may be darker than the rest of the wing, almost black in color, while other cells can be whitish. The legs are a similar greenish color to the face, except for the hindlegs which are bicolored with a dark brown base. (Lawson 1920) Nymphs are greenish overall. Uncommon, with scattered records across the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat. Grassy, brushy, field-type habitats and forest edge (near grass).Grasses, Wild Geranium, Amphiachyris and Tetraneuris species (daisies) (Lawson 1920).
Chlorotettix unicolorA green or yellowish species with a broad head. The disc of the pronotum, plus basal angles and median notch on the scutellum can, in some individuals, be darker. The vertex is two and a half times as broad as it is long, barely longer in the middle than near the eyes; the anterior margin is rounded, with only a slight indication of an apex. The female pregenital sternite has a broad, shallowly notched posterior margin, which is narrowed and sharp at the apex and has a brownish mark; additionally, the sternite itself is quite long when compared to other species. The male plates are broad at the base, with the outer margins concave slightly and the apexes produced and slightly divergent; this gives the plates together an overall triangular appearance. Adults are between 6.5 and 7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Recorded from several counties in the mountains as well as in the Coastal Plain; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Grassy areas, forest edge, open woodlands, meadows, freshwater marshesGrasses
Chlorotettix tunicatusPale yellowish-green overall, sometimes with a strong yellowish tint. The vertex is half as long in the middle than against the eyes, and is evenly rounded except at the apex (in the middle), where it is slightly conical. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margins roundedly emarginate to one-third the length of the segment; sometimes it is slightly notched in the middle but always has a notched appearance due to a brown V-shaped spot in the middle. The male plates are broad at the base, roundedly narrowing to a very obtuse, truncated apex; together the plates are the shape of a "bluntly pointed spoon" (DeLong 1948). Adults are around 7.0 mm long. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Scattered records across the state; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Probably grassy areas, forest edge, open woodlands, meadowsGrasses
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Anotia fitchiA colorful species with two broad, brown lines extending from the sides of the head, along the sides of the thorax, and expanding onto the wings; the rest of the wings are a milky white color, as is the rest of the head. The wing venation is pale, almost white, and the lower outer edge of the wing has red markings. The thorax, between the brown border, is a lighter brown color, and the sides of several abdominal segments are red. The antennal bases are also a bright red color. Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures. Adults have been associated with Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane), Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, Poaceae), and Carya (Hickory, Juglandaceae). (UDEL)
Scaphoideus obtususA very distinctive member of this genus, with intense grayish-white and dark brown coloration. The crown is whitish with a thin, dark-brown marginal line, a transverse orange band between the eyes with a darker diamond shape in the middle, sometimes extending towards the pronotum. The eyes are dark brown to blackish, the face is brown to blackish (this varies among individuals) with one to three darker brown lines below the crown; the areas below the eyes on the side of the head are blackish. The pronotum is dark brown with a medial whitish-gray cruciate pattern; the posterior margin can be pale. The scutellum posterior half is yellowish-white with black marks on the lateral margins; the anterior half has a dark brown trapezoid-like shape in the middle and an orange-brown square on either side. The wings have a grayish-white base color with brown to blackish venation. There is a blackish diagonal band at the base of each wing and a broad dark-brown to black transverse vertical bar about 2/3 of the length of the wings; this wing pattern is distinctive and characteristic of this species. The wing tips have a smoky orange tint to them. The female pregenital sternite is anteriorly yellow and posteriorly brownish-black. The male subgenital plates are trapezoid-like in shape with blunt, rounded apices. Adult males are 4.9-5.3 mm long, females are 5.3-5.9 mm. (Barnett 1976)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recently recorded from the Appalachians, apparently a state record.Woodland habitatsUlmus americana, Fraxinus nigra, cottonwoods (Barnett 1976)
Graphocephala gothica
Amphigonalia gothica
A pinkish-brown species, distinctive in coloration among hoppers in the region; however, there can be slight variation in coloration and some individuals can range in color from yellowish to grayish-green. There is an "M" or omega-shaped dark brown to black mark on the top of the head, between the eyes, that is distinctive for this species; there is also a small dark spot at the apex of the head (which G. hieroglyphica lacks). Some individuals though can have head markings that are not very bold. This vertex of this species is slightly narrower and more pointed than in G. hieroglyphica. The wings tends to be concolorous with the rest of the body; sometimes some cells are darker than the venation. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 5.5-6.0 mm long. (DeLong 1960)

Nymphs are mostly pale in coloration with dark-brown to blackish bands running the entire length of the side of the body; the eyes are also mostly black with some white speckling.

Uncommon to rare; some old collection records and a couple recent from the mountains (low and high mountains); probably more abundant in this region. Shrubby, grassy, vegetated, open montane areasWillow (Salix sp.)? (DeLong 1948)
Chlorotettix suturalisPale green to yellowish overall, sometimes reddish, with a brown median line (this is sometimes barely visible). The vertex is bluntly angled and is a little longer in the middle than near the eye. The pronotum has the disc and posterior portion darker, and the basal angles of the scutellum are a dark brown. The wings are fuscous, with a dark fuscous stripe consisting of three distinct lobes. The female pregential sternite has the posterior margin broadly and deeply notched more than half way to the base; the sides of the notch are dark brown. The male genital plates are broad and long, narrowing cconvexly to rounded tips. Adults are around 7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1948), (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Only recorded from a single county in the mountains; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Most stream floodplains where cane occurs (DeLong 1948)Cane (Arundinaria tecta) (DeLong 1948)
Chlorotettix nudatusA pale green species with an orange/brown or smoky tint on the wings, pronotum, scutellum, and face. The wing venation is a combination of pale, indistinct and dark veins. The legs are bicolored, with green bases and fuscous tips. The vertex is twice as long in the middle, and is slightly pointed, than near the eyes. The female pregenital sternite is rather short with a broad excavation that gives a sinuous shape to the posterior margin; in some individuals, the border of the excavation is brown. The male plates are somewhat triangular in shape, with a broad base and gradually tapering to acute, pointed tips. Adults are around 7.5 mm long. (DeLong 1918)

For diagrams of the genitalia of this species, see: Dmitriev.

Only recorded from a single county in the Piedmont; likely under collected and therefore under reported.Grassy areas, floodplain woods, moist woodlands with a rich growth of grassesGrasses
Agallia constricta
Constricted Leafhopper
A species with long, narrow wings. Adults are 3.5 to 4.0 mm long roughly. It differs from the similar A. quadripunctata in having slender wings, sometimes lacking the two dark spots on the pronotum (A. quadripunctata tends to have pronotal spots but they can sometimes appear faint or not present at all) and having a slightly different shaped pronotum. When viewing the underside, females show a narrow, apically truncate pregenital sternite characteristic of this species (BG). A. constricta is typically light brownish but can also appear fairly dark (typically males) with defined wing venation; while males are typically dark, they can on occasion appear quite pale. The female pregenital sternite is somewhat truncated with rounded apical margins; it extends OVER the base of the genitalia rather than stopping near the base as in quadripunctata. The male plates are long and slender (longer than wide) and are tapered in appearance; they get gradually less wide towards the apex. Nymphs are variable in color but show the 'ear tufts' characteristic of this genus: probable nymph. (DeLong 1948), (Oman 1933)A common species, recorded across the state in a variety of habitats; the most common Agallia in North Carolina.A very widespread species, found in grassy, field-type habitat. Also common on some lawns.Festuca grass, clover, Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Ambrosia, Helianthus, Impatiens, Medicago, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Gossypium, Cynodon, Lolium, Paspalum notatum, Sorghum halepense, Sorghum sudax, Triticum, Fragaria, Populus, Salix DL. A legume feeder.
Synecdoche impunctataA distinctive dark brown species, with dark wings and a reddish thorax with several pale vertical lines. There is a large black spot on the outer margins of the thorax. The legs are pale, contrasting with the blackish dark-brown wings; there several pale spots on the wings. The face has four large black spots, separated by a thin midline down the center; the spots give the appearance of two black transverse facial bands, characteristic of this species. Uncommon, recorded primarily from the mountains but also in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Found in open woodlands, near mixed hardwood forest.?
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Haplaxius pictifronsA variable species with a key characteristic: the face has two dark-brown to black transverse bands, at the base and apex (these bands can vary in thickness and shape among individuals). The head and thorax are pale yellowish brown with the venter lighter than the dorsum; the pronotum is darkened behind the eyes. The wings are hyaline with yellowish-brown veins and stigma, with the stigma darker in some specimens; there may or may note be an elongate brownish patch on each wing near the claval apex. Some individuals are fairly dark in coloration while others are a paler fulvous. Adult males are 4.2-5.4 mm long, females are 5.0-6.2 mm. (Kramer, 1979)

For nice images of two pinned specimens, a dark and light individual, see: UDEL.

Recorded mainly from the mountains where it is uncommon; a few records from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain. Likely more abundant in the right habitat, especially the mountains.Has been found in grassy, brushy areas near mixed hardwood forest.Phalaris arundinacea (reed canarygrass, Poaceae), grasses (streamside), willow (Salix), cottonwood (UDEL)
Memnonia flavidaA greenish leafhopper with a flattened, pointed head and a thin white line going along the margin of the head and pronotum and the edge of the wings; there is a short white "indent" on the top of the head. Males are distinguished by having brown wing tips and two small black spots on the inner edges of the wings (BG). Females have wing tips that are more green than brown, and the abdomen extends noticeably past the wing tips. Adult females are 5.4-7.9 mm long, while males are 4.7-5.8 mm.

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

An uncommon species with scattered records across the state; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Tall grass prairies, other grassy, brushy areas with plant hostsA specialist species on native prairie grasses, including bluestem (Andropogon) and Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) (BG)
Stenocranus brunneusA dark species, with dark wings that typically have the M veins that strongly curve near the wing tips outlined in black as well. The amount of black on the wings can vary among individuals, and males are darker than females. This species has a dark, reddish underside of the abdomen and thorax. The face is black with a pale midline. The head is somewhat rounded and lacks the sharpness that other members of this genus have. This is a small species, smaller than other members of this genus, being 3.5-4.5 mm. (UDEL)

See here for a nice set of images of a pinned specimen.

Recorded primarily from the Piedmont, as well as from a few counties in the mountains and coastal plain; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy and open areas near mixed hardwood forest; areas with grass or sedge.Carex cumberlandensis, C. gracilescens, C. radfordii, C. pensylvanica, C. stricta, C. intumescens var fernaldii (Cyperaceae) (UDEL)
Stenocranus similisA distinctive species that is sexually dimorphic. Males have fairly dark wings, with two main dark patches. Females only have one main dark patch on the wing, near the tips, and can sometimes lack dark patches all together, just having several dark spots. There is however a key characteristic shared among both sexes: the lack of a bold, contrasting white midline. Unlike other members of this genus, there is no bold white line down the vertex, thorax, and inner margin of the wings. There are several thin pale lines on the thorax, the middle of which extends onto the vertex; however, the two black marks on the tip of the head are bordered by the tan color of the head on both sides, rather than encapsulating a bold white line. This field mark can be clearly seen here. This species ranges in size from 4.5-6.0 mm (Beamer).

For images of pinned male and female specimens, see: UDEL.

Very uncommon, recorded primarily from the Coastal Plain, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Where native bamboo occurs.Native bamboo: Arundinaria gigantea tecta (as Arundinaria tecta( (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) (UDEL)
Bothriocera maculataA dark species in this genus with a central bold transverse band across the wings that is blackish. There is a network of black lined wing cells near the tip of the wings that gives this species a somewhat distinctive wing pattern. This pattern, in addition to the relatively clear base of the wings above the dark band, outside of a small black tear-shaped mark on the side of each wing, can help differentiate this species from the similar B. cognita whose wing markings are typically much more intense and darker; maculata also only has the clavus embrowned along the inner margin. The body is dark, blackish in color, contrasting with the typically fulvousy orange/tawny color of the square-shaped head. The face is also dark, and the pronotum and tegulae are embrowned or not; the mesonotum is a dark yellowish-brown to dark reddish-brown. The legs are also fulvousy orange. Adult males are 4.2-5.0 mm long, while females are 4.4-5.2 mm. (Kramer, 1983)Very uncommon, has been recorded recently from several counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in grassy habitat.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: Spartina patens, Spartina cynosuroides (Poaceae, cordgrass), Juncus roemerianus (Juncaceae, needlegrass rush, black rush) (UDEL)
Bothriocera drakeiThis species has a dark wing pattern with a yellowish tint to the cells. Some of the wing cells, especially at the tip of the wing have dark venation. There is a clear window in between the two main dark bands that transverse the wings, and the window above this clear one is slightly tinted yellow. The thorax, head and rest of the body are fulvousy orange in color, and the legs are also fulvous. The top of the head is flat and square-shaped, characteristic of this genus.Uncommon to rare, recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open mixed hardwood forest and open pine woodland.Nymphs are presumed to be root feeders. Adults have been found to associate with: Pteridophyta (UDEL)
Cixidia variegataA brown species with a mottled, spotted wing pattern that can vary in darkness and color among individuals. The legs and underside of the body are brown, though the underside of the thorax is grayish. The head is short and does not extend far out from the body; the face is brown with many small pale, yellowish spots, characteristic for this species. It is important to photograph the face in order to make a conclusive ID for individuals that may represent this species or other similar ones.Several records across the state, with a majority in the coastal plain; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found in open habitat near pine forest.
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cixidia pallidaA brownish species with a short, broad head. The face is relatively plain, with several shades of brown. For pics of a pinned specimen, see here: UDEL.Several records from the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain.