Hoppers of North Carolina:
Spittlebugs, Leafhoppers, Treehoppers, and Planthoppers
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sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Empoa aureotectaThe head, pronotum, and scutellum are yellowish white to orange-yellow. The fore wings are light rose to bright reddish-orange, covering most of the wing to the apical crossveins. There are brown spots in the apices of the three inner basal and the first and fourth apical cells, while lunate white spots are anterior to these spots in the basal and fourth apical cells; the remaining areas of the apical cells are fumose hyaline. The abdomen is yellow to reddish-orange, lacking dark markings. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1953)

For additional images of this species, see: BG.

Two records from the mountains, likely under-collected and more abundant in this region of the state.WoodlandQuercus sp. (3I)
Dikrella cruentataA pale white or yellowish species, with two pairs of oblique yellow to bright red lines across the wings, a median stripe on the vertex, and two stripes on the pronotum that arise from the vertex. There are black markings at the cross nervures of the wing apices. The female pregenital sternite is one-half longer than the preceding, with the posterior margin strongly produced from lateral angles to a broad median, convex tooth. Male subgenital plates drastically taper toward the apices, appearing pinched on the lateral margins. Adults are 2.75-3.0 mm long. (Ball & DeLong, 1925)

There are three described varieties of this species: kansiensis (which has a slightly different shape to the pregenital sternite), lavata (which is entirely pale, creamy, or with slight smoky indications near the cross-veins), and rubricata (which has an entirely red scutellum and broader red markings and smoky band than usual).

For additional images of this species, see: BG (Ball & DeLong, 1925).

Rare, one recent record from the Piedmont; likely under collected and more abundant in the right habitat.Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), Betula papyrifera (white birch), Rubus sp., Viburnum alnifolium (hobble bush) (3I); also speckled alder, witch-hazel, jewelweed, buckeye, apples, striped maple, skunk cabbage, and American hazel (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017).
Amplicephalus osborniA brownish species that has four to six noticeable black spots on the otherwise whitish margin of the vertex. The underside of the abdomen, thorax, legs and face are a tawny yellow, and the edges of the abdominal and thoracic segments are marked lightly to heavily with a fuscous color. The pronotum has six darkened longitudinal bands or stripes, and the scutellum is usually darkened near the anterior angles. The wings are a tawny yellow to brownish color, with pale wing venation; note that some veins often crisscross to form small wing cells. There are three anteapical wing cells (separating this species from Graminella, which only have two anteapical cells), with the middle one divided (the anteapical cells are the the row of cells preceding those on the edge of the wing; note the middle cell is divided in two). The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin more or less trilobed with the central lobe usually shorter and broader than the others. Adult males are 4.6-5.0 mm long, while females are 5.0-6.0 mm. (Kramer 1971)

For diagrams of this species, see: Dmitriev. For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont, probably more abundant in the right habitat.Usually found in marshes, though has been recorded in the state in mixed to open forest near water; also reported from grasses near borders of swampy or marshy areas. (Kramer 1971)Probably a sedge species, Carex sp. (Kramer 1971)
Ossiannilssonola tunicarubraAn unmistakable species with the basal 2/3 of the wings bright red, contrasting with a yellowish thorax, head, and legs; the wing tips are pale with a yellowish tint. The dorsum of the abdomen is black with the outer margin of the segments yellow; the underside of the body is yellow. Adults are 3.5-4.0 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Recorded recently from several counties across the state, possibly more abundant in the right habitat but likely uncommon to rare in the state.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.White Oak (Quercus alba) (Christian, 1953)
Erythroneura prosataA dark species, with reddish-brown to blackish wings (depending on the lighting, individual, and how the wings are being held) with no crossbands but instead large white spots: three prominent white spots along the costal margin (together with a blackish mark) and two spade-shaped spots (with smaller spots on either wing) along the commissural margins. The scutellum (specifically the lateral triangles and apex), pronotum and vertex are concolorous with the wings. The face is pale, and the thoracic venter has a dark mesosternum with the rest pale. Adults are 2.8- 3.0 mm long. (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2007)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recorded recently from a few counties in the mountains, notable range expansions for this species; possibly more abundant in the right habitat.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest.Rubus sp. (3I)
Haplaxius fulvusA fairly distinctive and diagnostic species, it is a uniform yellow, orange-yellow, or orange color. The forewings are hyaline, with the venation concolorous with the body. The eyes are a contrastingly whitish color. Adult males are 3.5-4.0 mm long, females are 4.0-4.6 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Three recent records from the Piedmont, likely more widespread but in lower numbers across at least this part of the state.Has been found in suburban, open woodland habitat.Recorded on Solidago
Penepissonotus bicolorA very distinctive species that, as the scientific name suggest, is bicolored. The head, eyes, and upper half of the thorax are black while the rest of the body and wings are brownish. The first antennal segment is black while the second is a contrasting brown, and the face is brown. The species is typically macropterous (long-winged), but brachypterous (short-winged) adults do occur. Uncommon, scattered records across the state, primarily from the Piedmont.Has been found near mixed hardwood forest. Schoenoplectus, probably other sedges; found near the base of the plant and not easily captured sweeping (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Dikrella hamarA pale, yellowish to white species with a blunt head. The vertex is produced, tapered, and blunt at the apex. The vertex, pronotum, and scutellum are white tinted with yellow, while the elytra is lemon-yellow subhyaline and the wings are white subyaline. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow. The female pregenital sternite is roundedly produced. Adults are 3.5 mm long. (DeLong & Ross, 1950).Rare, one recent record from the mountains; likely more abundant in this region, especially where witch-hazel occurs.ForestAmerican/Common Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) (DeLong & Ross, 1950).
Empoa scriptaA variably patterned species, with the head and pronotum largely yellowish white to yellow and the scutellum a chestnut-brown to dark yellow-brown (this dark coloration can extend onto the pronotum). In dark forms, the tip of the wings are pale and the commissure is either unmarked or with 2 pale spots (the basal one of which is smaller and narrower than the apical one); there is also a transverse "band" extending from the median costal margin of each wing, connecting with the larger dark area. In pale forms, dark markings occur across the middle of the wings forming spots or an irregular band. Teneral individuals are light yellowish brown but have the same color pattern as adults. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1953, Hamilton 1983)

For additional images of this species, see: BG. For diagrams of the variation in wing pattern, see 3I.

Rare, a single recent record from the mountains; likely much more abundant in this part of the state.WoodlandBetula occidentalis (water birch), Betula papyrifera (paper birch) (3I)
Empoa venustaA yellowish species with a bold, prominent wing pattern that can strongly vary among forms. In the dark form, much of the basal half of the wings are dark brown, followed by a non-banded yellow section that is as wide as the dark band; this pattern gives this form a saddled look. In the paler form, much of the basal half of the wings are yellow, with a dark median transverse brown band that extends straight to the costal margins; this band can vary in width among individuals. The wing tips are dark brown, with boldly infuscated apical crossveins and brownish apical cells; the fourth, upper apical cell can be a little pale, appearing grayish-brown and smudgy. The head and pronotum are yellowish-white to bright yellow, the scutellum ranges from yellowish-orange (paler forms above pics) to dark brown (dark forms, some paler forms). The abdomen is yellow with the dorsum of the basal three segments brown; sometimes the basal half of the segments are brown. Adults are 3.25-3.75 mm long. (Christian, 1953)

For more images of this species showing variation, see: BG.

Recorded from a few counties in the mountains, probably more abundant in at least this region.Has been found near montane mixed hardwood forest.Tilia americana (basswood), Tilia sp., Ulmus sp. (elm) (3I)
Graphocephala hieroglyphicaA variable species, ranging in color from grayish-green or light blue to reddish-pink. The body and wings tend to be concolorous, and the wing venation is typically blackish though it can be reddish and appear as if the red color is bleeding into the wing cells. There are bold black lines on the wings, and black markings on the corners of an otherwise yellowish scutellum. The head and pronotum are concolorous with the base wing color but have black markings. The head has complex, bold, black and symmetrical markings on either side of a pale, unmarked midline; these markings are characteristic of this species. The female pregenital sternite has a truncated, convex triangular projection and is more than twice as long as the preceding sternite; it extends outwards. Male subgenital plates are long and triangular. Adults are 6.0-7.0 mm long. (Delong 1960)

A distinctive color form, var. dolobrata, is a very dark blue to blackish color with scattered pale markings. The extent of dark coloration can vary among individuals, with the head pattern characteristic of this species easy to discern in some specimens, while in others the head can appear more or less a solid bluish-black color with a pale midline. The clavus of the wings tends to appear as a bold, thick pale yellowish to white line that contrasts with the rest of the wing color; the costal margin can also be pale. The scutellum is similarly colored to other color forms of this species. Adult males are 5.5-5.7 mm long, while females are 6.0-6.4 mm. (Nielson, 1968)

Another distinctive form, var. atra is even darker than dolobrata individuals. It is an almost entirely uniform bluish-black color. This form could be confused with very dark forms of Tylozygus geometricus, if both were to occur in North Carolina [right now at least the dark form of T. geometricus is likely relegated to Florida]. However, note the difference in the shape of the body, particularly the head.

The nymphs of this species are fairly similar to those of G. gothica; location can probably distinguish species for now, and it appears that the nymphs of gothica have darker-brown sides of the body.

Uncommon to rare; recorded from several counties in the Piedmont.Has been found in grassy, field-like habitat as well as wet depressions.G. hieroglyphica: Willow (Salix sp.) (DeLong 1948)

Var. dolobrata: Willow (Salix longifolia, S. amygdaloides) and poplar (Populus monilfera); has also been found on broadleaf milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) (Nielson, 1968)

Otiocerus kirbyiiA very pale species, the wings have a faint, broken conspicuous band but the head lacks the reddish stripe found on O. coquebertii; the head is relatively unmarked. The wings are milky and the legs are pale, and the abdomen is unspotted. Adults are 8 mm long. For images of a pinned specimen, see this page: UDEL. (BHL)Rare, a few records in the Piedmont and mountains.Derbidae are known or assumed to feed on fungal hyphae as immatures (UDEL).
Scaphoideus titanusA brown species, with a white crown that has a thin but bold brown marginal line; there is an orange-brown transverse { shaped bar between the eyes, with the orange color fading into cream towards the posterior edge of the head. The face is brown with a bold brown line(s) below the crown margin. The pronotum is mostly orange-brown, with a central white cruciate mark. The scutellum is bicolored, with the anterior half a brownish orange color and the posterior half a yellowish-white. The wings are a mixture of brown and golden yellow, with dark brown tips and some scattered white spots; the wing venation is dark brown. Males have yellowish valve and genital plates. The female pregenital sternite is white with a posterior dark brown medial area; the margins of this sternite are relatively straight. Adult males are 4.7-5.0 mm long, while females are 5.2-6.0 mm. (Barnett 1976).

Nymphs have a somewhat distinctive color pattern, being mostly bicolored with alternating white and brown. See here for images of nymphs: 1, 2.

Recorded from a single county in both the Coastal Plain and mountains; probably under collected and more abundant in the right habitat. Open woodlands and herbaceous vegetationCommon on grapes (Vitis spp.); also reported from American elm, winged elm, golden rod, cane, Cretagus, Polygonium, Salix, Juniperus virginiana, Onoclea sinsibilis, etc. (Barnett 1976)
Alebra rubrafronsMales are a bright golden-yellow overall with a contrastingly red face or a face with a red median line; the wings are orange-yellow. Females are orange-yellow and unmarked, or with the face and crown a deeper orange than the band between the eyes. Adult males are 3.5-3.8 mm long, females are 3.7-4.3 mm. (Hamilton, 1995)Rare, with a single recent record from the Piedmont.Has been found in suburban and open woodland.Quercus bicolor, Querus spp. (Hamilton, 1995)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Pissonotus albovenosusA fairly distinctive member of this genus, with cream-colored wing venation. The abdomen and thorax are dark with cream tints in areas. Note that there is a bold white band across the base of the frons, above a black postclypeus (lower part of the face); the rest of the face is black with some pale spots. The first antennal segment is also black. While adults are typically brachypterous, they can be macropterous, lacking the characteristic wing venation and tending to have darker bodies. Adult brachypterous males are around 2.29 mm long, while females are around 2.75 mm; macropterous males are around 3.05 mm long while females are around 3.40 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)

See here and here for images of a macropterous adult female.

Nymphs are a mottled stramineous to dark brown, with a prominent whitish section on the abdominal segments. Older nymphs have the characteristic dark postclypeus. For a nice set of images showing the life cycle of P. albovenosus with the fourth and fifth nymphal instars and adult stages, see: BG.

Found in the Coastal Plain, and from a single county in the Piedmont. Has been found to be present in North Carolina in Distichlis communities from May 11 to November 13, and in Juncus communities in all months except March. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Most abundant in coastal tidal marshes, but also found inland. Iva frutescens (Jesuit's bark); Lygodesmia grandiflora (largeflower skeletonplant); Borrichia frutescens (bushy seaside tansy/ sea oxeye) (Asteraceae) (UDEL); from Juncus roemerianus and Distichlis spicata in NC salt marshes (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000). Also reported from Aster dumosus (BG).
Tinobregmus vittatusA pretty distinctive species, with a couple different color forms (previously recognized as separate species). The head is narrow and elongate between two prominent, large eyes, and ranges in color from tan to black. The wings are typically tan; in paler individuals, the wings are semi-translucent with yellowish-tan wing venation, while in bolder individuals the wings are completely yellowish-tan without prominent wing venation and black tips to the wings. Adult males are around 4.0 mm long while females are around 6.5 mm (DeLong 1948).

Nymphs are pale yellowish-green overall and show the head shape characteristic of adults.

For more images of this species showing the color and pattern variation, see: BG.

Very uncommon with scattered records across the Coastal Plain; likely more abundant in the right habitat. Can be very numerous where found.Rank herbaceous growth, open woodlands, forest edge (DeLong 1948)Sea Ox-Eye (Borrichia frutescens)
Calyptoproctus marmoratusA very distinctive and recognizable species that is variable in color, with the body and anterior portions of the wings usually mottled with lichen-green, brown, and black coloration. The wings are reticulated with darker veins surrounding translucent wing cells; the base of the wings can show the lichen green and black color pattern found on the thorax. The head is not strongly produced, being rather flat with eyes narrower than the pronotum, and the eyes are narrower than the pronotum. The sides of the face are parallel, and the legs are relatively long, especially the hind legs. The ninth abdominal tergite of the female is elongate, usually hiding the tenth and eleventh tergite. Adults are about one inch in length and resemble small flattened cicadas. (UDEL)Uncommon, scattered records across the state but not encountered frequently; uncommon to rare.Found in deciduous forests.Unknown, but likely deciduous trees, possibly oaks such as Quercus nigra. (BG)
Balcanocerus fitchiThis species has a couple prominent whitish and blackish marks on the costa of the wings, thin whitish streaks on the costa with a hook facing inwards near the commissure. The vertex is yellow with two large black spots; the pronotum is yellow to orange-brown with large spots of yellow-brown and irregular brownish-black spots along the anterior margin, and there can be a yellowish midline. The scutellum is yellowish-orange with brownish lateral triangles. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow, rounded at the apex. The female pregenital sternite has an evenly produced posterior margin, lacking any median emargination. Adult males are 5.4-5.8 mm long, females are 5.7-6.2 mm. (Freytag 1965)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Nymphs range in color from brown to black, with black markings on the head and/or pronotum.

Recorded recently from the low mountains and Piedmont; can occur locally in high numbers on host plant.Open forestFeeds mainly on Rosaceae: on hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) and crab apple (Malus), occasionally on apple or pear and has been reported from elm. (Chandler & Hamilton, 2017)
Cyrpoptus belfrageiA large species, with males being 12 mm long while females are 14 mm (BG). Adults have colorful, patterned wings with a pinkish tinge to them. The wing venation is intricate and dense, and there are pale to clear cells near the apex of the wings and along the wing margin; there sometimes is a white diagonal streak on each wing, near the base, with a black border on one side. The hind wings have a black tip and bright red base; see here. The top of the head is short and flat, slightly pointed. The head (vertex) and face are pale, yellowish in color; sometimes the thorax is also yellow.Uncommonly encountered, a handful of records from the Coastal Plain and eastern Piedmont; possibly more abundant in the state, especially near the coast.Has been found in grassy, brushy habitat.Eragrostis curvula (weeping lovegrass, Poaceae), Muhlenbergia reverchonii (seep muhly), Piptochaetium avenaceum (blackseed speargrass); Pinus sp. (pine, Pinaceae) (UDEL)
Haplaxius radicisA brownish species that can be highly variable in coloration among individuals. The head and thorax range from pale yellowish green to dark tawny, and vary from unmarked to heavily marked with various shades of brown. The frons has highly variable markings, ranging from: lemon or pale orange upper and lower transverse bands, a pair of dark spots at the upper margin with a pale band at the lower margin, a dark upper transverse band and a faint/weak lower band, a single dark upper transverse band, or a dark brown to black transverse band at the upper and lower margins. The wings are typically hyaline with veins and stigma uncolored to brownish, though some specimens may show a distinct dark streak extending down the wings, enlargening near the apices. Adult males are 4.4-5.6 mm long, females are 4.9-5.9 mm. (Kramer, 1979)Recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont.Grassy areasImpatiens (touch-me-not, Balsaminaceae), grasses, nettles, American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) (UDEL)
Glossonotus turriculatusA brown to grayish-brown species with a long, slender and narrow pronotal horn that slopes forward. The inner margin of the horn and part of the pronotum can have a light yellowish stripe that contrasts with the darker color of the pronotum. The face is pale yellowish and the legs are yellow.

For images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains and recently from the Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 15-20 June (CTNC)Crataegus sp., Quercus sp. (CTNC), and Quercus alba (white oak). Adults have also been found on Carya (hickory), Populus (cottonwood), Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. coccinea (scarlet oak), Q. ellipsoidalis (northern pin oak), Q. ilicifolia (bear or scrub oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. rubra (northern red oak), Q. velutina (black oak), and Robinia (locust) (Wallace 2014).
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cyrtolobus funkhouseriFemales are moderately hairy, with short hairs, and shallow punctures of the pronotum; the surfaces is smooth and somewhat shiny. The color is a dingy reddish brown, paler anteriorly. The face is a creamy white color, finely punctured with light reddish brown. The pronotum is pale brown mixed with cream, with darker reddish brown bands rising from above the eyes. There is an oblique diagonal whitish band extending backwards from the crest to the lateral margins of the pronotum, and a vertical thicker band near the apex. There is a mid-dorsal translucent spot, and the lateral margins of the pronotom are bordered with white (characteristic of this species). The forewings are hyaline, with a testaceous base. Males are similar to females, strongly shining and ranging in color from red to black. The pale markings are whiter and more clearly defined than in the females. The body beneath is black (whereas in females it is testaceous), and the legs are testaceous as well, differing from the females in having black femora. The forewings are hyaline and clearer than in females. Adult males are 5.0 mm long, while females are 5.5 mm. (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)Uncommon, scattered records primarily across the Piedmont.

Seasonal distribution: 13 May-11 June (CTNC)

Pin oak (Quercus palustris) (CTNC); also reported from red oak, scarlet oak, Quercus bicolor, and Q. imbricaria (Kopp & Yonke, 1973)
Telamona maculataA reddish-brown species with a broad, tall pronotal crest (almost a plateau shape). The posterior tip of the pronotum is red, followed by a pale brown and then a dark brown, almost black band. The pronotal horns may be reddish as well and extend well to the sides of the rest of the pronotum. The front of the head is pale. Uncommon, recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains. Seasonal distribution: 10 May- October (CTNC)Forest with oakCarya (hickory), Quercus alba (white oak) [nymphs on this plant], Q. bicolor (swamp white oak), Q. macrocarpa (bur oak), Q. montana (chestnut oak) (Wallace 2014).
Scaphoideus obtususA very distinctive member of this genus, with intense grayish-white and dark brown coloration. The crown is whitish with a thin, dark-brown marginal line, a transverse orange band between the eyes with a darker diamond shape in the middle, sometimes extending towards the pronotum. The eyes are dark brown to blackish, the face is brown to blackish (this varies among individuals) with one to three darker brown lines below the crown; the areas below the eyes on the side of the head are blackish. The pronotum is dark brown with a medial whitish-gray cruciate pattern; the posterior margin can be pale. The scutellum posterior half is yellowish-white with black marks on the lateral margins; the anterior half has a dark brown trapezoid-like shape in the middle and an orange-brown square on either side. The wings have a grayish-white base color with brown to blackish venation. There is a blackish diagonal band at the base of each wing and a broad dark-brown to black transverse vertical bar about 2/3 of the length of the wings; this wing pattern is distinctive and characteristic of this species. The wing tips have a smoky orange tint to them. The female pregenital sternite is anteriorly yellow and posteriorly brownish-black. The male subgenital plates are trapezoid-like in shape with blunt, rounded apices. Adult males are 4.9-5.3 mm long, females are 5.3-5.9 mm. (Barnett 1976)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Rare, recently recorded from a few counties in the mountains and Piedmont, likely more abundant in this region though. Woodland habitatsUlmus americana, Fraxinus nigra, cottonwoods (Barnett 1976)
Macropsis decisaThis species has the head wider than the pronotum. In males, the face in profile is flat to weakly bowed. Males are green (yellow when dry), with a prominent black proepimeral spot (on the side of the thorax behind the eye) and with the tarsi and apexes of the tibiae black. The wings are hyaline, infumose near the tips. Females have a face in profile that is weakly bowed. Females are an unmarked green (yellow when dry) or have a tiny black proepimeral spot. Adult males are around 4.6-5.0 mm long, while females are 5.2-6.0 mm. (Hamilton 1983)

Nymphs are densely covered with white hairs and are pale green overall. (Hamilton 1983)

Very uncommon with scattered records across the mountains and Piedmont; probably more abundant in the right habitat.Grassy, brushy area, forest edge, where willows may be presentProbably monophagous on black willow (Salix nigra) (Hamilton 1983)
Xantholobus lateralisFemales are large and long, with a light to dark brown pronotum with a narrow yellow lateral border. Males are smaller with a darker pronotum, fuscous to black, with a narrow yellow lateral border and yellow transverse band near the rear of the pronotum. There is a slight curve to the pronotum in both sexes, and the forewings are smoky brown with brown tips. The head is yellow spotted with brown and is not pubescent; the eyes are brown and prominent, but the ocelli are not prominent. The undersurface of the head and thorax are brown, and the abdomen is yellowish with dark brown sides; the legs are yellowish-ferruginous. Adults are around 7.5 mm long. (Kopp)Scattered records in the mountains and Piedmont. Seasonal distribution: 3 May-6 July (CTNC)Betula sp., Quercus sp. (CTNC); Q. velutina (CTGSMNP)
Melanoliarus humilisA distinctive species. The vertex and mesonotum are dark brown to black, and the face is entirely fuscous except for carinae that vary from brown to dull orange. The vertex is variably wide but usually appears broad and divergent basally. The wings lack spots and are hyaline except for the apical third (the tips), which are contrastingly dark; in some specimens, the basal two-thirds of the wing are almost concolorous with the tips. The wing venation is a uniform brown color. Small, with males 4.1 to 5.0 mm long. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

See here for images of live adults, and here for pinned specimens.

Recorded from a few counties in the Piedmont.Has been reported from pasture, bogs, prairie, river edge, rye, etc.; seems to predominate in damp habitats in cooler climates. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)Adults have been taken from Poa pratensis, Carya sp., Asimina sp., and Medicago sativa. (Mead & Kramer, 1982)

"Nymphs of cixiids are subterranean, feeding on roots and possibly fungi. The significance of adult host records is unclear. Many cixiids are presumed to be polyphagous (as adults), most often on woody plants." (UDEL)

Metcalfa pruinosa
Citrus Flatid Planthopper
The color of adult Metcalfa pruinosa varies considerably from brown to gray to partially dark blue, due chiefly to the presence or absence of a bluish white waxy powder coating the wings. A characteristic pair of dark spots is located in the basal half of each forewing, and there can be small pale spots across the rest of the wings. The eyes and legs are orange colored. Adults are usually 5.5 to 8 mm in length. Nymphs are less than twice as long as wide, and vary in size depending upon the growth stage . A mature nymph is approximately 4 mm long, not counting waxy filaments which break easily, and are white. Nymphs have a flat shape and can produce an extremely large amount of waxy filaments.

Nymphs are pale in coloration, often appearing whitish. Note the shape of the wing pads, which produce a deep V or U-shaped concave posterior margin. Overall, nymphs have a somewhat slender body shape profile.

A fairly common species, recorded across the state with a majority of records coming from the Piedmont and Coastal Plain.Found in a variety of habitats, from grassy brushy areas to mixed hardwood forest.Extremely polyphagous, found on a variety of trees including: maples, dogwoods, hawthorns, willows, elms, privet, black locust, and alder. It can also be found on crop plants such as grape, citrus, apricot, peach, blackberry, and raspberry. (Wiki)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Evacanthus chlamidatusMales have elongated wings that greatly extend past the abdomen. Males are partially pale orange, with dark, infuscated claws. The entire pronotum (except for the outer margins), the scutellum, and two spots on the head and some blotches around these spots are blackish-brown to black. The wings have a broad, outwardly-curved black band that extends from the base to apex of each wing, along the clavus and commissure; the band is largely unbroken. Females have extremely short, rounded wings with more than two abdominal segments exposed. Females are light brown, mottled with brown on the head, lateral margins of the pronotum, and commissure (inner margins of the wings) and clavi; there is a brown dash near the apex of the wings. There are two bold black spots on the head. Adult males are 5.6 mm, females are 5.3 mm. (Hamilton, 1983)Endemic to Roan Mountain, NC, where it could be locally common.Montane grassy, brushy areasHas been found associated with Appalachian White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima var. roanensis)
Eupteryx decemnotata
Ligurian Leafhopper
A fairly distinctively marked species. Wings are yellowish green with characteristic darker polygon-shaped marks scaattered; the apical wing veins are yellow, bordered with dark brown. The scutellum is yellowish, sometimes with two black spots in the middle. The head has a characteristic even number of bold black spots. Usually there are 5 pairs of dots, with four dots along the midline of the vertex, two black marks along the margin of the vertex, and 4 dots in a row across the face; however, spots are sometimes fused together. Adults are between 2 and 3 mm long. (Rung, 2009)
For more images of this species, see: 1, 2, 3.

Nymphs are yellowish overall, with a mottled brownish dorsal surface. There are prominent rows of long spines curving backwards on the dorsal surface as well, giving the nymphs a distinctive appearance.

Scattered records across the state; unclear what the status of this species is in the state and whether there are any well established populations. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest, but likely found anywhere herbs and ornamentals occur in high number. A variety of herbs and ornamentals in the Lamiaceae family: rosemary, sage, majoram, catnip, oregano, lemon balm, peppermint, basil, thyme, etc. (Rung, 2009)
Ribautiana unidentified speciesYellowish overall, with a pale yellowish-white head, pronotum, and scutellum (which might have darker lateral triangles). The wings are largely yellow from the base to the apical crossveins. There is a row of dark brown to black smudgy marks in the apices of the inner basal cells, anterior to the crossveins; these marks form a dotted crossband that obliquely angles towards the costal margin (following the apices of the cells). There are a couple spots midway along the inner margin of the third apical cell (the uppermost one). There is also a spot along the costal margin, at the base of the crossvein between the bottom two apical cells; this extra dot along the costal margin is characteristic of Ribautiana and helps separate this species from similar species in Ossiannilssonola. The abdomen is yellow ventrally. Adults are around 3.25 mm long. (Christian, 1953)Scattered records from the Piedmont and mountains, probably more abundant in the right habitat. Has been found in mixed hardwood forest.See respective species links below.
Typhlocyba transviridisA pale yellow to white species with a broad dark brown transverse band across the wings, roughly posterior of the middle of the wings. Fresh specimens can be green with the transverse wing band a greenish-brown color. The abdomen starts out bright green before changing to a paler yellow color. The male subgenital plates are not enlarged at the apex. Adults are 3.25-3.5 mm long. (Christian 1953, Beirne 1956).

For images of the genitalia, see: 3I. For additional pics of this species, see: BG.

Rare, a single recent record from the northern mountains; probably more abundant in the mountains. Should occur from June through July at the very least.Tilia americana (basswood) (3I)
Kyboasca maligna
Apple Leafhopper
A bright green species without any black spots in the wing cells, a key characteristic. The head is blunt, with the vertex parallel margined and broadly rounded anteriorly, only slightly produced beyond the anterior margins of the eyes. The width between the eyes is a little more than twice the length at the middle. The pronotum has prominent lateral angles and appears wider than the head. There is usually a pale median longitudinal stripe on the vertex that extends on to the anterior portion of the pronotum, and a round pale spot on either side of this stripe on the vertex; the posterior margin of the pronotum is pale. The scutellum is a greenish yellow-orange with a bold pale median stripe, widening near the apex. The face, vertex, and pronotum are frequently tinted with orange. The apical fourth of the wings are smoky, contrasting with the bright green coloration of the rest of each wing. The female pregenital sternite has the posterior margin roundedly produced to a central broad, blunt, sunken tooth that is formed by an oblique notch on either side; the shape of the posterior margin may vary slightly among individuals. The male subgenital plates are long and narrow with almost parallel margins to near the base. Adults are 3.5 mm long. (DeLong, 1931)

Nymphs are green overall, with a dark patch on the dorsal surface of the tip of the abdomen and small indistinct dark smudges on the wing pads.

Previously noted to occur in the state, with a map in DeLong (1931) showing a distribution throughout the mountains and Piedmont, but there is a lack of collection records. Recorded recently from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Malus domestica, Malus sp. (3I)
Populicerus carolinaA large and slender species, with the width across the eyes 1.8-1.9 mm in males or 1.9-2.1 mm in females. Pale green and unmarked overall, with the apices of the wings smoky; the hindwing venation is dark and visible through the forewings. The male antennae have a circular disc, terminating in a short apical filament. The male abdomen is pale. Adult males are 5.4-5.5 mm long, while females are 6.0-6.3 mm. (Hamilton, 1980)Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, likely more widespread where cottonwood is present.Cottonwood areasprobably Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), the only poplar that occurs commonly in the mountains of NC (Hamilton, 1980)
Evacanthus bellaustralisMales are yellowish, with the legs sometimes tinged with orange and the claws infuscated. The scutellum and pronotum are typically black, though in some individuals the center of the pronotum can be yellow. The head has two black spots in the middle. The wings are partially yellow, contrasting with a black band on the clavi (inner part of the wings) that narrow before following the commissure to the wing tips, where a triangular-shaped mark extends from the apex of each wing; the commissure (inner edge of the wings) is yellow. Females are white, tan or stained with orange. The claws and frontal arcs on the head are lightly infuscated. The wing pattern varies from almost as dark and extensive as the male but with a dark blotch at the apex of the crown and the center of the pronotum paler than the lateral margins (which are dark), to having almost entirely white or tan wings. There are light brown coronal spots, brown speckling on the pronotum, and dark patches along the clavi and at the wing tips. Adult males are 4.3-4.8 mm, females are 5.1-5.9 mm. (Hamilton, 1983)Locally common in the Smoky Mountains, not necessarily restricted to high elevations (BG)Montane forests, brushy areas
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Cyrtolobus arcuatusMales of this species have a pronotum arching moderately (compared to the female). Males, 5.8 mm long, are a dull red color, with black on the forward part of the pronotum. The mid-dorsal translucent pale spot is broad, and there are two more transverse pale bands across the pronotum. The forewings are hyaline with a dark tip, and the legs are yellowish red. Females are yellowish, tinged with red. The female crest/pronotum is high, rising more so than in the male. Transverse bands of the pronotum are often absent, and the pronotum is long. The eyes have a reddish tint. (Kopp)Scattered records across the state; uncommon. Seasonal distribution: 24 April-12 May (CTNC)Quercus falcata, Q. phellos
Delphacodes acuministylaA fairly distinctive species. Males are orange to brown overall with an indistinct black band at the base of the abdomen, a black band at the tip of the wings and middle of the abdomen, and the pygofer is black (tip of the abdomen). Females are a light, uniform brown color with a plain face.Recorded from a single county in the Piedmont, possibly more abundant in the right habitat; rare.Has been found in grassy areas
Delphacodes balliBOLD
Delphacodes indentistyla
Delphacodes mcateeiA dark brown to black species; in brachypters the wings are concolorous with the body. The frons is dark brown and unmarked.Recorded from a couple counties in the mountains, rare.
Delphacodes nigripennataThe head, pronotum, and most of the body except for the abdomen is tawny in color; the abdomen is mostly dark brown to black with two dorsal light crossbands and some light spots on the lateral and hind margins. The elytra is black to dark brown and has a shiny appearance to it; the veins are raised. There is a large dark spot above the hind coxae; legs are somewhat lighter in macropters. Brachypterous males are around 2.0 mm long while macropterous males are between 2.0 and 2.6 mm. (DuBose 1960)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont and upper Coastal Plain.Probably grassy areas?
Delphacodes recurvataA yellowish to light brown species with a small brown spot [typically] near the middle of the apical margin of the forewings. Brachypterous males are around 2.3 mm long while females are 2.6 mm; macropterous males are 3.1 mm while females are 3.5 mm. (DuBose 1960)Recorded from a couple counties in the Piedmont.Grassy areas?
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Delphacodes shermaniBrachypterous adults are generally buffy-yellow. Males have a polished black face and have black spots across parts of the body, including ones near the middle of the abdomen which form a broad crossband. The genital capsule is black except for the extreme dorsum and the penultimate segment. Females have a tan face and scattered black spots below the ocelli, above the middle and hind coxae, and on the lateral margin of each tergum of the abdomen. Brachypterous individuals resemble brachypters but have an almost exclusively white pronotum. Brachypterous males are around 2.3 mm long while females are 3.0 mm; macropterous males are between 2.4 and 3.3 mm. (DuBose 1960)A single record for the Piedmont.Probably grassy areas.
Pissonotus dorsalisA dark brown to black species with males darker than females (can appear lighter brown). The frons is light brown and immaculate, and the antennal segments are pale. The abdomen is dark brown with a broad, white middorsal band, characteristic of this species. The wings on brachypters are blackish with a white apical margin, distinguishing this species from other similar Pissonotus. Macropterous individuals are similarly colored to brachypters but have clear wings. Adult brachypterous males are around 3.08 mm long, while females are around 3.35 mm; macropterous males are around 4.05 mm long while females are around 4.04 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Recorded from several counties in the mountains, likely more abundant in this region.Beta vulgaris (common beet; Chenopodiaceae ), Salix sp. (willow; Salicaceae), Agrostis sp. (bentgrass, Poaceae), Solidago sp. (goldenrod, Asteraceae), Daucus carota (Queen Anne's Lace, Apiaceae) (UDEL)
Pissonotus binotatusA variable species, ranging in color from bright orange to nearly black. For brachypterous individuals, the tips of the wings are white; otherwise, the body is mostly the same color. There is a black band across the clypeus on the face. The first antennal segment is black, and there is a black line across the front of the second antennal segment; there also black lines on the front of the legs. Macropterous individuals have clear wings but otherwise the same pattern and colors at brachypters. Adult brachypterous males are around 1.77 mm long, while females are around 2.36 mm; macropterous males are around 2.84 mm long while females are around 3.07 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)

Nymphs are entirely orange.

A fairly common species, recorded across the state.Grassy areasMost easily found on Conyza canadensis (Canadian horseweed; especially in well-drained situations were the plant perpetuates, less often in fallow fields); also Eupatorium (thoroughwort) (Asteraceae) (UDEL) and Erigeron (BG).
Pissonotus marginatusA dark brown to reddish-brown to black shiny species which is sexually dimorphic. The frons is a light brown color, with a darker brown, contrasting clypeus. The antennal segments are a light brown. In brachypterous males, the wings are a dark brown with a thin white apical margin. In females, the wings lack the white apical margin. Macropterous individuals are similar in color to brachypters but have clear wings. The antennae are stramineous. Adult brachypterous males are 2.38-2.90 mm long, while females are 2.54-3.40 mm; macropterous females are 3.81-3.88 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)

For more images of this species, see: BG.

Recorded across the state where it is uncommon.Montane grassy areasCarex sp. (Cyperaceae), Solidago sp. (goldenrod; Asteraceae) (UDEL)
Pissonotus tumidusA light brown species, extensively maculated with yellow. The frons and vertex are a light brown, maculated with yellow, and the front tibiae are slightly expanded. The wings are clear or a light brown with dark veins. The abdomen is light brown and the front tibiae are slightly expanded. The antennal segments are yellowish with diffuse longitudinal brown markings. Adult brachypterous males are 2.36-2.62 mm long, while females are 2.87-3.51 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Recorded from a single county in the mountains; rare.Probably grassy areasAsteraceae
Pissonotus delicatusA variable species, ranging in color from orange to nearly black. For brachypterous individuals, the tips of the wings are white; otherwise, the body is mostly the same color. There is a black band across the clypeus on the face. The first antennal segment is black, and there is a black line across the front of the second antennal segment; there also black lines on the front of the legs. Macropterous individuals have clear wings but otherwise the same pattern and colors at brachypters, though typically on the darker side. Adult brachypterous males are around 1.97 mm long, while females are around 2.45 mm; macropterous males are around 3.39 mm long while females are around 3.47 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Recorded from several counties in the Piedmont and mountains.Reported to be a component of pinelands in southern temperate decidious forests. Likely to be found in grassy areas. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Grindelia squarrosa (Curlycup gumweed); Grindelia papposa; reported (but not confirmed) from many other hosts as well (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)
Neomegamelanus elongatusA sexually dimorphic species that has the elongated profile characteristic of this genus. Males are darker than females, which are fairly pale to light brown in color. Males have blackish wings while [presumably] females have mostly clear wings except for a dark edge to the wing tips. This species differs from N. spartini in color pattern, the presence of a pale, whitish middorsal line down the length of the body, and having pale rather than dark legs. Nymphs range in color from yellowish to fairly dark (presumably based on sex). (UDEL)A locally common species along the coast. In the appropriate habitat, on Spartina patens, this species can occur in a high density. Coastal salt marshes and other similar habitat with SpartinaSpartina patens (saltmeadow cordgrass) (UDEL)
sciNamedescriptionabundancehabitatfood
Pissonotus tessellatusA dark brown species maculated with yellowish and white color and a reddish tinge. The frons is brown with yellowish maculations and the epistomal margin with a white transverse band. The first antennal segment is dark brown while the second is paler. The wings are light brown with pale reticulated venation. The abdomen is dark brown with elongate white maculations. The front tibiae on the legs are greatly expanded. Adult brachypterous males are 1.76-2.22 mm long, while females are 2.24-2.68 mm. (Bartlett & Deitz, 2000)Recorded from a single county in the Coastal Plain; rare.Probably grassy areasAsteraceae