Moths of North Carolina
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View PDFHeliozelidae Members: 2 NC Records

Antispila freemani Lafontaine, 1973 - No Common Name



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Taxonomy
Family: HeliozelidaeP3 Number: 210076.00 MONA Number: 233.00
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONATechnical Description, Adults: Lafontaine (1973)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Lafontaine (1973); (Eiseman, 2019)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: The following is based on the original description by Lafontaine (1973). The antenna is dark brown, with yellow at the base and apex. The head is light golden brown, and the thorax and abdomen dark brown. The forewing above is dark brown with coppery reflections. A pale golden, oblique fascia is present one-third from the base that curves slightly and is closest to the base at the inner margin. It is widest on the inner margin and narrows to about one-half the maximum width on the costa. At two-thirds, there are two small pale golden spots, one along the costa and a second just anterior and near the tornus. The dorsal spot is trianguIar, extends about one-third the way across the wing, and curves slightly towards the wing apex. The costal spot is more rounded, slightly larger, and extends half-way across the wing. The cilia are brown and fade to light gray at the tips. The hindwing and cilia are both grayish-brown. The male has a conspicuous tuft of bright golden bristles near the base of the underside of the forewing. Antispila freemani is difficult to distinguish from several closely related species (e.g., A. isabella, A. cornifoliella, A. nysaefoliella, A. viticordifoliella) based on photographic images. These species are best identified by using DNA markers, genitalia, or a combination of host plants and/or geographic ranges (Nieukerken et al. 2012). Antispila freemani can be distinguished from A. nysaefoliella by the brown thorax and the fascia that is not constricted at the cell. There are two Antispila species in North Carolina that specialize on dogwoods (A. cornifoliella and A. freemani). The former typically produces a linear-blotch mine that originates away from the leaf margin, while A. freemani produces a blotch mine that originals at the leaf margin. Based on DNA barcoding data, A. freemani appears to be a more northern form that is found primarily in Canada and the New England states, while A. cornifoliella is more widely distributed throughout the eastern US to as far south as Florida. The recent discovery of A. freemani in the western mountains suggests that a disjunct population occurs in the southern Appalachians.
Wingspan: ca. 5.5- 7.5 mm (Lafontaine, 1973)
Adult Structural Features: Lafontaine (1973) provides an illustration of the male genitalia and descriptions of the male and female genitalia. In this species the phallobase is wide and conspicuous, the comb square has 10-12 teeth, and the apical third of aedeagus has prominent spines. The ovipositor of the female is five-pointed with the central point bulb-shaped, and notched at the tip. The anterior part of the bursa copulatrix is covered with small, scattered spines.
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable only by close inspection of structural features or by DNA analysis.
Immatures and Development: The eggs are deposited single on dogwood leaves at the leaf margin. The larva constructs a blotch mine that originates at the leaf margin and expands to form a large blotch. At maturity, the larva constructs a pupal case from an oval to nearly circular cut-out of the leaf. The case has a prominent longitudinal ridge along the center and several “spokes” projecting from either end (Eiseman, 2019). Lafontaine (1973) noted that the mines varies greatly in size depending on the leaf characteristics of the dogwood species that is used as a host.
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos, especially where associated with known host plants.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Antispila freemani has been found throughout much of southern Canada and at scattered localities in the eastern US. In Canada, populations occur in British Columbia and from Manitoba eastward to Nova Scotia. In the US, this species occurs in Vermont, Maine, Massachusetts, Iowa, Ohio, Kentucky, and Oklahoma (Eiseman, 2019). It was discovered in North Carolina in 2021.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Immature Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: The flight season is poorly documented, but includes records from May through July. Late-season broods in Canada appear to overwinter and emerge the following spring or summer. As of 2021, our one record is for mines collected on 16 June, and reared adults emerging on 13 July.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Local populations utilize a variety of dogwoods as hosts. As of 2021, our one record for North Carolina was for Alternate-leaf Dogwood, which is found is mesic hardwood forests.
Larval Host Plants: The larvae feed on dogwoods, including species with northern affinities. The known hosts include Alternate-leaf Dogwood (Cornus alternifolia), Bunchberry (C. canadensis), Roughleaf Dogwood (C. drummondii), Swamp Dogwood (C. obliqua), Gray Dogwood (C. racemosa), Round-leaf Dogwood (C. rugosa) and Creek Dogwood (C. sericea ssp. sericea). As of 2021, our one record is from Alternate-leaf Dogwood.
Observation Methods: The adults are best obtained by rearing them from Alternate-leaf Dogwood or other native dogwoods.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Dogwood Thickets and Understories
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR S1S3
State Protection:
Comments: As of 2021, we have only a single site record from the western mountains.

 Photo Gallery for Antispila freemani - No common name

Photos: 7

Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-07-13
Transylvania Co.
Comment: This is one of two adults were reared from leaf mines on Cornus alternifolia; mines were collected on June 16; larvae completed their pupal cases on June 21; adults emerged on July 13 (see companion photos of the mines).
Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-07-13
Transylvania Co.
Comment: This is one of two adults were reared from leaf mines on Cornus alternifolia; mines were collected on June 16; larvae completed their pupal cases on June 21; adults emerged on July 13 (see companion photos of the mines).
Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-07-13
Transylvania Co.
Comment: This is one of two adults were reared from leaf mines on Cornus alternifolia; mines were collected on June 16; larvae completed their pupal cases on June 21; adults emerged on July 13 (see companion photos of the mines).
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-06-16
Transylvania Co.
Comment: A full-depth, occupied mine was on Cornus alternifolia.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-06-16
Transylvania Co.
Comment: A full-depth, occupied mine was on Cornus alternifolia.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-06-16
Transylvania Co.
Comment: A backlit image of a full-depth, occupied mine on Cornus alternifolia.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2021-06-16
Transylvania Co.
Comment: A larva with a nearly completed case; from one of the mines collected on 2021-06-16 (see companion photos).