Moths of North Carolina
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Pseudexentera Members:
27 NC Records

Pseudexentera virginiana (Clemens, 1864) - No Common Name


Taxonomy
Superfamily: Tortricoidea Family: TortricidaeSubfamily: OlethreutinaeTribe: EucosminiP3 Number: 621166.00 MONA Number: 3258.00
Comments: The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species.
Species Status: Both P. costomaculana and P. virginiana are primarily whitish-ocherous with a large reddish-brown blotch located along the posterior portion of the costa. The blotch begins near the middle of the costa with a strong bulge that reaches up to the median part of the wing, then tapers and extends posteriorly (Heinrich, 1923; Forbes, 1924). The tapered section often extends to the apex, or may fade to varying degrees before reaching it. In P. costomaculana, the head is creamy-white while the forewing ground is cream-colored. It tends to be uniformly colored throughout with a few scattered dark spots that are concentrated on the basal half. In P. virginiana, the head is solidly ocherous and the ground of the forewing varies from light brown to grayish-brown with substantial darker speckling. In addition, the basal third of the wing is slightly darker than the remainder, which often gives the impression of there being a faint basal patch. Both species has a series of dark strigulae along the costa that are interspersed with lighter areas. Both also have boldly banded tarsi and brown hindwings with a paler fringe.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Beadle and Leckie (2012)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIF, BOLDTechnical Description, Adults: Heinrich (1923); Forbes (1924)                                                                                 
Forewing Length: 7.5 to 9.0 mm for males and 7.5 to 9.5 mm for females (Miller, 1986).
Adult Structural Features: Miller (1986) found that forewing veins R4 and R5 are approximate or separate at the origin. Miller (1986) and Gilligan et al. (2008) provide illustrations of the male and female genitalia. In males, the valva is constricted at three-fifths the distance between the base and the apex, the valval length/cucullus length ratio is 2.5 to 2.6, the anal spine is near the middle of the cucullus, and the aedeagus has an unmodified apex. In females, the ostium bursae begins one-fourth to two-thirds its width behind the front edge of the sternum, the forward end of the sterigma tapers sharply, the corpus bursae spicule bases are fused on one side near the ductus bursae into a lightly sclerotized patch, and the signa are unequal in size (Miller, 1986).
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Pseudexentera virginiana is restricted to eastern North America where it occurs in extreme southern Canada (Ontario) and much of the eastern US. The range extends from New Hampshire and Vermont southward to Florida in the east, and from Wisconsin southward to Louisiana and eastern Texas in the west.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ‚Č• 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: Local populations are univoltine. The adults have been observed from January through May in different areas of the range, with a seasonal peak in March and April. As of 2022, we have records from early March through late May, with almost all from mid-March through mid-April.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: This species is generally associated with hardwood forests or wooded residential neighborhoods, but the specific habitats requirements are poorly documented.
Larval Host Plants: The larval hosts have not been reported. - View
Observation Methods: The adults visit lights during the early spring months.
Wikipedia
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR S3S4
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments: Scattered populations are known primarily from the lower mountains and Piedmont, but we do not have sufficient information on habitat requirements, host use, and abundance to assess the conservation status of this species.

 Photo Gallery for Pseudexentera virginiana - No common name

Photos: 30

Recorded by: David George, Jeff Niznik on 2024-04-01
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-03-30
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2024-03-26
Alleghany Co.
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Recorded by: B. Bockhahn on 2024-03-05
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-03-06
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-03-06
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-04-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-04-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-04-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-03-22
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-03-22
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-03-12
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-04-07
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-04-03
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-04-03
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-30
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-28
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-28
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-19
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-13
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-03-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2019-04-09
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2019-04-09
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-04-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-04-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: T. DeSantis on 2014-03-29
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Lori Owenby on 2012-03-27
Catawba Co.
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Recorded by: B. Bockhahn on 2012-03-16
Surry Co.
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