Moths of North Carolina
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30 NC Records

Cydia toreuta (Grote, 1873) - Eastern Pine Seedworm Moth



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Tortricoidea Family: TortricidaeSubfamily: OlethreutinaeTribe: GrapholitiniP3 Number: 621372.00 MONA Number: 3486.00
Comments: Cydia toreuta and C. ingens are members of a species complex that includes several other described and possibly undescribed species (Gilligan and Epstein, 2014). The two species in this complex that occur in North Carolina can be distinguished using molecular markers, genitalia, and external morphology.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Beadle and Leckie (2012)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIF                                                                                 
Adult Markings: Cydia ingens and C. toreuta are two externally similar forms that have short, sordid white palps and whitish brown coloration on the head, thorax, and wing base. The ground of the apical two-thirds of the forewing has brownish scales with sordid white tips that produce a bronzy stippled effect. It is overlain with several metallic bars that are edged inwardly and outwardly with black. A complete bar is present at mid-wing, along with a postmedial bar that is more oblique or angulated and sometimes broken into a dorsal and ventral bar of roughly similar size. A subterminal bar is present that parallels the termen, and one or two relatively short bars are present along the costa between the postmedial and subterminal bars. A conspicuous thin black terminal line is present at the wing tip that is followed by a dull, silvery white fringe. The hindwing is smoky fuscous with paler cilia that have a dark basal band.

Individuals of the two species that occur in North Carolina -- and in which their identify was confirmed based on genitalia -- can be separated using a combination of traits (see illustration above). These include whether the postmedial bar is broken or complete, whether one or two costal bars are present between the postmedial and subterminal bars, and whether a gap is present between the subterminal bar and the black terminal line on the dorsal half of the termen (both species typically have a gap on the costal half of the termen). Cydia toreuta typically has an unbroken postmedial bar (sometimes broken), two costal bars between the postmedial and subterminal bars, and a gap between the subterminal bar and the black terminal line on the dorsal half of the termen. The presence or absence of the gap appears to be the most reliable trait for distinguishing between species. These species can also be readily identified using both male and female genitalia and molecular markers.
Wingspan: 13-15 mm
Structural photos
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: Hedlin et al. (1980) noted that all of the Cydia species that feed on pine seeds have very similar life histories and provided a general summary that applies to both Cydia toreuta and C. ingens. The females mate and lay their eggs in the spring on developing second year female cones. The young larvae bore between cone scales and then enter seeds where they consume one seed before moving to the next. They overwinter in the cone axis (middle part of the cone), then pupate with the spring warm-up. The adults emerge about two weeks later and the females lay eggs on the developing cones. Thus, the phenology and life cycle is strongly centered to when the second year female cones are developing seasonally. The larvae are rather drab whitish and have a grub-like appearance.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: As currently recognized, C. toreuta occurs throughout much of the forested areas of the eastern US and adjoining areas of southern Canada (Hedlin et al. 1980). It occurs statewide in North Carolina except for the high mountains and appears to be most common in the Piedmont.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: late April through early July.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Cydia toreuta relies on pines as a host and can be found in pine or mixed hardwood-pine associations throughout the state.
Larval Host Plants: This wide-ranging species has been reported to use a variety of both northern and southern pines. Species that were listed by Hedlin et al. (1980) include Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana), Lodgepole Pine (P. contorta), Shortleaf Pine (P. echinata), Loblolly Pine (P. taeda), Red Pine (Pinus resinosa), and Virginia Pine (P. virginiana). Although poorly documented, this species probably uses all three of the southern pines listed above. Loblolly Pine does not occur in the western mountains where Virginia Pine and Shortleaf Pine are the likely hosts.
Observation Methods: The adults are attracted to lights and can be reared from infected cones.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Pine Forests and Woodlands
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR S4S5
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments: Populations are found statewide and appear to be secure.

 Photo Gallery for Cydia toreuta - Eastern Pine Seedworm Moth

31 photos are available. Only the most recent 30 are shown.

Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson, Stephen Dunn on 2022-06-18
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L.M. Carlson, Becky Watkins on 2022-06-13
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2022-06-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L.M. Carlson, Becky Watkins on 2022-06-09
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish and Joy Wiggins on 2022-06-06
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2022-06-04
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson, Stephen Dunn on 2022-06-04
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson on 2022-05-31
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson on 2022-05-31
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson on 2022-05-29
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-05-23
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-05-23
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-06-26
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2021-06-17
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2021-06-06
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Erich Hofmann on 2021-05-27
New Hanover Co.
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Recorded by: Erich Hofmann on 2021-05-27
New Hanover Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2021-05-27
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Stephen Hall on 2020-06-20
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Stephen Hall on 2020-06-20
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-06-06
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-06-06
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2019-06-06
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-05-21
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-05-21
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Harry Wilson on 2016-06-13
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Brian Bockhahn, Paul Scharf on 2015-06-05
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Paul Scharf, B.Bockhahn, C.Mitchell on 2015-06-05
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Lori Owenby on 2011-04-23
Catawba Co.
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Recorded by: Lori Owenby on 2011-04-23
Catawba Co.
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