Moths of North Carolina
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35 NC Records

Choristoneura parallela (Robinson, 1869) - Parallel-banded Leafroller Moth


Taxonomy
Superfamily: Tortricoidea Family: TortricidaeSubfamily: TortricinaeTribe: ArchipiniP3 Number: 620298.00 MONA Number: 3633.00
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Covell (1984)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIFTechnical Description, Adults: Forbes (1923)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: The following description is based in part on that of Forbes (1923). The head, palps, antennae, and thorax vary from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. The forewing ground also varies from yellowish-brown to reddish-brown and is overlain by numerous dark brown, irregular, reticulations that run nearly perpendicular to the inner margin. The ground is overlain with three darker bands or patches that are most commonly brown or reddish-brown. The first is a basal patch on the basal fourth that can vary from being obscure and nearly concolorous with the ground (more typical of males), or conspicuous and darker than the ground (more typical of females). The posterior edge of the patch is defined by a posteriorly oblique, irregular, thin line that runs from the costa to the inner margin. The middle of the wing has a more conspicuous posteriorly oblique band that extends from the costa near the middle to the inner margin at about two-thirds. In some specimens the band fades near the middle, but in others it is fully formed. The last mark is a roughly triangular-shaped patch that extends from the costa at around two-thirds to near the tornus. A semi-oval costal spot is often evident within it at around three-fourths. The anterior edge of the triangular mark is delineated by the thin, dark line that parallels a similar line on the anterior edge of the median band. The hindwing varies from pale yellowish brown to light brown, with a more or less concolorous fringe.

The males lack a costal fold on the forewing, which is helpful in distinguishing them from certain closely related forms (Forbes, 1923). Unlike males of C. rosaceana, the costal margin in male C. parallela is broadly arched at the base but straight rather than sinuous towards the apex. Beyond the initial curvature, the costal and inner margins run parallel (Robinson, 1869). According to Jason Dombroskie (see BugGuide), females have a straight to subtly undulating costal margin, while the margin in C. rosaceana is distinctly undulating. Males of C. rosaceana also have a distinct blackish mark on the posterior edge of the thorax that is not present in C. parallela.
Wingspan: 20-25 mm (Forbes, 1923)
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: Stuart and Polavarapu (1998) reported that this species produces two broods in New Jersey where it can be a significant pest on cranberries. The females lay clusters of up to 350 eggs on the upper surfaces of leaves. They typically oviposit on various species of weeds in and around the cranberry bogs, and the larvae frequently disperse onto the cranberries by ballooning from the weedy species. Larvae from the second generation overwinter in the second instar, then move to the tips of upright shoots in the spring and web the foliage together. They feed on the foliage and also the fruits when available.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Choristoneura parallela is broadly distributed across the eastern US and is also found in southern Ontario. In the US the range extends from Maine southward to southern Florida and westward to Mississippi, western Tennessee, Missouri, Iowa, and southern Michigan. This species occurs statewide in North Carolina.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: The adults fly from March through September in Florida and Georgia, and typically from May through September elsewhere. As of 2022, our records extend from early May through late-October, with local populations appearing to have two broods per year.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Our records include northern hardwood forests, sandhill streamheads, Longleaf Pine savannas, and barrier islands.
Larval Host Plants: The larvae are polyphagous and feed on deciduous trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants (Freeman, 1958; Heppner, 2007; MacKay (1962); Sandberg and Passoa, 1989; Stuart and Polavarapu, 1998; Robinson et al., 2010). This species is an occasional pest on strawberries, apples, and roses, and can be an important pest on commercially grown cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon). The other known hosts include Red Maple (Acer rubrum), Groundsel-tree (Baccharis halimifolia), Leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), citrus species, gardenias, Common St. John’s-wort, (Hypericum perfoliatum), Sheep Laurel (Kalmia angustifolia), Common Waxmyrtle (Morella cerifera), Parrot-feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum), beans (Phaseolus), Prairie Willow (Salix humilis), Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea), greenbriers (Smilax) and goldenrods (Solidago).
Wikipedia
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: GNR S4S5
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
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 Photo Gallery for Choristoneura parallela - Parallel-banded Leafroller Moth

Photos: 18

Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2022-08-02
Durham Co.
Comment: Male
Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2022-08-02
Durham Co.
Comment: Female
Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2022-08-02
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, L. M. Carlson, Stephen Dunn on 2022-06-04
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-05-31
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2020-09-12
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2020-09-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Alicia Jackson on 2019-08-27
Harnett Co.
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Recorded by: Alicia Jackson on 2019-08-27
Harnett Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-05-21
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Lori Owenby on 2018-06-23
Catawba Co.
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Recorded by: Lori Owenby on 2017-06-06
Catawba Co.
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Recorded by: K. Bischof on 2014-06-14
McDowell Co.
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Recorded by: Doug Blatny / Jackie Nelson on 2012-09-02
Ashe Co.
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Recorded by: Doug Blatny / Jackie Nelson on 2012-09-02
Ashe Co.
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Recorded by: Doug Blatny / Jackie Nelson on 2012-08-31
Ashe Co.
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Recorded by: Lori Owenby on 2012-08-27
Catawba Co.
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Recorded by: Doug Blatny/Jackie Nelson on 2012-06-23
Ashe Co.
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