Moths of North Carolina
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Phyllonorycter Members:
8 NC Records

Phyllonorycter trinotella (Braun, 1908) - No Common Name



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Gracillarioidea Family: GracillariidaeSubfamily: LithocolletinaeP3 Number: 330332.00 MONA Number: 799.00
Comments: Phyllonorycter is a genus of small and often colorful moths, with 79 described species in North America. The larvae of most form underside tentiform mines on woody plants and pupate within the mines.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: BugGuideTechnical Description, Adults: Braun, 1908.                                                                                 
Adult Markings: The following description is based on Braun (1908). The palps, face, tuft and antennae are glistening snowy white, and the antennae are faintly annulated above with ocherous. The thorax and basal two-thirds of the forewings are glistening white, but somewhat suffused with yellow below the fold. The apical third of the wings is pale golden. A pale golden-brown basal streak begins on the costa, then progressively angles away from the costa as it extends posteriorly towards the middle of the wing and fades away. In the apical portion there are two white, wedge-shaped streaks along the costa. There is a similar dorsal streak just before the tornus and opposite the first costal streak. All of the streaks are internally margined with dark scales. Some specimens may show evidence of a third white costal streak, which is often obscure and unmargined, and an indistinct second dorsal streak beyond the tornus. There is a well-defined black apical spot, and a pale fuscous marginal line in the cilia. The cilia are whitish and faintly tinged with yellow. The hindwings and cilia are whitish. The abdomen is pale grayish ocherous above and whitish beneath, while the legs are whitish. Phyllonorycter trinotella closely resembles P. quercialbella. The primary distinction is that P. quercialbella has three well-defined white costal streaks, versus only two well-defined streaks in P. trinotella.

Wingspan: 5 mm (Braun, 1908)
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from good quality photos of unworn specimens.
Immatures and Development: The larvae create small lower-surface tentiform mines on maple leaves. The mature mines are roughly oval or oblong in shape and often wrinkled. Mines that Eiseman (2019) observed measured 9–14 mm by 4–5.5 mm, and each had a prominent central longitudinal crease in the lower epidermis. Some also had extremely fine wrinkles adjacent to the crease. The frass was collected in a ball near the middle of the mine. Pupation occurred within a loose web of silk between the frass ball and the opposing end of the mine. The pupa was thrust through the lower epidermis when the adult emerged.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Phyllonorycter trinotella is found in eastern North America from southern Canada (Ontario; Nova Scotia) southward and westward to Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee, and North Carolina. As of 2020, our records are all from the east-central part of the state.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Immature Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: Local populations appear to have at least two broods. Based on records of active mines, the adults first appear seasonally in April or early May after the spring leaf-out, with a second brood occurring in July and August.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Local populations are found in urban or woodland habitats with maples, particularly Red Maple and Florida Maple.
Larval Host Plants: The known hosts include Florida Maple (A. floridanum), Norway Maple (A. platanoides), Red Maple (A. rubrum), and Silver Maple (A. saccharinum). As of 2020, our records for North Carolina are all from A. floridanum and A. rubrum.
Observation Methods: The adults appear to only occasionally visit UV lights, but have been successfully reared in North Carolina from leaf mines that were collected from A. rubrum and A. floridanum.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Maple Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks:
State Protection: GNR S2S3
Comments: We currently do not have sufficient information on the distribution and abundance of this species to assess its conservation status.

 Photo Gallery for Phyllonorycter trinotella - No common name

Photos: 15

Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2022-05-23
Durham Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2022-05-23
Durham Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2022-05-23
Durham Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2019-05-24
Wake Co.
Comment: A view of the underside of a leaf of Acer floridanum that has a lower-surface tentiform mine. An adult emerged on 6-23-2019 (see companion photo).
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2019-05-24
Wake Co.
Comment: A view of the upperside of a leaf of Acer floridanum that has a lower-surface tentiform mine. The dark area is a frass ball. An adult emerged on 6-23-2019 (see companion photo).
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2019-05-24
Wake Co.
Comment: An adult that emerged on 6-23-2019 from a mine that was collected on 5-24-2019 (see companion photo). Photo of adult by Charley Eiseman.
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2017-08-24
Scotland Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2017-08-22
Scotland Co.
Comment: Two lower-surface tentiform mines on Acer floridanum. An adult emerged two days later (see companion photo for 2017-08-24).
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2017-08-22
Scotland Co.
Comment: A view of the upper leaf surface of Acer floridanum with two lower-surface tentiform mines. An adult emerged two days later (see companion photo for 2017-08-24).
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2017-07-17
Durham Co.
Comment: An adult that emerged from a leaf mine on Acer floridanum (see companion photo of the mine from 2017-07-04). Photo by Charley Eiseman.
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2017-07-04
Durham Co.
Comment: View of a lower-surface tentiform mine on Acer floridanum (see companion photo of adult that emerged on 2017-07-17).
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2017-07-04
Durham Co.
Comment:
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman and Charley Eiseman on 2017-05-03
Durham Co.
Comment: An adult that was reared from a lower-surface tentiform mine on Acer rubrum that was collected on 4-21-2017 (see companion photos of the mines). Photo by Charley Eiseman.
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2017-04-21
Durham Co.
Comment: A view of the upperside of a leaf of Acer rubrum that has two lower-surface tentiform mines. An adult emerged on 5-03-2019 (see companion photo).
Recorded by: Tracy S. Feldman on 2017-04-21
Durham Co.
Comment: A view of the underside of a leaf of Acer rubrum that has two lower-surface tentiform mines. An adult emerged on 5-03-2019 (see companion photo).