Moths of North Carolina
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Eupsilia Members:
45 NC Records

Eupsilia vinulenta (Grote, 1864) - Straight-Toothed Sallow



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Taxonomy
Superfamily: Noctuoidea Family: NoctuidaeSubfamily: NoctuinaeTribe: XyleniniP3 Number: 932587.00 MONA Number: 9933.00
Comments: A genus of the Northern Hemisphere with some 17 described species, including 8 in North America, with several more about to be described. North Carolina has 6 described and 1 undescribed species, some of which are extremely similar in wing pattern.
Species Status: This species and E. morrisoni have identical barcode haplotypes and specimens from Minnesota south to North Carolina all seem to have similar sequences.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Covell (1984); Beadle and Leckie (2012)Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIFTechnical Description, Adults: Forbes (1954; descriptions of Eupsilia are available online at http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MothTalkDownload/MothTalk010.htm)Technical Description, Immature Stages: Wagner et al. (2011)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: The commonest species found so far in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain areas. Much like a less boldly marked and larger E. trisigmata. Although Eupsilia schweitzeri is confused with E. cirripalea in the northern part of its range, in our area it is more easily mistaken for E. vinulenta. The reniform can be concolorous, yellowish or white. Sexes are similar.
Adult Structural Features: The forks on the wing scales are uncurled in E. vinulenta but curled in sidus, cirripalea, and schweitzeri. The male genitalia of our Eupsilia species are very similar. In this species the juxta is more triangular than in the other species, the proximal edge has a distinct point and there is a moderately developed neck distally. The S-shaped process arising from the saccular area of the valve is sclerotized basally, evenly wide throughout its course and projects well beyond the costa. In schweitzeri, this process is narrower and shorter. In the female genitalia, the signa are enclosed in a sclerotized band absent in the other species. The ostial plate is almost square proximally and incised distally.
Structural photos
Adult ID Requirements: Identifiable from photos showing hindwings, abdomen, or other specialized views [e.g., frons, palps, antennae, undersides].
Immatures and Development: Eupsilia larvae are all similar to one another: variable in color; a narrow spiracular stripe usually the most prominent but with other lines also present; a darkened prothoracic shield, usually with two pale stripes. Wagner et al. (2011) recommend that larvae be reared to adulthood in order to determine the species.
Larvae ID Requirements: Identifiable only through rearing to adulthood.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Over much of the state, this is the most common member of the genus.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: They fly with the other species from October into early April and likely hibernate during periods of extended cold. Coastal Plain populations generally do not begin flying until December. We have noticed them particularly active during and after light rain.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: The caterpillars have been found on a wide variety of plants and adults are taken in woodlands and backyards throughout the Piedmont and Coastal Plain areas. Accordingly, we are unable to suggest a specific habitat though it is likely there is one.
Larval Host Plants: Reported from many woody plants, especially Black Cherry. The larva is like other Eupsilia species and cannot be recognized with certainty (see more in Wagner el al (2011)). This will be the most likely caterpillar encountered in most areas.
Observation Methods: Adults readily come to bait and have been collected in light traps.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Hardwood Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: G5 [S5]
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
Comments: This species is widespread in North Carolina, feeds on common host plants, and occupies a wide range of habitats. Consequently, we regard it as secure within the state.

 Photo Gallery for Eupsilia vinulenta - Straight-Toothed Sallow

Photos: 16

Recorded by: Dean Furbish and Joy Wiggins on 2021-12-02
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish and Joy Wiggins on 2021-12-02
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Stephen Hall on 2021-03-04
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2020-02-25
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Mark Shields on 2020-01-23
Onslow Co.
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Recorded by: Darryl Willis on 2015-11-30
Cabarrus Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2015-03-03
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2015-02-09
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2015-01-21
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2015-01-04
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2014-12-29
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Steve Hall on 2014-12-28
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Paul Scharf on 2013-03-11
Warren Co.
Comment: Fell off Wine Rope onto Leaves
Recorded by: Paul Scharf on 2011-10-27
Warren Co.
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Recorded by: Paul Scharf on 2011-02-01
Warren Co.
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Recorded by: SPH, SH, CH on 2000-02-24
Moore Co.
Comment: kept