Orthoptera of North Carolina
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Anaxipha tinnulenta Walker & Funk, 2014 - Slow-Tinkling Trig

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Family: Gryllidae Subfamily: Trigonidiinae Tribe: TrigonidiiniSynonym: Anaxipha n. sp. F
Comments: One of thirteen species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (SINA, 2017); nine have been recorded in North Carolina. Tinnulenta belongs to the Exigua Species Group, which also includes exigua, tinnula, thomasi, and tinnulacita in North Carolina (Walker and Funk, 2014).
Species Status: Fulton (1956) described three song types used by members of what was then considered Anaxipha exigua, his "slow-tinking" form was later described as tinnulenta by Walker and Funk (2014)
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: SINA, Google Images, GBIFTechnical Description, Adults/Nymphs: Walker and Funk (2014)SINA 615a.htm                                                                                  
Comments: A very small, brown Trig. Like other members of the exigua group, it possess a broad dark stripe on the lateral face of the femur (Walker and Funk, 2014). Structural features -- particularly the number of pegs on the stridulatory file -- must be examined to identify this species; the song is also distinctive.
Total Length [body plus wings; excludes ovipositor]: 5.8-6.5 mm, males; 6.4-7.0 mm, females (Walker and Funk, 2014)
Structural Features: Stridulatory file with about 280 teeth (range 253–309). Ovipositor 2.4-2.8 mm, ratio of length of hind femur to ovipositor 1.8-2.0 (see Walker and Funk, 2014 for additional structural characteristics). Walker and Funk did not observe any long-winged forms but did observe one de-alate specimen, i.e., whose wings were secondarily lost.
Singing Behavior: According to Walker and Funk (2014), the song of tinnulenta is a continuous tinkle, with ~5.1 pulses produced per second at a frequency of 6.5 kHz and a temperature of around 77 degrees F (25°C). The song of Allonemobius tinnulus is similar but has a slightly higher pulse rate, producing 5 pulses per sec at 66 degrees F (= 19 C) and up to 9 syll/sec at 77 F (= 25 C) (SINA, 2017).
Recording playback at normal speed.

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Nymphal Stages and Development: Apparently undescribed but unlikely to be distinguishable, particularly from other members of the Exigua Species Groups
Distribution in North Carolina
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Adult Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

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Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Our recent records come from low-lying old field habitats or from the edge of the woods bordering these fields. These habitat agree with the description given by Walker and Funk (2014): "generally more restricted to open-canopied habitats such as old fields and woods margins"
Diet: Apparently unrecorded; possibly omnivorous
Observation Methods: Singing males are most easily detected but they may also be captured using sweep netting
Abundance/Frequency: Our records consist of single males singing in widely separated locations
Adult Phenology: Fulton (1951) recorded his slow-tinkling form from the end of July to October in the vicinity of Raleigh; we have one recent record from as late as November 11
See also Habitat Account for General Wet Meadows
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks: [GNR] [S4?]
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands
Comments: We currently have records for this species from just a small area of the state, with most of those records being historic. However, it appears to occupy common types of habitats and is likely to found widespread across at least the Piedmont and probably the Coastal Plain.

Image Gallery for Anaxipha tinnulenta - Slow-Tinkling Trig

Recorded by: Steve Hall
Durham Co.
Recorded by: Ken Kneidel
Burke Co.
Recorded by: Ken Kneidel
Mecklenburg Co.
Recorded by: Kenneth Kneidel
Burke Co.
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Moore Co.
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Iredell Co.
Comment: 10:19, 78 F; 7 pulses/sec. Recorded in weedy vegetation along a road
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Orange Co.
Comment: Recorded in an old field; ~ 77 F (25 C)
Recorded by: Steve Hall
Orange Co.
Comment: ~ 5 pulses per second @ 7 kHz, ~ 73 F (= 23 C); recorded in a fairly wet, old field habitat -- not the typical dry pine-oak woodlands used by Allonemobius tinnulus

MP3 Gallery for Anaxipha tinnulenta - Slow-Tinkling Trig

1 Recorded by: Ken Kneidel
Burke Co.
2 Recorded by: Ken Kneidel
Mecklenburg Co.
calling from saplings throughout the day, roughly 2 to 4 meters up, 4 pulses per second, 5.3 kHz, 72 F
3 Recorded by: Kenneth Kneidel
Burke Co.
5 pulses per second, 6.4 kHz, 74 F, calling from trees in forested margin of lake
4 Recorded by: Steve Hall
Moore Co.