Arachnids of North Carolina
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Trachelas volutus
a broad-faced sac spider
...Frequently found in rolled loose bark of crepe myrtle, rolled leaves, and similar locations..........
Hibana futilis
a ghost spider
This species was originally described as Anyphaena futilis, (Banks, 1878), and has also been known as Anyph. decepta, Aysha minuta and A. decepta. In the past, Anyphaenidae has been considered a subfamily of the Clubionidae, which with they can readily be confused; likewise, they closely resemble the Cheiracanthiidae (also having been split off from Clubionidae). A quick way to recognize anyphaenids is the placement of the tracheal spiracle, which is located far forward of the spinnerets. In Hibana spp., it's located ca. 2/3 of the distance forward between the............
Barronopsis texana
a funnel weaver
Originally described as Agelena texana by Gertsch in 1934, it was moved to Agelenopsis, and most recently to Barronopsis by Lehtinen (1967) who "elevated Barronopsis to genus level and, although he provided no rationale" the genus has been retained (Stocks,2009). Coloration variable, generally dusky gray or tan background with light black mottling, occasionally with reddish or burgundy coloration on abdomen. Carapace coloration also variable, from prominent lo...Temperate pine-hardwood forests and pine-hemlock forests. Exploits human-made structures and landscapes, and frequently abundant in lower latitudes on picnic tables, wooden handrails and fences, and .........
Argyrodes pluto
a robber spider
............
Araneus thaddeus
Lattice orbweaver
Pale dorsal abdomen with a dark band around the sides. Some individuals have small, dark oval shaped spots on the abdomen. The cephalathorax and legs are orange or pale brown. The legs, particularl...Forest edge, ornamental shrubs and plantings, shrubs in yards....Visual observation.......
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Schizocosa avida
a wolf spider
...lake shore, in tall grass .........
Steatoda grossa
False black widow
Can be found in mid-20th Century literature as Teutana grossa.While bearing the American Arachnological Society's recognized common name "false black widow," many specimens are not black, but a purplish-brown, with white markings. The black individuals have no r...in/on buildings, other sheltered locations.........
Tidarren sisyphoides
a cobweb spider
...dry forest.........
Sabacon mitchelliOne of 11 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Holmberg and Buckle, 2019). Three species occur in the East and two in North Carolina.Sabacon species are minute Opiliones distinguished by their enlarged, bristly pedipalps (Shear 1975). Mitchelli is light, purplish brown, with yellow shading on the carapace and abdomen above; no patt...Known only from three sites worldwide, two in Spruce-Fir Forests at over 6,000' in elevation and one in a cove forest below 4,000' ...Specimens have been found using direct search under logs and stones; sifting of leaf litter and extraction using Berlese funnels is also useful....Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves.[GNR] [S1S2]This species, along Odiellus nubivagus and Microhexura montivaga were first discovered on an October visit made by Crosby and Bishop in 1923 and subsequently described by those authors. ...
Anelosimus studiosus
a cobweb spider
Colors vary, including brown, tan, red or greenish. Prosoma usually with dark margin and central band, but these may be lacking. Opisthosoma has wavy, central dorsal band having white margins....old field, yards; shrubs, red cedar trees.........
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Larinioides cornutus
Furrow orbweaver
Pronounced lar-i-nee-OY-deez. Formerly genus Nuctenea Abdomen is a smooth round oval, shiny with few hairs. Can be gray to brown with a dark folium that is darkest at the margins. Sides of abdomen, below the dark folium is pale an umarked, unlike other...forests or damp areas especially near bodies of waters such as large lake shores. Can build on buildings, bridges and other structures....Visual observation, beat sheets....This species is common throughout its range and currently has no special conservation status....
Mangora gibberosa
Lined orbweaver
Abdomen white with some brownish gold markings and two thin dark parallel lines on lower portion and some black spots on upper portion. Cephalothorax yellowish-green with a single dark line down the ...fields, forest edges, roadsides and gardens....Visual observation, sweep netting.......
Pelegrina proterva
a jumping spider
...bog, old field.........
Pelegrina galathea
peppered jumper
...bog, old field.........
Tmarus rubromaculatus
a crab spider
...SC; near lake shore.........
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Argiope aurantia
yellow garden spider
The genus name Argiope means "silver-face", while the specific epithet aurantia means "gilded"Abdomen long oval, with series of yellowish or pale spots on a black abdomen. The cephalothorax is covered with reflective white hairs. The legs have femora that are pale orange at the base and dark...garden areas, old field, marshes, wetlands, bogs, lake and pond edges, roadside ditches, human habitations....Visual observation.......
Parasteatoda tepidariorum
common house spider
Described by Koch in 1841 as Theridion t., it has also been named Therideum t., and Achearanea t. Its placement in Parasteatoda based on its secondary genital organs (Saaristo, 2006) is considered "controversial" (Eberhard, 2020) by some, and thus may be considered fluid at this writing (Jan 2021). Colors are extremely variable, from back to white and almost everything in between. The abdominal pattern is notably mottled, sometimes appearing reticulated. Males characteristically have reddish leg...rock outcrops, buildings, windows, corners of rooms..........
Trichonephila clavata
Jorō Spider
Its being a strikingly large and distinctly colored orb weaver, it would be hard to misidentify. While being notably smaller, the males have the same general markings as the females.............
Schizocosa ocreata
Brushlegged wolf spider
...forest, old field .........
Schizocosa floridana
a wolf spider
............
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Metacyrba floridana
a jumping spider
Edwards (2006) noted that “Metacyrba floridana is proportionately more slender than [the sympatric—but not syntopic—in Florida] M. taeniola, and, among other differences, has most of its leg segments ...Purportedly xeric, but NC specimens—including those on iNaturalist—have been mostly mesic..........
Sabacon cavicolensOne of 11 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Holmberg and Buckle, 2019). Three species occur in the East and two in North Carolina.Sabacon species are minute harvestmen distinguished by their enlarged, bristly pedipalps (Shear 1975). Sabacon cavicolens is yellowish-brown dorsally, bordered by brownish purple on the sides of the c...In North Carolina, Shear (1975) reports finding this species in Spruce-fir forests at the highest elevations in our mountains. High humidity appears to be a key habitat factor and at lower elevations,...Shear (1975) reports collecting this species under wet rotten logs or under stones; he never saw any walking on the surface of the leaf litter....Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preservesGNR [S3S4]As a species associated with cool, moist microclimates in moderate to high elevation forest, Sabacon cavicolens is likely to be vulnerable to the warming, drying impacts of climate change, as well to ...
Oecobius cellariorum
a flatmesh weaver
Minimal markings on the cephalothorax are characteristic.............
Theridion flavonotatum
a cobweb spider
...old field; small tangle web at top of plant.........
Metacyrba taeniola
a jumping spider
...under bark of log.........
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Mermessus tridentatus
a dwarf spider
............
Xysticus funestus
a ground crab spider
...Durham.........
Thymoites marxi
a cobweb spider
Also found in older literature as Paidisca marxifemale abdomen orange-white except for darker orange sclerotized areas and small spots at bases of setae (four dorsal sclerotized spots, sclerotized rings around spinnerets); sometimes with dusky dors............
Theridion murarium
a cobweb spider
...forest, old field, buildings.........
Theridion differens
a cobweb spider
Epigynum & palpus shown in "Structural photos," q.v....forest and forest edge.........
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Sergiolus unimaculatus
a ground spider
............
Scotinella redempta............
Phrurotimpus umbratilis
a phrurolithid
............
Phrurotimpus borealis
a phrurolithid
...old field, forest.........
Philodromus rufus
a running crab spider
Of the four subspecies recognized for P. rufus, three may be found in eastern states, where they tend to be allopatric, although P.r. jenningsi has been found in the lower elevations of the NC Smokey Mountains, near where P.r. vibrans has been found at higher elevations.Of the three subspecies of P. rufus reported from NC, P. r. jenningsi, lacks the dark, longitudinal borders found on the carapace of quartus and vibrans, while the latter two differ superficially in t...Many habitats: broad leaf and coniferous forests, old field, forest openings, understory vegetation, and grasses..........
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Mermessus trilobatus
a dwarf spider
...roadbank.........
Origanates rostratus
a dwarf spider
............
Nodocion floridanus
a ground spider
............
Steatoda triangulosa
a cobweb spider
...in buildings; sweeping weeds.........
Naphrys pulex
a jumping spider
Habrocestum pulex was transferred to the new genus Naphrys by Edwards in 2002....forest, rock walls, exterior walls of buildings, grass and leaves on ground.........
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Mermessus maculatus
a dwarf spider
............
Marpissa lineata
a jumping spider
...old field.........
Hibana gracilis
garden ghost spider
Previously known as Clubiona gracilis, Anyphaena rubra, A. g., Aysha striata, and Ay. g.The spiracular furrow of this genus is quite near epigastric furrow: ca. 20% of the distance from the latter to the spinnerets.............
Hentzia palmarum
Longjawed jumping spider
...bog, old field.........
Eustala cepina
an orbweaver
Smaller but can resemble E. anastera, legs slightly banded, abdomen is triangular almost as wide as long; it may lack dorsal pattern, or have longitudinal line down the middle. The three species repo...low vegetation near stream, lake shores, fields, pine dunes, ponds, gardens, oak (seems to prefer wetter areas than anastera)...Sweep netting.......
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Euryopis funebris
a cobweb spider
The small size, dark abdomen, and iridescent markings are quite distinctive.............
Erigone dentigera............
Erigone autumnalis
a dwarf spider
Although the protruding chelicerae are easily seen, positive ID requires microscopic examination, owing to the spiders' tiny size....old field; sifted from moss near ditch. Frequently found under fallen leaves....Johnston Co. specimens frequently taken in Berlese samples of soil & leaf litter in residential neighborhood.......
Drassyllus aprilinus
a ground spider
Described by Banks as Zelotes aprilinus in 1904, it was transferred to newly erected genus Drassyllus by Chamberlin in 1922.Specific determination of the genus Drassyllus requires analysis of the genitalia, as colors and markings are inconsistent....Under leaves, logs, etc. Generally on the ground..........
Araneus pegnia
Butterfly orbweaver
Abdomen has distinctive four oval areas that vaguely resemble a pair of butterfly wings. These oval areas are usually pale, sometimes even pink in color. Behind these pale light spots on the abdomen...forest, shrubby areas, wet areas including bogs, buildings; in Rhododendron maximum...Sweep net, beating.......