Arachnids of North Carolina
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Sabacon cavicolensOne of 11 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Holmberg and Buckle, 2019). Three species occur in the East and two in North Carolina.Sabacon species are minute harvestmen distinguished by their enlarged, bristly pedipalps (Shear 1975). Sabacon cavicolens is yellowish-brown dorsally, bordered by brownish purple on the sides of the c...In North Carolina, Shear (1975) reports finding this species in Spruce-fir forests at the highest elevations in our mountains. High humidity appears to be a key habitat factor and at lower elevations,...Shear (1975) reports collecting this species under wet rotten logs or under stones; he never saw any walking on the surface of the leaf litter....Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preservesGNR [S3S4]As a species associated with cool, moist microclimates in moderate to high elevation forest, Sabacon cavicolens is likely to be vulnerable to the warming, drying impacts of climate change, as well to ...
Oecobius cellariorumMinimal markings on the cephalothorax are characteristic.............
Theridion flavonotatum
a cobweb spider
...old field; small tangle web at top of plant.........
Metacyrba taeniola
a jumping spider
...under bark of log.........
Mermessus tridentatus
a dwarf spider
............
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Schizocosa floridana
a wolf spider
............
Xysticus funestus
a ground crab spider
...Durham.........
Trachelas volutus
a Broad-faced Sac Spider
...Frequently found in rolled loose bark of crepe myrtle, rolled leaves, and similar locations..........
Thymoites marxi
a cobweb spider
Also found in older literature as Paidisca marxifemale abdomen orange-white except for darker orange sclerotized areas and small spots at bases of setae (four dorsal sclerotized spots, sclerotized rings around spinnerets); sometimes with dusky dors............
Theridion murarium
a cobweb spider
...forest, old field, buildings.........
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Theridion differens
a cobweb spider
Epigynum & palpus shown in "Structural photos," q.v....forest and forest edge.........
Sergiolus unimaculatus
a ground spider
............
Scotinella redempta............
Phrurotimpus umbratilis
a phrurolithid
............
Phrurotimpus borealis
a phrurolithid
...old field, forest.........
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Philodromus rufus
a running crab spider
Of the four subspecies recognized for P. rufus, three may be found in eastern states, where they tend to be allopatric, although P.r. jenningsi has been found in the lower elevations of the NC Smokey Mountains, near where P.r. vibrans has been found at higher elevations.Of the three subspecies of P. rufus reported from NC, P. r. jenningsi, lacks the dark, longitudinal borders found on the carapace of quartus and vibrans, while the latter two differ superficially in t...Many habitats: broad leaf and coniferous forests, old field, forest openings, understory vegetation, and grasses..........
Pelegrina proterva
a jumping spider
...bog, old field.........
Pelegrina galathea
a jumping spider
...bog, old field.........
Parasteatoda tepidariorum
common house spider
Described by Koch in 1841 as Theridion t., it has also been named Therideum t., and Achearanea t. Its placement in Parasteadoa based on its secondary genital organs (Saaristo, 2006) is considered "controversial" (Eberhard, 2020) by some, and thus may be considered fluid at this writing (Jan 2121). Colors are extremely variable, from back to white and almost everything in between. The abdominal pattern is notably mottled, sometimes appearing reticulated. Males characteristically have reddish leg...rock outcrops, buildings, windows, corners of rooms..........
Schizocosa ocreata
Brushlegged wolf spider
...forest, old field .........
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Mermessus trilobatus
a dwarf spider
...roadbank.........
Origanates rostratus
a dwarf spider
............
Nodocion floridanus
a ground spider
............
Steatoda triangulosa
a cobweb spider
...in buildings; sweeping weeds.........
Naphrys pulex
a jumping spider
Habrocestum pulex was transferred to the new genus Naphrys by Edwards in 2002....forest, rock walls, exterior walls of buildings, grass and leaves on ground.........
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Mermessus maculatus
a dwarf spider
............
Marpissa lineata
a jumping spider
...old field.........
Hibana gracilis
garden ghost spider
Previously known as Clubiona gracilis, Anyphaena rubra, A. g., Aysha striata, and Ay. g.The spiracular furrow of this genus is quite near epigastric furrow: ca. 20% of the distance from the latter to the spinnerets.............
Hibana futilis
a ghost spider
This species was originally described as Anyphaena futilis, (Banks, 1878), and has also been known as Anyph. decepta, Aysha minuta and A.decepta. In the past, Anyphaenidae has been considered a subfamily of the Clubionidae, which with they can readily be confused; likewise, they closely resemble the Cheiracanthiidae (also having been split off from Clubionidae). A quick way to recognize anyphaenids is the placement of the tracheal spiracle, which is located far forward of the spinnerets. In Hibana spp., it's located ca. 2/3 of the distance forward between the............
Hentzia palmarum
Longjawed jumping spider
...bog, old field.........
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Eustala cepina
an orbweaver
Smaller but can resemble E. anastera, legs slightly banded, abdomen is triangular almost as wide as long; it may lack dorsal pattern, or have longitudinal line down the middle. The three species repo...low vegetation near stream, lake shores, fields, pine dunes, ponds, gardens, oak (seems to prefer wetter areas than anastera)...Sweep netting.......
Euryopis funebris
a cobweb spider
The small size, dark abdomen, and iridescent markings are quite distinctive.............
Erigone dentigera............
Erigone autumnalis
a dwarf spider
Although the protruding chelicerae are easily seen, positive ID requires microscopic examination, owing to the spiders' tiny size....old field; sifted from moss near ditch. Frequently found under fallen leaves....Johnston Co. specimens frequently taken in Berlese samples of soil & leaf litter in residential neighborhood.......
Drassyllus aprilinus
a ground spider
Described by Banks as Zelotes aprilinus in 1904, it was transferred to newly erected genus Drassyllus by Chamberlin in 1922.Specific determination of the genus Drassyllus requires analysis of the genitalia, as colors and markings are inconsistent....Under leaves, logs, etc. Generally on the ground..........
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Araneus pegnia
Butterfly orbweaver
Abdomen has distinctive four oval areas that vaguely resemble a pair of butterfly wings. These oval areas are usually pale, sometimes even pink in color. Behind these pale light spots on the abdomen...forest, shrubby areas, wet areas including bogs, buildings; in Rhododendron maximum...Sweep net, beating.......
Yunohamella lyrica
a cobweb spider
described as Theridion Lyricum (Walckenaer 1841); has also been known as: T. lyra, T. Kentuckyense, Allotheridion lyricum, and Takayus lyricus.Abdomen has white median band with large black areas adjacent anteriorly; posteriorly, the black are appears as a series of spots....forest understory, forest edge.........
Hogna antelucana
a wolf spider
Ventral black, with black bands visible on underside of legs...Gates County, Cumberland County.........
Trichonephila clavata
Jorō Spider
Its being a strikingly large and distinctly colored orb weaver, it would be hard to misidentify. While being notably smaller, the males have the same general markings as the females.............
Microdipoena guttata
a minute clasping weaver
Despite its tiny size, the males can be determined by the conspicuous presence of clasping spines on their tibiae and metatarsi, leading Platnick (2020) to refer to the family as "minute clasping weav...Taken by sifting in dry leaves in woods and at edges of swamps....Rarely seen, owing to small size. Generally found by sifting or Berlese funnel.......
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Camillina pulchra
a stealthy ground spider
Males can be recognized by the longitudinal, acuminate embolus; females by the long spermathecae and lateral lobes on the lateral epigynal ducts.............
Eustala emertoni
an orbweaver
Legs with only femora banded, abdomen oval without hump, which separates this from others in the genus. Males difficult to distinguish from others in the genus....forest edge, fields, pine forest, marshes....Sweep netting.......
Eustala anastera
Humpbacked orbweaver
Abdomen longer than wide with a distinct dorsal hump. Varies in color and pattern, but it is usually dark brown to reddish brown. Some individuals have a dark folium or spots on abdomen. Cephalatho...forest edge, understory of pine and hardwood forests, goldenrod fields and marshes....Sweep netting.......
Castianeira crucigera
an antmimic
...Non forest maritime coastal communities.........
Castianeira descripta
Red-spotted antmimic
At this point we aren't sure we can separate C. crocata & C. descripta. It's possible that the red mark goes all the way to the rear in C. descripta and stops short in C. crocata. Also, males of C. de............
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Castianeira crocata
Red-spotted antmimic
At this point we aren't sure we can separate C. crocata & C. descripta. It's possible that the red mark goes all the way to the rear in C. descripta and stops short in C. crocata. Also, males of C. de............
Chrysso albomaculata
a cobweb spider
albomaculata translates to "white spots" which is a misnomer since spots are yellow in living specimens. Name likely given from faded specimens in alcohol.............
Scytodes atlacoya
a spitting spider
New species described by Rheims, Brescovit & Durán-Barrón, 2007Cephalothorax light tan, with darker tan or light brown "chain" pattern. Abdomen tan to light grey, often "leopard-spotted." Occasionally the spots coalesce into small stripes or bands. Female genital...Synanthropic; indoors and out. Found behind bark, in pile of firewood, and taken by "beating" ornamental shrubbery (--dbz)....Frequently seen at night on exterior door frames and window screens.......
Antrodiaetus unicolor
a foldingdoor spider
Greek antrodiaitos - "living in caves", from antron - "cave" + diaita - "way of life, dwelling"A dark chocolate brown coloration, the female has one dark abdominal tergite near the front. The female has robust chelicerae with a rastellum. The abdomen is lighter with a purplish cast. Toe fove...humid, cool, densely forested habitats with sandy loam soil. Balds, forests with Hemlock and Rhododendron. Densest and largest burrow concentrations are usually found in inclined surfaces of slopes ...Careful visual observation of burrows during day time, head lamps can locate them near burrow entrance at night. Pitfall traps.......
Synema parvulum
a crab spider
It often appears with contrasting colors that, with its size, can make ID fairly easy....shrubs along lake edge...Most commonly collected by sweeping green plants (Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944)......