Arachnids of North Carolina
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Hibana gracilis
Garden ghost spider
Previously known as Clubiona gracilis, Anyphaena rubra, A. g., and Aysha gracilis.The spiracular furrow of this genus is quite near epigastric furrow: ca. 20% of the distance from the latter to the spinnerets.............
Trachelas tranquillus
Broad-faced sac spider
Originally described as Clubiona tranquilla by Hentz in 1847, it was officially placed in the Clubionidae in 1867, where it remained until it officially became a corinnid in 1967. When the genus was revised in 1974, it reverted to being a clubionid until it was moved again to the Corinnidae in 1995. Most recently, the corinnid subfamily, Trachelinae, was raised to family rank in 2014, though further work suggests that the genus may belong in the Gnaphosoidea. Watch this space!............
Hadrobunus fusiformisHadrobunus currently comprises four species that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Shultz, 2010, 2012). However, Shultz (2010, 2018) and Burns et al. (2012) note that several undescribed species exist and that Leiobunum formosum will be tranferred to Hadrobunum based on genetic analysis. Only Hadrobunus maculosus and H. fusiformis have so far been documented in North Carolina (L. formosum has one old record from Wake County).Males are dark brown dorsally (Shultz, 2010). The scutum of the abdomen has a dark saddle that narrows towards the posterior end. The scutum is also crossed by six rows of light spots separated by ban...Found in North Carolina at fairly low elevations in the Mountains but at 4,000-5,000' at one site. It has also been recorded in coastal South Carolina and Georgia (Shultz, 2010) and was recorded at a ...No information on the activity patterns appear to exist. Like H. maculosus, it may be active mainly at night....Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S5]The distribution, habitat associations, abundance, and population trends are still too poorly known to estimate the conservation status of this species in North Carolina. Its presence in both the Sout...
Xysticus ferox
a ground crab spider
Characteristically, the adult has a central dark triangle posterior to the dorsal groove of the carapace, flanked by larger, dark spots (often triangular) on the posterior declivity....old field.........
Caddo agilisOne of two species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Shear, 1975a; Cokendolpher and Lee, 1994). Only Caddo agilis has been recorded in North Carolina.A moderately small but long-legged harvestmen. Easily recognized by the very large eyes that take up most of the surface of the cephalothorax. The dorsal surface of the body is dark purplish brown, wi...Shear (1975a) reports that this species humid, densely shaded forests, often where hemlocks are present. Hoffman (1955), on the other hand, found this species in fairly dry forests and cliffs in Virgi...This species is active during the day and on the surface of the ground and is probably best found by direct search...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [SH]We have only three distinct records for this species, all historic. As a species associated with cool, humid, cove forests, this species is likely to be threatened by the loss of hemlocks due to the d...
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Sabacon mitchelliOne of 11 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Holmberg and Buckle, 2019). Three species occur in the East and two in North Carolina.Sabacon species are minute Opiliones distinguished by their enlarged, bristly pedipalps (Shear 1975). Mitchelli is light, purplish brown, with yellow shading on the carapace and abdomen above; no patt...Known only from three sites worldwide, two in Spruce-Fir Forests at over 6,000' in elevation and one in a cove forest below 4,000' ...Specimens have been found using direct search under logs and stones; sifting of leaf litter and extraction using Berlese funnels is also useful....Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves.[GNR] [S1S2]This species, along Odiellus nubivagus and Microhexura montivaga were first discovered on an October visit made by Crosby and Bishop in 1923 and subsequently described by those authors. ...
Sabacon cavicolensOne of 11 species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Holmberg and Buckle, 2019). Three species occur in the East and two in North Carolina.Sabacon species are minute harvestmen distinguished by their enlarged, bristly pedipalps (Shear 1975). Sabacon cavicolens is yellowish-brown dorsally, bordered by brownish purple on the sides of the c...In North Carolina, Shear (1975) reports finding this species in Spruce-fir forests at the highest elevations in our mountains. High humidity appears to be a key habitat factor and at lower elevations,...Shear (1975) reports collecting this species under wet rotten logs or under stones; he never saw any walking on the surface of the leaf litter....Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preservesGNR [S3S4]As a species associated with cool, moist microclimates in moderate to high elevation forest, Sabacon cavicolens is likely to be vulnerable to the warming, drying impacts of climate change, as well to ...
Myrmekiaphila foliata
wafer-lid trapdoor spider
............
Scytodes atlacoya
a spitting spider
New species described by Rheims, Brescovit & Durán-Barrón, 2007Cephalothorax light tan, with darker tan or light brown "chain" pattern. Abdomen tan to light grey, often "leopard-spotted." Occasionally the spots coalesce into small stripes or bands. Female genital...Synanthropic; indoors and out....Frequently seen at night on exterior door frames and window screens.......
Geolycosa fatiferaChrome; labium darker; patella I beneath marked with dark color distally. All tibiae dark, almost black, below and above metatarsi I-III the same; metatarsus IV light and metatarsi bearing light pubes...Most mesic of all Geolycosa. Open dry areas of pine flatwoods with sparse leaf cover and little shade. ......[GNR] SU...
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Geolycosa turricola
a burrowing wolf spider
Patellae I and II beneath, and venter black; distal ends of metatarsi I and II, patellae III and IV, and tibia III dusky beneath?other segments, sternum, coxae, etc. Carapace longer than wide (8.5 mm............
Geolycosa pikei
a burrowing wolf spider
Male: dorsal stripe as wide as posterior eye quadrangle behind the posterior lateral eyes, narrows to the cervical groove and is indistinct from there posteriorly; carapace covered with gray pubescenc...Coastal sand dunes, but also away from coast.......[GNR] S3S4...
Barronopsis texana
a funnel weaver
Coloration variable, generally dusky gray or tan background with light black mottling, occasionally with reddish or burgundy coloration on abdomen. Carapace coloration also variable, from prominent lo...near buildings.........
Philodromus marxi
Metallic crab spider
Males have unbanded legs, compare with P. placidus....meadow, forest edge.........
Gladicosa pulchra
a wolf spider
Gladicosa pulchra is closest to G. gulosa in size, coloration, and genitalic structure. Gladicosa pulchra is a larger species and is usually darker in color with a more distinct pattern. In most speci............
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Tigrosa annexa
a wolf spider
This is the smallest species in the genus; the venter of the female is all pale yellow, except for a dark 'V'-shaped marking in center of the sternum and a black spot around the epigynum; venter of ad............
Micaria longipes
an antlike ground spider
...Cultivated fields, grasslands, pastures, prairies, sand, oak leaf litter in oak-pine barrens, white spruce plantations, asparagus, peanuts, cotton, goldenrod, under rocks and in buildings, elevations ...Pitfall traps......
Yunohamella lyrica
a cobweb spider
described as Theridion Lyricum (Walckenaer 1841); has also been known as: T. lyra, T. Kentuckyense, Allotheridion lyricum, and Takayus lyricus.Abdomen has white median band with large black areas adjacent anteriorly; posteriorly, the black are appears as a series of spots....forest understory, forest edge.........
Latrodectus variolus
Northern black widow
Females are shiny black, brown-black, with possibly a row of red spots on the top of the abdomen along the midline. Two reddish triangles resembling an hourglass are present on the underside of the ab...dry forest; large tangle of tough silk, retreat funnels into litter.........
Latrodectus mactans
Southern black widow
Females are shiny black, brown-black, with possibly a row of red spots on the top of the abdomen along the midline. Two reddish triangles resembling an hourglass are present on the underside of the ab...roadside, pasture, woodpile; tangle of tough silk, funnel retreat.........
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Chinattus parvulus
a jumping spider
inaturalist calls this Little Mountain Jumper, an apt name for a tiny montane species....forest; in leaf litter.........
Theridiosoma gemmosum
Ray spider
Typical variety darker black and white....forest; small orbs on sides of logs, moist trail banks, etc..........
Hibana futilis
a ghost spider
This species was originally described as Anyphaena futilis, (Banks, 1878), and has also been known as Anyph. decepta, Aysha minuta and A.decepta. In the past, Anyphaenidae has been considered a subfamily of the Clubionidae, which with they can readily be confused; likewise, they closely resemble the Cheiracanthiidae (also having been split off from Clubionidae). A quick way to recognize anyphaenids is the placement of the tracheal spiracle, which is located far forward of the spinnerets. In Hibana spp., it's located ca. 2/3 of the distance forward between the............
Gea heptagon
an orbweaver
Apparently English heptagon- "seven-sided shape", from Greek heptagonos. This is probably a noun in apposition, which would mean it doesn't have to agree with the genus name in gender.Resembles a miniature garden spider (Argiope), sits head down in center of web holding its legs together in pairs like a cross pattern. Abdomen variable, generally a dark brown or yellowish-brown, so...old field, marshes, roadside ditch and agricultural fields....Visual observation, sweep netting.......
Neoscona crucifera
a spotted orbweaver
...disturbed forest, often near buildings.........
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Argiope aurantia
Yellow Garden Spider
The genus name Argiope means "silver-face", while the specific epithet aurantia means "gilded"Abdomen long oval, with series of yellowish or pale spots on a black abdomen. The cephalothorax is covered with reflective white hairs. The legs have femora that are pale orange at the base and dark...garden areas, old field, marshes, wetlands, bogs, lake and pond edges, roadside ditches, human habitations....Visual observation.......
Mecaphesa sp. 1
a crab spider
Undescribed speciesCephalothorax similar to others in the genus, abdomen pattern light below with well defined light area above speckled with dark reddish coloration and two dark reddish black spots. Diagnostic to this............
Leiobunum formosumApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.Males are uniform orange-yellow or red-brown above, with a dark optical tubercle; the central figure is well marked in early season individuals but becoming obscure with age, with only traces of the o...In Tennessee, formosum is commonly encountered in stands of pine and mixed hardwoods (Townsend et al., 2006)......Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [SU]We have only a single relatively old (1976) record for this species. While this species does not appear to be habitat limited, we need much more information on its distribution in the state, its habit...
Leiobunum euserratipalpeApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.Males are golden brown dorsally and ventrally, and are finely granulate on both the carapace and abdomen; rows of light spots may be present on the meso- and metapeltidium, as well as the scutal tergi...North Carolina records come from both high elevations in the Mountains to relatively low ones in the Piedmont; habitat at these sites appears to be mainly forest. In Maryland, this species appears to ...This species is diurnally active and can be found by direct search of appropriate habitats...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S5]We have too few records for this species currently to estimate the conservation status of this species. However, it appears to be associated with common types of habitat and probably will turn out to ...
Calymmaria persica
a basket-web weaver
Calymmaria persica can be easily separated from the other species occurring in the Appalachian Mountains, C. virginica, by the form of the epigynum (Figs. 76, 77), and the many differences in the RTA and embolus (Figs. 73–75). Calymmaria persica is a highly variable species, especially in size, which has led to its separation into several species. There appears to be little variation in genitalia among specimens. Female: Carapace typical. Dorsum of abdomen yellow with pale gray basal lanceolate mark followed by three dark gray transverse chevrons and one spot; venter gray with wide pale yellow lateral longitud...forest; sagging sheet web under edge of log, root, or rock.........
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Phrurolithus unidentified speciesGenus needs revision, may be lumped with Phrurotimpus.............
Phrurolithus singulusGenus needs revision, may be lumped with Phrurotimpus.............
Hadrobunus maculosusHadrobunus currently comprises four species that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Shultz, 2010, 2012). However, Shultz (2010, 2018) and Burns et al. (2012) note that several undescribed species exist and that Leiobunum formosum will be tranferred to Hadrobunus based on genetic analysis. Only Hadrobunus maculosus and H. fusiformis have so far been documented in North Carolina (L. formosum has one old record from Wake County).A large, short-legged harvestman. Color varies from reddish brown to darker grayish brown. Shultz (2012) describes the coloration in Maryland populations as changing seasonally: early summer individua...Shultz (2018) describes the habitat for this species as including "open or broken woodlands and adjacent non-wooded areas, including agricultural fields; less abundant in mature forests."..."Adults largely nocturnal, found under loose objects on the ground during the day" (Shultz, 2018)...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S5]This species probably occurs across most of the state and appears to be fairly generalized in terms of its habitat use. Although we still have few records for this species, we believe it is secure wit...
Nesticus carolinensis
Linville Caverns Spider
N. carolinensis is obviously closely related to N. tennesseensis, from which it may be distinguished by the form of the apophysis of the cymbium of the male and the epigynum of the female. Genus formerly Invesia. Male. Length 4.5 mm. Cephalothorax short, broadly rounded on the sides, abruptly narrowed anteriorly opposite the eyes; clypeus wider than median ocular area, slanting downward and forward; median are...Cave......S1 G1?...
Hesperonemastoma kephartiOne of six species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Shear, 2010). Four have been recorded in the East with only kepharti found in North Carolina.A minute, blackish harvestman. The dorsal, sclerotized tergites are dark brown to nearly black, strongly contrasting with the non-sclerotized white membrane that connects them; this is particularly ev...Not recorded but probably mesic hardwoods and possibly either cove forests or northern hardwoods. Unlike other members of this genus, this species does not appear to be a cave-obligate....Collected by sifting dead leaves banked against a decaying log (Crosby and Bishop, 1924)...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S1S2]This species is known in North Carolina only from the specimens collected by Crosby and Bishop in 1923. Several of our minute, litter-dwelling harvestmen in the Mountains appear to be highly dependent...
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Steatoda borealis
a false widow spider
...in/on buildings.........
Hahnia cinerea
a comb-tailed spider
...forest; small sheet web in leaf litter.........
Deinopis spinosa
Ogrefaced Spider
............
Nelima elegansOne of two species in this genus that occur in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993, as Leiobunum elegans and Nelima paessleri). Only elegans occurs in the East. Shultz (2018) indicated that the genus Nelima may be restricted to Old World species and that our may need to be assigned a new generic name.A medium-sized, long-legged Harvestman. The dorsal surface is mottled with white, brown and black, with a pair of prominent dark triangular marks extending from the eye tubercle to the rear edge of t...This species occurs at both high and low elevations in the Mountains. According to Davis (1934), this species occurs in close proximity to streams in wooded areas. At Mount Mitchell, this species was ...Commonly observed at night on outbuildings at Mt. Mitchell. ...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S4]More survey information is in North Carolina in order to determine the distribution, abundance, habitat associations, and populations trends of this species....
Odiellus nubivagusOne of three species in this genus that occurs in North America (Cokendolpher and Holmberg, 2018), two of which have been recorded in North CarolinaBoth species of Odiellus are easily identified by the trident of spines at the forward margin of the cephalothorax (see Structural Features below). In nubivagus, most of the dorsal surface of the ceph...Crosby and Bishop (1924) recorded this species as abundant on rocks along the trail to the summit of Mt. Mitchell. Hall and Sullivan (pers. obs., 2019) observed a number of individuals on the sides o...Crosby and Bishop (1924) report observing them in large number on the surface of rocks...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[G2G3] [S2S3]This species, along Sabacon mitchelli and Microhexura montivaga were first discovered on an October visit made by Crosby and Bishop in 1923 and subsequently described by those authors. A...
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Hypochilus pococki
A Lampshade Spider
...sheltered rock outcrops in forest; lampshade web ......G4G5 S4...
Hypochilus sheari
A Lampshade Spider
.........G2G3 S2S3...
Hypochilus coylei
A Lampshade Spider
.........G3? S3? endemic to southern mountains of North Carolina...
Leiobunum vittatumApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.Males are golden-yellow to dark red-brown above. The central figure is distinct and there are often black and light yellow markings along the sides of the abdomen. The palps are light yellow to red-br...Usually associated with trees or other woody vegetation (Shultz, 2018)...Shultz (2018) describes vittatum as "the most common and visible of the late-season harvestmen in Maryland; dark, senescent individuals may persist into early winter."...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] S4S5This species is likely to be found over most of the state and probably not in association with restricted habitat types. It is most likely secure within the state....
Arctosa littoralis
Shoreline wolf spider
...coastal, Goose Creek SP......G5 S4S5...
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Leiobunum uxoriumApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.The dorsal surface of the males is golden yellow; the central figure is obsolete or faint. The ventral surface and coxae are cinnamon brown. The palpi are yellow but the legs are dark brown or black; ...Crosby and Bishop (1924) reported seeing a large number of mating pairs on a sunny bank on the edge of a pine woods....This is a late season species, persisting into early winter (Shultz, 2018)...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S5]We have only one recent record for this species in the state but it appears to occupy a wide range within the state and does not appear to be habitat-limited. It will therefore probably be determined ...
Leiobunum politumApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.Males are golden-yellow to red-brown above, with no central figure on the abdomen; the ventral surface is similar in color but lighter. The palps are also similar in color as are the trochanters and b...Found along forest edges in Maryland (Shultz, 2018)...Shultz (2018) describes politum as more commonly found on the forest floor than bracchiolum, which is usually found up on vegetation...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S5]While this species does not appear to be habitat limited, but we need much more information on its distribution in the state, its habitat preferences, and population trends before we can begin to esti...
Leiobunum ventricosumApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.This species is somewhat larger but otherwise similar to Leiobunum flavum. The coloration of the body, palps, and legs is light golden brown; a dark central figure is more prominent in this species th...In Maryland, L. ventricosum is most common in moist woodlands (Shultz, 2018). ...Overwinters as juveniles and matures in the spring; probably day-active and best found by direct searches in likely habitats...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S4]Although we have only three records for this species in our database, there are a number of well-vetted photographs on BugGuide from sites in North Carolina. This species does not seem likely to be li...
Leiobunum verrucosumApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.According to Davis (1934), the dorsal surface is a nearly uniform brown; Shultz (2018) gives the color as red-brown in the males and dark brown in the females. The eye tubercle very dark brown or bla...In Maryland, Shultz (2018) notes that verrucosum is common in late spring on vegetation near woods (especially brambles), and tends to move into woods later....Overwinters as juveniles and matures in the spring; probably day-active and best found by direct searches in likely habitats...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S3S5]Although we have very few current records from North Carolina to judge its conservation status, it may potentially occur statewide and occupy a wide variety of forested to semi-open habitats. Consequ...
Leiobunum nigropalpiApproximately 30 species in this genus have been identified as occurring in North America north of Mexico (Cokendolpher and Lee, 1993; Ingianni et al., 2011), with 16 recorded in North Carolina. However, the validity of several of these species is suspect, with several that will probably be determined to be synonyms of other species, e.g., davisi, speciosum, and zimmermani in North Carolina Burns et al., 2012; Shultz, 2018). According to Shultz (2018), moreover, recent phylogenetic studies indicate both that more species are waiting to be described and that the name Leiobunum may eventually be restricted to European species, requiring new generic names for most, if not all, of our species.Males are golden-yellow to light red-brown; the saddle on the abdomen is indistinct to nearly absent (Davis, 1934). Trochanters are black and strongly conrast with the reddish-brown coxae. The femurs ...Widespread in Eastern forests (Shultz, 2018)...This species is diurnally active and is found on the surface of the ground or up on tree trunks (Shultz, 2018)...Arachnids are not protected under state law, although permits are needed to collect them in State Parks and other public and private nature preserves[GNR] [S4S5]Although we do not yet have enough records to be certain, this species will probably turn out to be found in hardwood forests throughout most of the state....