Arachnids of North Carolina
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Epiceraticelus mandyae
a dwarf spider
...Leaf litter in mature pine and oak forests.........
Thymoites unimaculatus
a cobweb spider
there's a northern and a southern form: female epigyna with little variation, however there is great variation in the palps of the southern males. In northern specimens, the abdomen is light orange wi............
Thymoites pallidus
a cobweb spider
female carapace yellow with some duskiness in center and with eye region sometimes black; sternum and legs yellow. Abdomen yellowish with black spots or lines on dorsum (see fig. 363 in Levi 1957a). T............
Thymoites marxi
a cobweb spider
female abdomen orange-white except for darker orange sclerotized areas and small spots at bases of setae (four dorsal sclerotized spots, sclerotized rings around spinnerets); sometimes with dusky dors............
Thymoites expulsus
a cobweb spider
all yellow except for black eye region and black ring around spinnerets............
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Ummidia rongodwini
a cork-lid trapdoor spider
Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)............
Ummidia neilgaimani
a cork-lid trapdoor spider
Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)............
Ummidia carabivora
a cork-lid trapdoor spider
Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)............
Ummidia audouini
a cork-lid trapdoor spider
Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)............
Ummidia unidentified species
a cork-lid trapdoor spider
Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)...forest edge.........
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Ephippiochthonius virginicusSubgenus recently elevated to genus rank. ...Moist litter and debris.........
Ephippiochthonius tetrachelatusSubgenus recently elevated to genus rank. ...Moist litter and debris.........
Hahnia flaviceps............
Micrathena mitrata
white micrathena
Originally described by Hentz as Epeira mitrata in 1850, it was later transferred to the genus Micrathena, which had been erected in 1833 by Sundevall.White abdomen with dark markings and having 4 points (usually black) on posterior end....low forest understory, particularly in humid areas.........
Tidarren sisyphoides
a cobweb spider
...dry forest.........
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Drassyllus aprilinus
a ground spider
Described by Banks as Zelotes aprilinus in 1904, it was transferred to newly erected genus Drassyllus by Chamberlin in 1922.Specific determination of the genus Drassyllus requires analysis of the genitalia, as colors and markings are inconsistent....Under leaves, logs, etc. Generally on the ground..........
Verrucosa arenata
an orb weaver
First described in 1833 as Epeira mexicana by Lucas, that name was sunk as nomen oblitum in 1976, so it took the specific epithet from Walckenaer in 1841, when he described it as E. arenata. It was moved to the genus Verrucosa by McCook in 1888.Quite readily identified by the triangular abdominal marking, which can be white, yellow, or even pink. There are tubercles at each anterior corner, and several smaller ones near the posterior end of ...forest edge, forest.........
Steatoda grossa
False black widow
Can be found in mid-20th Century literature as Teutana grossa.While bearing the American Arachnological Society's recognized common name "false black widow," many specimens are not black, but a purplish-brown, with white markings. The black individuals have no r...in/on buildings, other sheltered locations.........
Steatoda borealis
a false widow spider
...in/on buildings.........
Steatoda triangulosa
a cobweb spider
...in buildings; sweeping weeds.........
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Latrodectus mactans
Southern black widow
Females are shiny black, brown-black, with possibly a row of red spots on the top of the abdomen along the midline. Two reddish triangles resembling an hourglass are present on the underside of the ab...roadside, pasture, woodpile, under rocks, in sheds, in loose bark ; tangle of tough silk, funnel retreat.........
Pholcus phalangioides
Longbodied cellar spider
First described as Aranea phalangoides Fuesslin, 1775 (gender masculine), 30 years later, in 1805, Walkenaer erected the genus Pholcus, with phalangioides as its type.Extremely long legs (6-8 times longer than the body), pale in color, usually upside down in a web....Dark, often dank locations: dark corners, under shelves, in cellars, caves, mines and garages.........
Neriene radiata
Filmy dome spider
Wider described this species in 1834 as Linyphia marginata, and it pretty well stayed that way for the next 135 years (with several inevitable misidentifications, etc. along the way). In 1969, van Helsdingen split the genus also to include the genera Neriene, Frontinellina, and Microlinyphia, placing this species in Neriene, but unable to keep the specific epithet as that had been used in 1833, leaving the oldest available synonym Neriene radiata.Usually identified by its web (q.v.). Has an obvious white band around the carapace....old field, forest edge, forest; dome-shaped sheet inside tangle .........
Frontinella pyramitela
Bowl and doily weaver
Frontinella pyramitela was transferred from the genus Linyphia and synonomized with F. communis by Chamberlin and Ivie, 1944....old field, bog, forest edge, low branches of trees, bushes, and tall grass...Visual......
Kukulcania hibernalis
Southern house spider
The filistatid genus Kukulcania was erected by Lehtinen in 1967 and the type species transferred to it from Filistata.Large spiders: the females are robust and a velvety, dusky gray; the males are spindly and lighter brown. The 8 eyes are found on raised tubercle, and their tapeta make them appear noticeably white....on and in buildings, often found on cinder block walls and loose clapboard, which can afford numerous crevices..........
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Eustala anastera
Humpbacked orbweaver
Abdomen longer than wide with a distinct dorsal hump. Varies in color and pattern, but it is usually dark brown to reddish brown. Some individuals have a dark folium or spots on abdomen. Cephalatho...forest edge, understory of pine and hardwood forests, goldenrod fields and marshes....Sweep netting.......
Eustala cepina
an orbweaver
Smaller but can resemble E. anastera, legs slightly banded, abdomen is triangular almost as wide as long; it may lack dorsal pattern, or have longitudinal line down the middle. The three species repo...low vegetation near stream, lake shores, fields, pine dunes, ponds, gardens, oak (seems to prefer wetter areas than anastera)...Sweep netting.......
Microbisium parvulumSynonyms: Obisium parvulum, Microbisium confusum. 12 species in the genus worldwide, 2 in the US, both occur in NC ID the family by each leg with six segments, dentate inner margin on moveable finger of chelicera, and pleural membranes granular. ID the genus by spinneret on moveable finger of chelicera is a ro...Leaf litter, very diverse habitats, from dry open fields to swamps and floodplains..........
Microbisium brunneumSynonym: Obisium brunneum. 12 species in the genus worldwide, 2 in the US, both occur in NC ID the family by each leg with six segments, dentate inner margin on moveable finger of chelicera, and pleural membranes granular. ID the genus by spinneret on moveable finger of chelicera is a ro...Sphagnum and other moist, boggy habitats.........
Agelenopsis utahana
Grass spider
Agelenopsis utahana has enjoyed a relatively stable taxonomic history since having been originally described as Agelena utahana by Chamberlin & Ivie, 1933. It has remained in Agelenopsis since 1941.This is a yellow to reddish brown species, not as dark as A. naevia (q.v.). Both the sternal "V" mark and the ventral abdominal band are faintly—if at all—indicated. ...forest, forest edge; forest floor vegetation; funnel/sheet web.........
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Agelenopsis pennsylvanica
Grass spider
Agelenopsis pennsylvanica has enjoyed a relatively stable taxonomic history since having been originally described as Agelena pennsylvanica by Chamberlin & Ivie, 1933. It changed names a few times in the 19th Century, but has remained in Agelenopsis since 1941.This is the grayist of our 5 NC species. The abdomen is often a variegated brown, with a lighter, often rusty-colored central band distinct markings. Has a distinct, dusky "V" shaped sternum marking a...old field, meadows, grassy areas, occasionally in woods; funnel/sheet web.........
Agelenopsis naevia
Grass spider
Agelenopsis naevia has a relatively stable taxonomic history, having been originallly described as Agelena naevia by Walckenaer, 1841. It changed names a few times in the 19th Century, but has been stable in Agelenopsis since 1941.This is probably the most common as well as the largest and darkest of our 5 NC Agelenopsis species. The abdomen is often brown and lacking distinct markings. It also often lacks the "V" shaped sternu...road, rock outcrops; funnel/sheet web.........
Agelenopsis kastoni
Grass spider
Agelenopsis kastoni has a stable taxonomic history, having been described as such by Chamberlin & Ivie, 1941.A. kastoni is grayish in color with a broad dark band on the abdominal venter that my be represented by two dark lines bordering a light area (similar to A. emertoni, q.v.). A "V" shaped mark on its s...pitfall trap in pine stand with young hardwoods.........
Agelenopsis emertoni
Grass spider
Agelenopsis emertoni has a stable taxonomic history, having been described as such by Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935.A. emertoni is generally yellowish in color and may have a broad dark band on the abdominal venter; if present, it is usually not as dark as on other species--more commonly, it is two thin lines with ............
Scytodes atlacoya
a spitting spider
New species described by Rheims, Brescovit & Durán-Barrón, 2007Cephalothorax light tan, with darker tan or light brown "chain" pattern. Abdomen tan to light grey, often "leopard-spotted." Occasionally the spots coalesce into small stripes or bands. Female genital...Synanthropic; indoors and out....Frequently seen at night on exterior door frames and window screens.......
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Philodromus rufus
a running crab spider
Of the four subspecies recognized for P. rufus, three may be found in eastern states, where they tend to be allopatric, although P.r. jenningsi has been found in the lower elevations of the NC Smokey Mountains, near where P.r. vibrans has been found at higher elevations.Of the three subspecies of P. rufus reported from NC, P. r. jenningsi, lacks the dark, longitudinal borders found on the carapace of quartus and vibrans, while the latter two differ superficially in t...Many habitats: broad leaf and coniferous forests, old field, forest openings, understory vegetation, and grasses..........
Neoscona crucifera
a spotted orbweaver
Has borne these names since its description as Epiera crucifera (Lucas, 1838): E. lentiginosa, E. hentzii, E. domiciliorum, Aranea c., Neoscona benjamina, N. arkansa, N. nebraskensis, N. sacra, N. hentzii, and N. hentzi. While N. crucifera's markings can be confused with those of N. domiciliorum, the adult females can readily be distinguished by the former's much longer scape. ...disturbed forest, often near buildings.........
Mastophora stoweiCommon name refers to this genus' practice of snaring prey in mid-flight by swinging a silk line with an adhesive blob on the end, similar to the bolas used by Argentinian gauchos. ......Visual observation.......
Mastophora timuqua
a bolas spider
Common name refers to this genus' practice of snaring prey in mid-flight by swinging a silk line with an adhesive blob on the end, similar to the bolas used by Argentinian gauchos. Abdomen a light brown with two sets of dimples on a shiny dorsal surface with no hairs. Cephalothorax is a darker brown with bumps, legs are light brown with dark rings on legs. M. timuqua is distin......Visual observation.......
Mastophora bisaccataCommon name refers to this genus' practice of snaring prey in mid-flight by swinging a silk line with an adhesive blob on the end, similar to the bolas used by Argentinian gauchos. Abdomen wider than long, shiny with few hairs, brown and tan with darker concentration in the front. Cephalothorax is dark brown to black, legs are tan or light brown. To separate from others in the......Visual observation.......
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Uloborus glomosus
Featherlegged orbweaver
Usually beige, with 4 conspicuous humps on front half of abdomen...forest understory.........
Barronopsis texana
a funnel weaver
Originally described as Aglena texana by Gertsch in 1934, it was moved to Agelenopsis, and most recently to Barronopsis by Lehtinen (1967) who "elevated Barronopsis to genus level and, although he provided no rationale" the genus has been retained (Stocks,2009). Coloration variable, generally dusky gray or tan background with light black mottling, occasionally with reddish or burgundy coloration on abdomen. Carapace coloration also variable, from prominent lo...Temperate pine-hardwood forests and pine-hemlock forests. Exploits human-made structures and landscapes, and frequently abundant in lower latitudes on picnic tables, wooden handrails and fences, and .........
Scytodes longipes............
Novobisium carolinenseDescribed by Banks (1895) as Obisium carolinensis. The genus also includes N. ingratum, recorded from Alabama, and N. tenue, recorded from Tennessee and previously considered a subspecies of N. carolinense.ID the family by each leg with six segments, dentate inner margin on moveable finger of chelicera, and pleural membranes granular. ID the genus by spinneret on moveable finger of chelicera is a round...Moist leaf litter.........
Dactylochelifer copiosus
Forest Chelifer
Of 44 known species in the genus, two occur in the US – D. silvestris in the west and D. copiosus in the east.ID family by all legs with 5 segments, two eyes, femors of legs I and II different in shape to femors of legs III and IV, venom apparatus present in both fixed and moveable fingers of chela. ID genus ...Often rather dry leaf litter, ground cover and woody debris...Found by sifting leaf litter visually or in a Berlese funnel......
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Mimetus notius
a pirate spider
Keys to M. notius due to broad figure on carapace, femora without a distinctly dark apical third, and abdomen more generally covered with dark areas than in M. puritanus ............
Phidippus clarus
Red-backed jumping spider
...old field, bog.........
Spintharus flavidus
a cobweb spider
"...molecular phylogenetic data for Spintharus was published only recently by Dziki et al. (2015), based on specimens freshly sampled throughout the Caribbean and on neighbouring continents. These data strongly rejected Levi’s ‘widespread species’ hypothesis and instead suggested that Levi’s ‘Spintharus flavidus’ hypothesis contains multiple short-range endemics both on the Caribbean islands as well as on the surrounding continents. Dziki et al. concluded that at least 16 new species were present in their samples, all of which occur only in one or a few nearby localities, and all are restricted to single islands or a small mainland area. Given these findings and limited mainland sampling, a thorough survey of the genus throughout the Americas will probably yield numerous additional species. Hence, a revision of the genus is not timely." Agnarsson et al., 2018. Agnarsson, I., Van Patten, C., Sargeant, L., Chomitz, B., Dziki, A. & Binford, G. J. (2018). A radiation of the ornate Caribbean ‘smiley-faced spiders’, with descriptions of 15 new species (Araneae: Theridiidae, Spintharus). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 182(4): 758-790. Dziki A, Binford GJ, Coddington JA, Agnarsson I. 2015. Spintharus flavidus in the Caribbean-a 30 million year biogeographical history and radiation of a ‘widespread species’. Peerj 3: e1422 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1422. ...forest understory, bushes at edges of woods..........
Ariadna bicolor
a tube-dwelling spider
Now regarded as the basalmost sister group of the dysderoid spiders.6-eyed, resembles Dysdera. Legs pairs I, II, and III directed forward at rest, with only legs IV directed rearward....dry forest, buildings; under loose bark, in cracks in wood or rock.........
Dolomedes tenebrosus
Dark fishing spider
Originally described as D. tenebrosus Hentz, 1844, despite some early reassignments, it has remained retained its original name for nearly a century at this writing.Dark brown to black and gray with a dark "face mask" bearing a central light spot above the clypeus. Usually 3 "W" shaped marks dorsally on the posterior of the abdomen....forest near streams; on tree trunks, rocks; often found in houses (seemingly especially in sinks and bathtubs, which act as pitfall traps for them)..........