Arachnids of North Carolina
References used in the Arachnid website
78 references
2Atkinson, G.F.1886A description of some new trap-door spiders; their nests and food habitatsEntomologica Americana 2:109-117;128-137 in the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. (1887)
3Atkinson, G.F.1886A new trap-door spiderAmerican Naturalist 20:583-593 of Ummidia (=Pachylomerus) carabivorus based on specimens from the vicinity of Chapel Hill
4Bakkegard, K.A. and Davenport, L.J.2012Nephila clavipes (Araneae: Nephilidae): A model species for monitoring climate change in the Southeastern United StatesSoutheastern naturalist, pp.551-566 need to remove space before "publication" in link
5Banks, N.A.1902A new Phalangid from the Black Mountains, N.C.J. N.Y. Entomological Society 10:142
6Banks, N.A.1911Some Arachnida from North CarolinaProc. Academy of Nat. Sci. Phil. 63:440--456
7Beatty, J.A.1986Web structure and burrow location of Sphodros niger (Hentz) (Araneae, Atypidae)Journal of Arachnology 14:130-132
8Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick2007A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)American Museum novitates, no. 3596
9Bradley, Richard A.2013Common Spiders of North AmericaUniv. CA Press, 271pp
10Bradley, Richard A.2013Common Spiders of North AmericaUniv. CA Press, 271pp
11Briggs, T.S.1969A new Holarctic family of Laniotorid PhalangidaThe Pan Pacific Entomologist 45:35-50
12Brimley, C.S.1938The Insects of North CarolinaNC Dept. of Agric.; Raleigh, NC. 560 pp.
13Burns, M., Hedin, M. and Shultz, J.W.2012Molecular phylogeny of the leiobunine harvestmen of eastern North America (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 63(2), pp.291-298
14Bustamante, A. A., Maddison, W. P. & Ruiz, G. R. S.2015The jumping spider genus Thiodina Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Amycoida). Zootaxa 4012(1): 181-190
15Chamberlin, R. V. & Ivie, W.1944Spiders of the Georgia region of North America. Bulletin of the University of Utah 35(9): 1-267
16Cokendolpher, J.C. and Holmberg, R.G.2018Harvestmen of the Family Phalangiidae (Arachnida, Opiliones) in the AmericasSpecial Publications of the Museum of Texas Tech University, Number 67
17Cokendolpher, J.C. and Lee, V.F.1993Catalogue of the Cyphopalpatores and bibliography of the harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of Greenland, Canada, USA, and MexicoVintage Press; Lubbock,TXJames Cokendolpher is interested in your observations of Opiliones in NC. Send him your observation data and a close-up photograph or legally collected specimen.
18Coyle, F.A.1971Systematics and natural history of the mygalomorph spider genus Antrodiaetus and related genera (Araneae: Antrodiaetidae)Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Vol 141 (6): 269-402, 1971
19Coyle, F.A.1981Notes on the behaviour of Ummidia trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Ctenizidae): burrow construction, prey capture, and the functional morphology of the peculiar third tibiaBull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 5(4):159-165
20Coyle, F.A.1985Ballooning behavior of Ummidia spiderlings (Araneae, Ctenizidae)The Journal of Arachnology 13:137-138
21Coyle, F.A. and Shear, W.A.1981Observations on the natural history of Sphodros abboti and Sphodros rufipes (Araneae, Atypidae), with evidence for a contact sex pheromoneJ. Arachnol. 9:317-326.
22Crosby, C.R. and Bishop, S.C.1924Notes on the Opiliones of the southeastern United States with descriptions of new speciesJournal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 40:8-26
23Crosby, C.R. and Bishop, S.C.1925Two new spiders from the Blue Ridge Mountains of North CarolinaEntomological News 36:142-146
24Davis, N.W.1934A revision of the genus Leiobunum (Opiliones) of the United StatesAmerican Midland Naturalist 15:662-705
25Eberhard, W. G.2020Spider Webs. Behavior, Function. and EvolutionUniversity of Chicago Press, Chicago ILNot an easy read, but an extremely thorough reference on webs.
26Edwards, G.B.2004Revision of the Jumping Spiders of the genus PhidippusOccasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 11:1-351
27Ewing, H.E.1929The scorpions of the western part of the United States, with notes on those occurring in northern MexicoProceedings of the United States National Museum 23:1-24 a key for Vaejovis that includes carolinianus
28Fet, V. and G. Lowe2000Family Buthidae C. L. Koch, 1837In: Fet, Victor, W. David Sissom, Graeme Lowe, and Matt E. Braunwalder. Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998). New York Entomological Society, 2000.
29Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E.2000.Cataloge of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998).The New York Entomological Society (2000).
30Gaffin, Douglas D. et al.2012Scorpion fluorescence and reaction to lightAnimal Behaviour 83 (2012) 429-436.
31Gertsch, W.J. and Platnick, N.I. 1980A revision of the American spiders of the family Atypidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae)American Museum novitates no. 2704
32Godwin, R. L. & Bond, J. E.2021Taxonomic revision of the New World members of the trapdoor spider genus Ummidia Thorell (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Halonoproctidae)ZooKeys 1027: 1-65
33Godwin, R. L., Opatova, V., Garrison, N. L., Hamilton, C. A. & Bond, J. E.2018Phylogeny of a cosmopolitan family of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Ctenizidae) using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment, with a description of the family, Halonoproctidae Pocock 1901. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126: 303-313
34Godwin, R.L. & Bond, J.E.2021Taxonomic revision of the New World members of the trapdoor spider genus Ummidia Thorell (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Halonoproctidae)ZooKeys 1027: 1-65.
35Harvey, M.S.(2011).Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 2.0.Western Australian Museum, Perth.
36Hendrixson, B.E. and Bond, J.E.2005Two sympatric species of Antrodiaetus from southwestern North Carolina (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Antrodiaetidae)Zootaxa 872: 1-19
37Hillyard, P.D. & Sankey, J.H.P.1989Harvestmen: Keys and notes for the identification of the speciesIn: D. Kermack and R.S.K. Barnes (eds.) 1989. Synopses of the British Fauna (Linnean Society of London), New Series, No. 4. 2nd Edition. E.J. Brill, Leiden a wealth of information on the morphology, physiology, ecology, and life histories of the Opiliones.
38Hoffman, R.L.1955Distributional records for some scarce Phalangids in the southern AppalachiansJournal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 71(1):17-19.
39Huff, R.P. and Coyle, F.A.1992Systematics of Hypochilus sheari and Hypochilus coylei, two southern Appalachian lampshade spiders (Araneae, Hypochilidae)Journal of Arachnology 20:40-46
40Ingianni, E.A.; McGhee, C.R.; Shultz, J.W.2011Taxonomy of the Leiobunum calcar species-group (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)The Journal of Arachnology 39:454–481
41Kaston, B.J.1970Comparative biology of American black widow spidersSan Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. Trans. 16:33-82
42Keith, R. and Hedin, M.2012Extreme mitochondrial population subdivision in southern Appalachian paleoendemic spiders (Araneae: Hypochilidae: Hypochilus), with implications for species delimitationThe Journal of Arachnology 40:167-181
43Kovarík, František2009Illustrated catalog of scorpions, Part I (PDF).
44Kury, A.B.2000 onwClassification of OpilionesMuseu Nacional/UFRJ website the most current classification of the Opiliones
45Kury, A.B.2002 onwChecklist of valid genera of Opiliones of the WorldMuseu Nacional/UFRJ website
46Kury, A.B.2003Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World:(Arachnida, Opiliones)Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 7:5-337
47Kury, A.B. and Medrano, M.2023Once upon a time in America: recognition of the species of Libitioides from USA, with comments on other American Cosmetidae (Opiliones, Laniatores)European Journal of Taxonomy 875:101-141.Changes the genus name Vonones to Libitiodes. Identifies the eastern species in this genus as Libitiodes albolineata
48Levi, H. W.1973Small orb-weavers of the genus Araneus north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 145: 473-552
49Levi, H.W.1980The orb-weaver genus Mecynogea, the subfamily Metinae and the genera Pacygnatha, Glenognatha and Azillia of the subfamily Tetragnathinae North of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae)Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 149:1-75
50Maddison, W. P., Maddison, D. R., Derkarabetian, S. & Hedin, M.2020Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification, and chromosomes (Araneae, Salticidae, Sitticini). ZooKeys 925: 1-54
51McGhee, C.R.1977The Politum group (bulbate species) of Leiobunum (Arachnida: Phalangida: Phalangidae) of North AmericaJ. Arachnol. 3:151-163 Leiobunum bracchiolum
52Miglio, L. T., Pérez-Miles, F. & Bonaldo, A. B.2020Taxonomic revision of the spider genus Actinopus Perty, 1833 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae). Megataxa 2(1): 1-256
53Opatova, V., Hamilton, C. A., Hedin, M., Montes de Oca, L., Král, J. & Bond, J. E.2020Phylogenetic systematics and evolution of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using genomic scale data. Systematic Biology 69(4): 671-707
54Platnick, N. I. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 146: 205-2661974The spider family Anyphaenidae in America north of Mexico.Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 146: 205-266
55Reiskind, J.1969The Spider Subfamily Castianeirinae of North and Central America Bull. Mus. of Comp. Zool. Vol 138: 163-325
56Rose, Sarah2022Spiders of North AmericaPrinceton University Press 41 William St., Princeton, NJ 08540Very thorough field guide with excellent photos. >600pp. Includes many juveniles. Also available on Kindle.
57Schönhofer, A.L., McCormack, M., Tsurusaki, N., Martens, J. and Hedin, M.2013Molecular phylogeny of the harvestmen genus Sabacon (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi) reveals multiple Eocene–Oligocene intercontinental dispersal events in the HolarcticMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66(1), pp.303-315
60Shear, W.A.1975aThe Opilionid Family Caddidae in North America, with Notes on Species from Other Regions (Opiliones, Palpatores, Caddoidea)The Journal of Arachnology,2:65-88
61Shear, W.A.1975bThe Opilionid genera Sabacon and Tomicomerus in America (Opiliones, Trogulidae, Ischyropsalidae)J. Arachnol. 3:5-29
62Shear, W.A.1977Fumontana deprehendor, n.gen., n.sp., the first Triaenonychid Opilionid from eastern\r\nNorth America (Opiliones: Laniatores: Triaenonychidae)J . Arachnol. 3:177-183
63Shear, W.A.1978A new record for the rare opilionid Fumontana deprehendor (Opiliones, Triaenonychidae)The Journal of Arachnology 6:79
64Shear, W.A.1986A cladistic analysis of the opilionid superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea, with descriptions of the new family Ceratolasmatidae, the new genus Acuclavella, and four new speciesAmerican Museum Novitates 2844:1-29 a redescrption of Crosbycus
65Shear, W.A.2010New harvestman from a cave in West Virginia, with comments on other reported cave-dwelling Hesperonemastoma species (Opiliones, Ischyropsalidoidea, Sabaconidae)Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 72:105-110
66Shelley, R.M.1994Introductions of the scorpions Centruroides vittatus (Say) and C. hentzi (Banks) into North Carolina, with records of the indigenous scorpion, Vaejovis carolinianus (Beauvois)(Scorpionida: Buthidae, Vaejovidae)Brimleyana 21:45-55
67Shultz, J.W.2010A new species of Hadrobunus (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)from the southeastern United StatesThe Journal of Arachnology, 38(3):572-580
68Shultz, J.W.2012The identity of Hadrobunus grandis: reassignment of Leiobunum aurugineum to H. grandis and H. nonsacculatus new species (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)The Journal of Arachnology, 40(3):296-304.
69Shultz, J.W.2013Significant range extensions for two caddid harvestmen in eastern North America, Caddo pepperella and Acropsopilio boopis (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Caddidae)Zootaxa 3637 (1):094–096
70Shultz, J.W.2018A Guide to the Identification of the Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of MarylandNortheastern Naturalist 25(1):21-49
71Sissom, W.S.2000Family Vaejovidae Thorell, 1876In: Fet, Victor, W. David Sissom, Graeme Lowe, and Matt E. Braunwalder. Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998). New York Entomological Society, 2000.
72Thomas, S.M. and Hedin, M.2006Natural history and distribution of the enigmatic southern Appalachian opilionid, Fumontana deprehendor Shear (Laniatores: Triaenonychidae), with an assessment of morphological variationZootaxa 1242: 21-36
73Thomas, S.M. and Hedin, M.2008Multigenic phylogeographic divergence in the paleoendemic southern Appalachian opilionid Fumontana deprehendor Shear (Opiliones, Laniatores, Triaenonychidae)Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46(2), pp.645-658
74Townsend, V.R., Mulholland, K.A., Bradford, J.O., Proud, D.N. and Parent, K.M.2006Seasonal variation in parasitism by Leptus mites (Acari, Erythraeidae) upon the harvestman, Leiobunum formosum (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae)The Journal of Arachnology, 34(2):492-495
75Wallace, H.K. and Exline, H.1977Spiders of the Genus Pirata in North America, Central America and the West Indies (Araneae: Lycosidae)American Arachnological Society, 1977
76Weed, C.M.1893The Cosmetidæ of the United StatesTransactions of the American Entomological Society 20:293-296
77Weed, C.M.1893bA Descriptive Catalogue Of The Harvest-spiders (phalangiidae) Of OhioProceedings of the United States National Museum 16:543--563
78Wheeler, W. C., Coddington, J. A., Crowley, L. M., Dimitrov, D., Goloboff, P. A., Griswold, C. E., Hormiga, G., Prendini, L., Ramírez, M. J., Sierwald, P., Almeida-Silva, L. M., Álvarez-Padilla, F., Arnedo, M. A., Benavides, L. R., Benjamin, S. P., Bond, J. E., Grismado, C. J., Hasan, E., Hedin, M., Izquierdo, M. A., Labarque, F. M., Ledford, J., Lopardo, L., Maddison, W. P., Miller, J. A., Piacentini, L. N., Platnick, N. I., Polotow, D., Silva-Dávila, D., Scharff, N., Sz?ts, T., Ubick, D., Vink, C., Wood, H. M. & Zhang, J. X.2017The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics 33(6): 576-616.To download, create a free account with World Spider Catalog (wsc), which requires only email address, name, and country.