Arachnids of North Carolina
References used in the Arachnid website
71 references
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1Atkinson, G.F.1886A description of some new trap-door spiders; their nests and food habitatsEntomologica Americana 2:109-117;128-137https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/42490#page/125/mode/1upReprinted in the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. (1887)
2Atkinson, G.F.1886A new trap-door spiderAmerican Naturalist 20:583-593https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/131388#page/613/mode/1upDescription of Ummidia (=Pachylomerus) carabivorus based on specimens from the vicinity of Chapel Hill
3Bakkegard, K.A. and Davenport, L.J.2012Nephila clavipes (Araneae: Nephilidae): A model species for monitoring climate change in the Southeastern United StatesSoutheastern naturalist, pp.551-566https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262567444_Nephila_clavipes_Araneae_Nephilidae_A_Model_Species_for_Monitoring_Climate_Change_in_the_Southeastern_United_StatesWill need to remove space before "publication" in link
4Banks, N.A.1902A new Phalangid from the Black Mountains, N.C.J. N.Y. Entomological Society 10:142https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33455683#page/151/mode/1up
5Banks, N.A.1911Some Arachnida from North CarolinaProc. Academy of Nat. Sci. Phil. 63:440--456https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/1695857#page/474/mode/1up
6Beatty, J.A.1986Web structure and burrow location of Sphodros niger (Hentz) (Araneae, Atypidae)Journal of Arachnology 14:130-132https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/52992758#page/138/mode/1up
7Bond, J.E. and N.I. Platnick2007A taxonomic review of the trapdoor spider genus Myrmekiaphila (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Cyrtaucheniidae)American Museum novitates, no. 3596http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/5892
8Bradley, Richard A.2013Common Spiders of North AmericaUniv. CA Press, 271pp
9Bradley, Richard A.2013Common Spiders of North AmericaUniv. CA Press, 271pp
10Briggs, T.S.1969A new Holarctic family of Laniotorid PhalangidaThe Pan Pacific Entomologist 45:35-50
11Brimley, C.S.1938The Insects of North CarolinaNC Dept. of Agric.; Raleigh, NC. 560 pp.
12Burns, M., Hedin, M. and Shultz, J.W.2012Molecular phylogeny of the leiobunine harvestmen of eastern North America (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 63(2), pp.291-298http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.726.6645&rep=rep1&type=pdf
13Bustamante, A. A., Maddison, W. P. & Ruiz, G. R. S.2015The jumping spider genus Thiodina Simon, 1900 reinterpreted, and revalidation of Colonus F.O.P-Cambridge, 1901 and Nilakantha Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Amycoida). Zootaxa 4012(1): 181-190
14Chamberlin, R. V. & Ivie, W.1944Spiders of the Georgia region of North America. Bulletin of the University of Utah 35(9): 1-267
15Cokendolpher, J.C. and Holmberg, R.G.2018Harvestmen of the Family Phalangiidae (Arachnida, Opiliones) in the AmericasSpecial Publications of the Museum of Texas Tech University, Number 67http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/publications/specpubs/sps/SP67.pdf
16Cokendolpher, J.C. and Lee, V.F.1993Catalogue of the Cyphopalpatores and bibliography of the harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of Greenland, Canada, USA, and MexicoVintage Press; Lubbock,TXJames Cokendolpher Cokendolpher@aol.com is interested in your observations of Opiliones in NC. Send him your observation data and a close-up photograph or legally collected specimen.
17Coyle, F.A.1971Systematics and natural history of the mygalomorph spider genus Antrodiaetus and related genera (Araneae: Antrodiaetidae)Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Vol 141 (6): 269-402, 1971https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4753451#page/295/mode/1up
18Coyle, F.A.1981Notes on the behaviour of Ummidia trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Ctenizidae): burrow construction, prey capture, and the functional morphology of the peculiar third tibiaBull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 5(4):159-165http://britishspiders.org.uk/bulletin/050403.pdf
19Coyle, F.A.1985Ballooning behavior of Ummidia spiderlings (Araneae, Ctenizidae)The Journal of Arachnology 13:137-138https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/52993491#page/145/mode/1up
20Coyle, F.A. and Shear, W.A.1981Observations on the natural history of Sphodros abboti and Sphodros rufipes (Araneae, Atypidae), with evidence for a contact sex pheromoneJ. Arachnol. 9:317-326.https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/52971207#page/333/mode/1up
21Crosby, C.R. and Bishop, S.C.1924Notes on the Opiliones of the southeastern United States with descriptions of new speciesJournal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 40:8-26http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/pdfliteratura/Crosby%20and%20Bishop%201924a%20Southeastern.pdf
22Crosby, C.R. and Bishop, S.C.1925Two new spiders from the Blue Ridge Mountains of North CarolinaEntomological News 36:142-146https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/24738192#page/174/mode/1up
23Davis, N.W.1934A revision of the genus Leiobunum (Opiliones) of the United StatesAmerican Midland Naturalist 15:662-705
24Edwards, G.B.2004Revision of the Jumping Spiders of the genus PhidippusOccasional Papers of the Florida State Collection of Arthropods 11:1-351http://freshfromflorida.s3.amazonaws.com/occasional-papers-vol-11.pdf
25Ewing, H.E.1929The scorpions of the western part of the United States, with notes on those occurring in northern MexicoProceedings of the United States National Museum 23:1-24https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15693708#page/179/mode/1upIncludes a key for Vaejovis that includes carolinianus
26Fet, V. and G. Lowe2000Family Buthidae C. L. Koch, 1837In: Fet, Victor, W. David Sissom, Graeme Lowe, and Matt E. Braunwalder. Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998). New York Entomological Society, 2000.https://mds.marshall.edu/bio_sciences_faculty/88/
27Fet, Victor, Sissom, W. David, Lowe, Graeme & Braunwalder, Matt E.2000.Cataloge of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998).The New York Entomological Society (2000).https://mds.marshall.edu/bio_sciences_faculty/88/
28Gaffin, Douglas D. et al.2012Scorpion fluorescence and reaction to lightAnimal Behaviour 83 (2012) 429-436.
29Gertsch, W.J. and Platnick, N.I. 1980A revision of the American spiders of the family Atypidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae)American Museum novitates no. 2704http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/handle/2246/5390
30Godwin, R. L. & Bond, J. E.2021Taxonomic revision of the New World members of the trapdoor spider genus Ummidia Thorell (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Halonoproctidae)ZooKeys 1027: 1-65https://zookeys.pensoft.net/issue/3229/
31Godwin, R. L., Opatova, V., Garrison, N. L., Hamilton, C. A. & Bond, J. E.2018Phylogeny of a cosmopolitan family of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Ctenizidae) using Anchored Hybrid Enrichment, with a description of the family, Halonoproctidae Pocock 1901. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 126: 303-313
32Harvey, M.S.(2011).Pseudoscorpions of the World, version 2.0.Western Australian Museum, Perth. http://www.museum.wa.gov.au/catalogues/pseudoscorpions
33Hendrixson, B.E. and Bond, J.E.2005Two sympatric species of Antrodiaetus from southwestern North Carolina (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Antrodiaetidae)Zootaxa 872: 1-19
34Hillyard, P.D. & Sankey, J.H.P.1989Harvestmen: Keys and notes for the identification of the speciesIn: D. Kermack and R.S.K. Barnes (eds.) 1989. Synopses of the British Fauna (Linnean Society of London), New Series, No. 4. 2nd Edition. E.J. Brill, Leidenhttp://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/pdfliteratura/Hillyard%20&%20Sankey%201989%20British%20Opiliones.pdfContains a wealth of information on the morphology, physiology, ecology, and life histories of the Opiliones.
35Hoffman, R.L.1955Distributional records for some scarce Phalangids in the southern AppalachiansJournal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 71(1):17-19.
36Huff, R.P. and Coyle, F.A.1992Systematics of Hypochilus sheari and Hypochilus coylei, two southern Appalachian lampshade spiders (Araneae, Hypochilidae)Journal of Arachnology 20:40-46http://www.americanarachnology.org/JoA_free/JoA_v20_n1/%20JoA_v20_p40.pdf
37Ingianni, E.A.; McGhee, C.R.; Shultz, J.W.2011Taxonomy of the Leiobunum calcar species-group (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)The Journal of Arachnology 39:454–481http://www.americanarachnology.org/JoA_free/JoA_v39_n3%20/arac-39-03-454.pdf
38Kaston, B.J.1970Comparative biology of American black widow spidersSan Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. Trans. 16:33-82https://archive.org/details/cbarchive_42071_comparativebiologyofamericanbl1905/page/n2
39Keith, R. and Hedin, M.2012Extreme mitochondrial population subdivision in southern Appalachian paleoendemic spiders (Araneae: Hypochilidae: Hypochilus), with implications for species delimitationThe Journal of Arachnology 40:167-181
40Kovarík, František2009Illustrated catalog of scorpions, Part I (PDF).http://kovarex.com/scorpio/pdf/scorpions-Kovarik-2009.pdf
41Kury, A.B.2000 onwClassification of OpilionesMuseu Nacional/UFRJ websitehttp://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/opiliones.htmlProvides the most current classification of the Opiliones
42Kury, A.B.2002 onwChecklist of valid genera of Opiliones of the WorldMuseu Nacional/UFRJ websitehttp://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/checklaniator.htm
43Kury, A.B.2003Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World:(Arachnida, Opiliones)Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 7:5-337
44Levi, H. W.1973Small orb-weavers of the genus Araneus north of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 145: 473-552
45Levi, H.W.1980The orb-weaver genus Mecynogea, the subfamily Metinae and the genera Pacygnatha, Glenognatha and Azillia of the subfamily Tetragnathinae North of Mexico (Araneae: Araneidae)Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 149:1-75https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/4776612#page/13/mode/1up
46Maddison, W. P., Maddison, D. R., Derkarabetian, S. & Hedin, M.2020Sitticine jumping spiders: phylogeny, classification, and chromosomes (Araneae, Salticidae, Sitticini). ZooKeys 925: 1-54
47McGhee, C.R.1977The Politum group (bulbate species) of Leiobunum (Arachnida: Phalangida: Phalangidae) of North AmericaJ. Arachnol. 3:151-163https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/52939522#page/167/mode/1upDescribes Leiobunum bracchiolum
48Miglio, L. T., Pérez-Miles, F. & Bonaldo, A. B.2020Taxonomic revision of the spider genus Actinopus Perty, 1833 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae). Megataxa 2(1): 1-256
49Opatova, V., Hamilton, C. A., Hedin, M., Montes de Oca, L., Král, J. & Bond, J. E.2020Phylogenetic systematics and evolution of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae using genomic scale data. Systematic Biology 69(4): 671-707
50Platnick, N. I. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 146: 205-2661974The spider family Anyphaenidae in America north of Mexico.Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 146: 205-266https://wsc.nmbe.ch/pdfdownload/b9fd282a0ae72d8697f6cea1b6f2ba0fH7EJAdOG2ziyc2z
51Reiskind, J.1969The Spider Subfamily Castianeirinae of North and Central America Bull. Mus. of Comp. Zool. Vol 138: 163-325http://www.archive.org/stream/bulletinofmuseum138harv#page/n185/mode/2up
52Schönhofer, A.L., McCormack, M., Tsurusaki, N., Martens, J. and Hedin, M.2013Molecular phylogeny of the harvestmen genus Sabacon (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi) reveals multiple Eocene–Oligocene intercontinental dispersal events in the HolarcticMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66(1), pp.303-315http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.701.1275&rep=rep1&type=pdf
53Shear, W.A.1975aThe Opilionid Family Caddidae in North America, with Notes on Species from Other Regions (Opiliones, Palpatores, Caddoidea)The Journal of Arachnology,2:65-88https://www.jstor.org/stable/3705243
54Shear, W.A.1975bThe Opilionid genera Sabacon and Tomicomerus in America (Opiliones, Trogulidae, Ischyropsalidae)J. Arachnol. 3:5-29https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/52939398#page/13/mode/1up
55Shear, W.A.1977Fumontana deprehendor, n.gen., n.sp., the first Triaenonychid Opilionid from eastern\r\nNorth America (Opiliones: Laniatores: Triaenonychidae)J . Arachnol. 3:177-183
56Shear, W.A.1978A new record for the rare opilionid Fumontana deprehendor (Opiliones, Triaenonychidae)The Journal of Arachnology 6:79http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/pdfliteratura/Shear%201978a%20Fumontana%20record%20by%20jstor.pdf
57Shear, W.A.1986A cladistic analysis of the opilionid superfamily Ischyropsalidoidea, with descriptions of the new family Ceratolasmatidae, the new genus Acuclavella, and four new speciesAmerican Museum Novitates 2844:1-29http://www.digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/3579/v2/dspace/ingest/pdfSource/nov/N2844.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=yContains a redescrption of Crosbycus
58Shear, W.A.2010New harvestman from a cave in West Virginia, with comments on other reported cave-dwelling Hesperonemastoma species (Opiliones, Ischyropsalidoidea, Sabaconidae)Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 72:105-110https://www.researchgate.net/profile/William_Shear/publication/269647365_Hesperonemastoma_Smilax_N_SP_A_Remarkable_New_Harvestman_from_a_Cave_in_West_Virginia_with_Comments_on_other_Reported_Cave-Dwelling_Hesperonemastoma_Species_Opiliones_Ischyropsalidoidea_Sabaconidae/links/54c792980cf238bb7d0ac93e/Hesperonemastoma-Smilax-N-SP-A-Remarkable-New-Harvestman-from-a-Cave-in-West-Virginia-with-Comments-on-other-Reported-Cave-Dwelling-Hesperonemastoma-Species-Opiliones-Ischyropsalidoidea-Sabaconid.pdf
59Shelley, R.M.1994Introductions of the scorpions Centruroides vittatus (Say) and C. hentzi (Banks) into North Carolina, with records of the indigenous scorpion, Vaejovis carolinianus (Beauvois)(Scorpionida: Buthidae, Vaejovidae)Brimleyana 21:45-55https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/42326581#page/47/mode/1up
60Shultz, J.W.2010A new species of Hadrobunus (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)from the southeastern United StatesThe Journal of Arachnology, 38(3):572-580https://www.jstor.org/stable/20798591?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
61Shultz, J.W.2012The identity of Hadrobunus grandis: reassignment of Leiobunum aurugineum to H. grandis and H. nonsacculatus new species (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Leiobuninae)The Journal of Arachnology, 40(3):296-304.https://jwshultz.weebly.com/uploads/4/6/2/2/46222147/arac-40-3-296.pdf
62Shultz, J.W.2013Significant range extensions for two caddid harvestmen in eastern North America, Caddo pepperella and Acropsopilio boopis (Opiliones: Eupnoi: Caddidae)Zootaxa 3637 (1):094–096 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jeffrey_Shultz2/publication/274991868_Significant_range_extensions_for_two_caddid_harvestmen_in_eastern_North_America_Caddo_pepperella_and_Acropsopilio_boopis_Opiliones_Eupnoi_Caddidae/links/5877a50108aebf17d3bb9922/Significant-range-extensions-for-two-caddid-harvestmen-in-eastern-North-America-Caddo-pepperella-and-Acropsopilio-boopis-Opiliones-Eupnoi-Caddidae.pdf
63Shultz, J.W.2018A Guide to the Identification of the Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of MarylandNortheastern Naturalist 25(1):21-49https://doi.org/10.1656/045.025.0102
64Sissom, W.S.2000Family Vaejovidae Thorell, 1876In: Fet, Victor, W. David Sissom, Graeme Lowe, and Matt E. Braunwalder. Catalog of the Scorpions of the World (1758-1998). New York Entomological Society, 2000.https://mds.marshall.edu/bio_sciences_faculty/88/
65Thomas, S.M. and Hedin, M.2006Natural history and distribution of the enigmatic southern Appalachian opilionid, Fumontana deprehendor Shear (Laniatores: Triaenonychidae), with an assessment of morphological variationZootaxa 1242: 21-36http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/pdfliteratura/Thomas&Hedin.Fumont.Zoo2006.pdf
66Thomas, S.M. and Hedin, M.2008Multigenic phylogeographic divergence in the paleoendemic southern Appalachian opilionid Fumontana deprehendor Shear (Opiliones, Laniatores, Triaenonychidae)Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 46(2), pp.645-658http://www.museunacional.ufrj.br/mndi/Aracnologia/pdfliteratura/Thomas%26Hedin.Fumontana.MPE2008.pdf
67Townsend, V.R., Mulholland, K.A., Bradford, J.O., Proud, D.N. and Parent, K.M.2006Seasonal variation in parasitism by Leptus mites (Acari, Erythraeidae) upon the harvestman, Leiobunum formosum (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae)The Journal of Arachnology, 34(2):492-495
68Wallace, H.K. and Exline, H.1977Spiders of the Genus Pirata in North America, Central America and the West Indies (Araneae: Lycosidae)American Arachnological Society, 1977https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/53035950#page/9/mode/1up
69Weed, C.M.1893The Cosmetidæ of the United StatesTransactions of the American Entomological Society 20:293-296https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/7508108#page/317/mode/1up
70Weed, C.M.1893bA Descriptive Catalogue Of The Harvest-spiders (phalangiidae) Of OhioProceedings of the United States National Museum 16:543--563https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15780883#page/671/mode/1up
71Wheeler, W. C., Coddington, J. A., Crowley, L. M., Dimitrov, D., Goloboff, P. A., Griswold, C. E., Hormiga, G., Prendini, L., Ramírez, M. J., Sierwald, P., Almeida-Silva, L. M., Álvarez-Padilla, F., Arnedo, M. A., Benavides, L. R., Benjamin, S. P., Bond, J. E., Grismado, C. J., Hasan, E., Hedin, M., Izquierdo, M. A., Labarque, F. M., Ledford, J., Lopardo, L., Maddison, W. P., Miller, J. A., Piacentini, L. N., Platnick, N. I., Polotow, D., Silva-Dávila, D., Scharff, N., Sz?ts, T., Ubick, D., Vink, C., Wood, H. M. & Zhang, J. X.2017The spider tree of life: phylogeny of Araneae based on target-gene analyses from an extensive taxon sampling. Cladistics 33(6): 576-616.To download, create a free account with World Spider Catalog (wsc), which requires only email address, name, and country. https://wsc.nmbe.ch/