Moths of North Carolina
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Pseudexentera Members:
27 NC Records

Pseudexentera spoliana (Clemens, 1864) - Bare-patched Leafroller Moth


Taxonomy
Superfamily: Tortricoidea Family: TortricidaeSubfamily: OlethreutinaeTribe: EucosminiP3 Number: 621157.00 MONA Number: 3251.00
Comments: The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIF, BOLDTechnical Description, Immature Stages: MacKay (1959).                                                                                 
Adult Markings: Pseudexentera spoliana is one of the fasciate species that has been a source of confusion with respect to identification. The general coloration of the head, thorax, and forewing varies from gray to light brown and the forewing patterning is variable. It is generally similar to certain other forms, particularly P. hodsoni, but the general consensus is that P. spoliana typically has a sub-basal and median fascia that is complete or nearly complete in most specimens, although in some the dorsal half of these is darker and more distinct than the costal half (Gilligan et al., 2008). This species typically does not have the distinct dark wedge-shaped sub-basal fascia on the dorsum that terminates near the mid-wing as seen in P. hodsoni. Certain P. spoliana BOLD specimens with wedge shaped sub-basal fascia -- and that strongly resemble P. hodsoni -- were apparently mislabeled at BOLD and actually are true P. hodsoni (see the P. spoliana account at BugGuide for a detailed discussion). Here, we treat these forms as P. hodsoni.

Pseudexentera spoliana typically has a dark, sub-basal fascia or a large dark basal patch that extends to around one-third the wing length and is outwardly angled near the middle. The dark mark is often complete, but on some specimens the costal third or half is fainter than the dorsal portion. A dorsal patch is present just before the tornus that extends from the dorsal margin inward for about one-third of the wing width where it often meets or nearly meets a dark oblique streak that extends from near the middle of the costa. A series of dark streaks are present along the costa that are interspersed with lighter areas. The tarsi are boldly banded and the hindwings are light to medium brown with a paler fringe.
Forewing Length: 7.0-9.5 mm for males and 6.5 to 9.0 mm for females (Miller 1986).
Adult Structural Features: Miller (1986) noted that forewing veins R4, and R5 were connate or stalked at the origin in 83% of the specimens that he examined, with the remainder approximate. Miller (1986) and Gilligan et al. (2008) have descriptions and illustrations of the male and female genitalia. In males, the valva is constricted approximately at the middle, the valval length/cucullus length ratio is 1.8 to 2.1, the anal spine is near the lower edge of the cucullus, the lower edge of the cucullus lacks projections, and the aedeagus has a falcate apex (Miller, 1986). In females, the ostium bursae begins at one-fifth to one and four-fifths its width behind the front edge of the sternum, the forward end of the sterigma tapers gradually if at all, the spicule bases of the corpus bursae are usually (98%) not fused into a sclerotized patch, and the signa are subequal in size.
Structural photos
Immatures and Development: MacKay (1959) provides a detailed description of the larvae.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Pseudexentera spoliana is found throughout eastern North America from southern Canada southward through much of the eastern US to as far south as Texas and Louisiana. Miller (1986) examined adults from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Colorado, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, District of Columbia, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ‚Č• 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Flight Comments: Local populations are univoltine. Miller (1986) reported records that ranged from 11 February to 30 May.
Habitats and Life History
Habitats: Local populations are generally associated with hardwood or mixed hardwood-pine forests as well as residential neighborhoods with oaks.
Larval Host Plants: The larvae feed on several species of oaks (Miller, 1986; Marquis et al., 2019). Some of the known hosts include White Oak (Q. alba), Scarlet Oak (Q. coccinea), Northern Red Oak (Q. rubra), Post Oak (Q. stellata) and Black Oak (Q. velutina). - View
Observation Methods: The adults are attracted to lights during the early spring months. We need information on host use in North Carolina.
Wikipedia
See also Habitat Account for General Oak-Hickory Forests
Status in North Carolina
Natural Heritage Program Status:
Natural Heritage Program Ranks:
State Protection: Has no legal protection, although permits are required to collect it on state parks and other public lands.
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 Photo Gallery for Pseudexentera spoliana - Bare-patched Leafroller Moth

35 photos are available. Only the most recent 30 are shown.

Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-04-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-04-10
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Jeff Niznik on 2024-04-01
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-03-27
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-03-27
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2024-03-18
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2024-03-18
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2024-03-18
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2024-03-07
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2024-03-07
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: Ken Kneidel on 2024-03-07
Mecklenburg Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2024-03-05
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: David George, Jeff Niznik on 2024-03-04
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2024-03-04
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jeff Niznik, Stephen Dunn on 2024-03-03
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Dean Furbish on 2024-03-03
Wake Co.
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Recorded by: B bockhahn on 2023-04-04
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2023-03-07
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-03-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2023-03-05
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2023-02-24
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2023-02-21
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Vin Stanton on 2022-03-29
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-03-21
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2022-03-19
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: tom ward on 2022-03-18
Buncombe Co.
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Recorded by: David L. Heavner on 2021-03-03
Chatham Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-27
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-27
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-03-27
Guilford Co.
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