Moths of North Carolina
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Pseudexentera Members:
24 NC Records

Pseudexentera hodsoni Miller, 1986 - no common name


Taxonomy
Superfamily: Tortricoidea Family: TortricidaeSubfamily: OlethreutinaeTribe: EucosminiP3 Number: 621153.00 MONA Number: 3257.10
Comments: The genus Pseudexentera currently has 19 recognized species that are found primarily in North and Central America, with 17 recognized species in the US. They are typically found in forested settings and most fly very early in the year. Many are challenging to identify, particularly the species with fasciate forewing patterns that often show substantial intraspecific variation in patterning and have slight differences in genitalia (Miller, 1968; Gilligan et al., 2008). There has been a long history of misidentified species in the group (Miller, 1968) and there is still much confusion about external traits that are useful in sorting out certain closely related forms. DNA barcoding has not proven to be particularly useful in sorting out species since recognized species often have two or more BINS that contain multiple species names. This likely reflects weak genetic differentiation between certain forms and the large numbers of misidentified specimens in collections. Miller (1968) conducted a taxonomic revision and reviewed all of the recognized species in North America, but did not provide detailed descriptions of external coloration, patterning, or intraspecific variation within species. Here, we treat our assignment of the fasciate specimens to species as provisional since they are based on images or pinned specimens that have not been barcoded or dissected to examine genitalia. Even with the latter, specimens cannot always be confidently assigned to species.
Identification
Field Guide Descriptions: Online Photographs: MPG, BugGuide, iNaturalist, Google, BAMONA, GBIFTechnical Description, Adults: Miller (1986)                                                                                 
Adult Markings: In this species the head, palps and antennae vary from grayish-brown to light brown. The thorax tends to be two-toned, with the anterior portion warm brown to light chestnut brown and the posterior half with dark brown to blackish scale patches that form an X-shaped pattern. The posterior arms of the X often continues for a short distance onto the dorsal bases of the wings. The ground of the forewing varies from grayish to light brown and has varying levels of darker dusting. In addition to the dorsal basal line that is a continuation of the arms of the X-pattern on the thorax, there are two conspicuous dark marks. The first is a dorsal patch that begins on the dorsal margin at around one-third and curves posteriorly. The patch is widest at the dorsal margin and narrows slightly before tapering and terminating near the middle of the wing. The posterior margin often contrast sharply the adjoining ground where there tends to be a thin zone with little or no dark dusting.

The second mark is a smaller dorsal patch just before the tornus at around four-fifths. It can sometimes be obscure and extends from the dorsal margin before terminating well before reaching the middle of the wing. As with the first patch, the posterior margin often contrast sharply with the adjoining ground. Many specimens have a region of irregular blackish patterning about midway between the dorsal patch and the costa that may extend posteriorly into the subterminal region. The costa has a series of short, dark, posteriorly oblique streaks that are interspersed with whitish marks, along with a dark spot at the apex. The fringe tends to be concolorous with the ground. The hindwing is light to medium brown with a paler fringe that has dark basal line.

Forewing Length: males 7.0 - 8.5 mm and females 7.5 - 9.0 mm (Miller, 1986).
Adult Structural Features: Miller (1986) reported that forewing veins R4 and R5 were approximate or connate at the origin in 97% of the specimens that he examined (separate in the remaining 3%). Miller (1986) and Gilligan et al. (2008) provide illustrations of the male and female genitalia. In males, the valva is constricted at three-fourths the distance between the base and the apex, the valval length/cucullus length ratio is 2.7 to 3.4, and the anal spine is near the lower edge of the cucullus. In addition, the radius of curvature of the lower edge of the cucullus exceeds the cucullus height, the lower edge of the cucullus may have up to two inconspicuous projections ranging in shape from bumps to spinelets, and the aedeagus has a thin snout-like apex. In females, the ostium bursae begins one-eight to one-third its width behind the front edge of the sternum, the forward end of the sterigma tapers gradually if at all, the corpus bursae spicule bases are fused on one side near the ductus bursae into a lightly sclerotized patch, and the signa are unequal or subequal in size (Miller, 1986).
Immatures and Development: The larvae feed on oaks and perhaps other hosts. The larval life history is poorly documented, but Miller (1986) reported one label which stated that the larvae slightly fold leaves in May then pupate in tough cocoon on the ground. The adults presumably overwinter as pupae then emerge early the following spring.
Distribution in North Carolina
Distribution: Pseudexentera hodsoni is restricted to the eastern US where the range extends from Pennsylvania westward to Illinois, and southward to Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and eastern Texas. Miller (1986) documented species from Pennsylvania, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Texas.
County Map: Clicking on a county returns the records for the species in that county.
Flight Dates:
 High Mountains (HM) ≥ 4,000 ft.
 Low Mountains (LM) < 4,000 ft.
 Piedmont (Pd)
 Coastal Plain (CP)

Click on graph to enlarge
Habitats and Life History
Habitats:
Larval Host Plants: Host records are fragmentary, but the larvae appear to specialize on oaks, including Live Oak (Quercus virginiana) and red oaks (Miller, 1986).
Wikipedia
Status in North Carolina
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 Photo Gallery for Pseudexentera hodsoni - no common name

Photos: 30

Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2022-04-15
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2022-04-14
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: John Petranka on 2022-04-14
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2022-03-30
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2022-03-30
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-04-11
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2021-04-11
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: R. Newman on 2021-03-14
Carteret Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2021-03-12
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Stephen Hall on 2021-03-11
Orange Co.
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Recorded by: Simpson Eason on 2021-03-11
Durham Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-03-11
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-03-11
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-03-09
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2021-03-09
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-04-09
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2020-04-09
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2020-03-27
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2020-03-20
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2020-03-19
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2020-03-19
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2019-04-16
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka on 2019-04-16
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-03-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Gary Maness on 2019-03-29
Guilford Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-03-24
Madison Co.
Comment: Determined by J.B. Sullivan based on dissection.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-03-24
Madison Co.
Comment: Determined by J.B. Sullivan based on dissection.
Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-03-14
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Jim Petranka and Becky Elkin on 2019-03-14
Madison Co.
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Recorded by: Newman, Randy on 2006-03-26
Carteret Co.
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